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Full text of "The Artizan"

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SOVEENSOENT TBINTKO 01*101 1 1 8620 



THE AETIZAN 



ontjjlg T&ttoxb of tjje flrogms 



OF 



CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, 



SHIPBUILDING, STEAM NAVIGATION, THE APPLICATION OF CHEMISTRY 

TO THE INDUSTRIAL AETS, fe. 



EDITED BY W- SMITH, C.E. : 



±\G-.S., F.C.S., F.E.G.S., Ac. 



VOL, XIII., 

JN T E AV" SEEIES. 

VOL. XIX. 

FEOM THE COMMENCEMENT. 



LIBRARY 



U, S. PATENT C 



Ronton : 

PUBLISHED AT THE OEEICE OE THE "ARTTZAN" JOURNAL, 
1.9, SALISBURY STREET, STRAND, W.C. 



1861. 



r 
/ 

.A* 



LONDON : 
PRINTED BY JAllES HENRY GABALL, 
AT THE " SCIENTIFIC PRESS," No. 3, RUSSELL COURT, BRYDGES STREET, COVENT GARDEN, W.C. 









LIBRARY 



3. lags 



U. S, PATENT OFF] E 



INDEX TO VOL. XIX. 



THE ARTIZAN JOURNAL, 1861. 



Accidents in Paris, 20 

Address read at the British Associates Meeting, 223 

Address to readers, 1 

Aerometry, by J. Bennett, 207, 255 

Air propulsion of vessels, 96 

Air pumps, foot valves, and their proportions, 67 

Alps, proposed tunnel through the, 120 

Alumina, production of, 194 

American government experiments, on the expansion 

of steam, 54 
American lake steamers, 20 
American Notes, 20, 41, 43, 46, 70, 95, 96, 122, 169. 

262 
American steamers, dimensions of 61 
American screw pile lighthouse, Pamplico Sound, 269 
Anchors and cables, testing, 192 
Annual report of Musketry, 289 
Anvil block, cast at Newcastle, 70 
Applications for letters patent, 146, 170, 195, 219, 243, 

267, 291 
Arches and chains, paper on, 125 
Armour cased ships of war, 5, 15, 20, 42, 84, 96, 120, 

168, 192, 215, 239, 263, 287 
Armour cased ships, C. Atherton on the speed of, 28 
Armstrong guns, 43, 72, 121, 194, 216, 249, 264, 289 
Armstrong R., on the measures of the resistance of 

steam vessels at high velocities, 107 
Arsenal at Woolwich, 18, 20, 265 
Artesian wells, 22, 46, 98, 170 
Atherton C, on freight as affected by differences in 

the dynamic properties of steam ships, 233 
Atmosphere, iodine in the, 46 
Atmospheric post, 20 



B. 

Barometrical indications, value of, 6, 42, 

Barracks for the army, 214 

Bateson's feed-water heating apparatus, 277 

Beacons, B. B. Stoney on the construction of floating, 

111 
Bennett J. on Aerometry, 207, 255 
Bidder G. P., on coast defences, 189 
Birkenhead penny ferry, 143 
Bitumenized paper pipes, 192 
Boat lowering apparatus, 96 

Boilers: 

Cheap boiler plates, 46 

Elder's cylindrical spiral, 30 

Incrustation in, prevention of, 20 

Notes on the construction of, 199 

Notes on the nature of steam, in relation to, 162 

Strength of, correspondence on the, 91, 115,140, 165 

Strength of, J. Mc P. Gray on the, 26 

Boiler explosions, 22, 46, 73, 193, 218, 242 



Boiler explosions, Association for the prevention of, 
22, 46, 73, 98, 121, 145, 169, 218, 242, 266, 290 
Books, new, or new editions of, 67, 91 
Bournemouth, pier at, 260 
Bowditch Rev. W. R. on coal gas, 30 
Brickmaking machinery, 287 

Beidges : 

Blackfriars, 265 

Clifton suspension, 217 

Pairbairn W. on the effects of vibratory action upon 

wrought iron bridges and girders, 228 
Lambeth, 145, 217 
London, 22 

New Westminster, 122, 197 
Niagara suspension, 22 
Railway bridge over the Rhine, 98, 122 
Russian railway, 265 
Spanish railway, 145 

Turner and Gibson's improvements in, 77 
York, fall of a bridge at, 265 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 

223, 256, 277 
Bronze, new kind of, 74 
Brown's armour plates, 289 
Buckingham palace, improvements in, 95 
Building stone in the United Kingdom, 21 



Cables, Loewenstein's apparatus for submarine, 55 
W. H. Preece on the maintenance of, 13 



Caloric engines for America, 18 
Canals : 

Accident on the grand junction, 242 

Bridgewater canal, bursting of the, 98 

Bursting of a, 217 

East Indian Irrigation and Canal Company, 217 

Grand Junction Canal Company, 22 

Illinois and Michigan, 22 

Indian, 169 

Suez, 265 

Weir for canals and other similar works, 131 

Cartridges and projectiles, Krutzch's improvement 

in, 54 
Casella's patent mercurial minimum thermometer, 259 
Casting in Glasgow, 18 
Cast platinum, 73 
Casting in Rotherham, 95 
Cement for rendering joints steam tight, 167 
Census of America, 262 

England and Wales, 166 

Ireland, 192 

Paris, 214 

Chemistey : 

Action of carbonate of soda on cast iron, 122 
— — — nitrates on vegetation, 170 



Chemistry : 

Action of sulphurous acid on metals, 145 

Albumen used for dyeing, 23 

Analysis of manures, 23 

Application of oils in the manufacture of earthen- 
ware, 23 

Atomic weights, reciprocal relations of, 243 

Boiling points of different liquids, 195 

Carbonic acid in the soil, 99 

Chlorine, 290 

Cyanide of potassium for soldering metal, 170 

Disinfection of sewage, 266 

Dissolution of oxygenated water in ether, 23 

Electro-zincing, 23 

Estimation of iodine and bromine in mixture, 99 

Ponnation of fumie acid, 243 

Gilding porcelain, 266 

Green colours, 195 

Hydrated oxide of iron, 290 

Hydrate of Baryta, preparation of, 266 

Insoluble matter of zinc, 74 

Juices of india-rubber and gutta-percha, 23 

Manufacture of oxygen gas, 23 

Mineral collodion, 290 

Mineral Green free from arsenic, 99 

Molybdenate of ammonia, a test for sulphur, 99 

Monohydrated sulphuric acid, 46 

New aniline colours, 266 

New green colour, 23 

Nitro-prusside of sodium as a re-agent, 46 

Peroxide of lead, preparation of, 23 

Phosphorescence, 290 

Preparation of rosolic acid, 219 

Preparing nitrate of silver, 218 

Preparation of saltpetre, 266 

Purification of acetic-ether, 266 

Rubasse, a new stone, 243 

Sulphurous acid, manufacture of, 266 

Synthetic formation of a saccharine substance, 290 

Tvndall, J. on the physical basis of solar chemistrv, 
209 

Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society, 90, 164, 212, 

258 279 
Clark,' D. K., on steam, 55, 82, 104, 142 
Clav's breech-loading cannon, 149 
Clyde, shipbuilding on the, 71, 283 

COAX: 

Coal hewing machinery, 290 

Compressed, 218 

Indian and Australian, 145 

Mines of, 21, 46, 194 

Peculiar products from some coal oils, 170 

Supply of; 73, 122, 192, 218 

Working of, important discovery, 74 

Coast defences, 97, 121, 144, 169, 189 
Coining at the Mint, 213 
Coinage for India, 192 



IV. 



Index to Vol. XIX., 1861. 



("The Aemzah, 
[.January 1, 1862. 



Colliery accidents, 21, 266 

Committee on bteamship performance, report of the, 

256 
Compass in iron and other vessels, deviation of the, 

115 
Copper and zinc alloys, 218 
Copper, new alloy of, 145 
Cornish mines, W. Gill on, 280 
Cotton manufactures, 214 
Cranes, steam travelling, 119 
Cranes, steam, 70, 214 

Criticism on practical papers for practical men, 285 
Cumberland blacklead, 73 
Current Topics, W. Tite on, 280 
Cylinders, Iron, for foundations, J. B. Walton on the 

various methods of sinking, 279 



r>. 

Pamper for copying letters, 185 

Danchell's water test apparatus, 185 

Debuscope, the, 192 

Distances on the field, on the determination of, 142, 

159 
Diving apparatus, 214 
Diving bell boat, 239 

Docks: 

Birkenhead, 73, 122 

Carlisle, 168 

Dry dock at Pembroke, 73 

Grand Surrey, 122 

Liverpool, 289 

Rennie's, G. B., floating pontoon, 50 

Dredger for Greenock, 217 
Dredging machine, launch of a, 121 



Earth's crust, W. Fairbairn on the temperature of 

the, 162 
Elastic force of vapours, M. V. Begnaulton the, 9 
Elder's cylindrical spiral boiler, 30 
Electric cables, 12 
Electric postage, 239 
Engineering field work, W. J. M. Rankine on the 

application of transversals to, 37 
Engine drivers' short hours movement, 20 
Engineers, naval, appointments of, 193, 215, 263, 287 

Engines : 

Auxiliary engines of the Great Eastern, 101 

Double winding engine for the coal trade, 120 

Ericsson's caloiic, 20, 41 

Grande's rotatory, 167 

High pressure engines and boilers, 167 

Lenoir's gas engine, 262 

Loss by friction of load in the principal parts of 

the, 245, 272 
New motive power, 214 
Notes on the construction of, by L. 0., 131, 876, 

199 
Steam engines in Great Britain, estimated horse 

power of, 41 

English and American inventions, 141 

English coinage, 20 

Exhibition for 1862, 20, 71, 95, 143, 167 

Expansion of steam, 38, 53 

Experiments (various), 42, 70, 72, 73, 169, 217, 240, 

262, 289 
Export trade, 167 



E. 

Facility in coal lading, 46 

Fairbairn W., address to the British Association at 

Manchester, 223 
Fairbairn W. on the temperature of the earth's crust, 

162 
Fairbairn W. on the effects of vibratory action upon 

wrought iron bridges and girders, 228 
Feed water heating apparatus, Bateson'6, 277 
Figures, cutting and shaping, 214 
Filter, improved chemical, 42 



Fire Arms : 

Whitworth's, 121 

Westley Richard's rifle, 144, 216 

Fire insurance duty, 192 

Fire engines, C. B. King on steam, 279 

Foreign notes, 21, 22, 41, 70, 71, 95, 97, 99, 119, 239, 

262, 265, 286, 288 
Foundry swallowed by a coal mine, 262 
, A. F. Yarrow on the, 90 



Fox F. on the results of trials of varieties of iron per- 
manent ways, 111 

Frankland E. on some phenomena attending com- 
bustion in rarefied air, 188 

Freight as affected by differences in the dynamic pro- 
perties of steam ships, 233 

French opera house, 19 

Froude W. on the junction of railway curves at 
transitions of curvature, 33 



Gases, J. Tyndall on the action of, on radiant heat, 
186 

Gas: 
Bowditch, Rev. W. R., on coal gas, 30 
Cardiff Gas Company, 98 
Consumption of, in Paris, 122 
Dividends of gas companies, 21, 218, 242 
Explosions of, 21,73, 242 
Gasometers at Hackney, 98 
Gas on railways, 73, 145 
Gas on steamers, 46, 122 
Glycerine in gas meters, 21 
Indique fuites, 21 

Lighting of, S. Hughes on, 128, 151, 180, 200 
Lighting steamers with, 21 
New gas companies, 21, 169 
New gasometers, 265 
New gas meters, 98, 265 
Preventing gas pipes from rusting, 41 
Purifying coal gas, 21, 25, 46 
Reductions in the price of, 21, 122 
Report of Dr. Letheby on, 169 

Gearing, J. Robertson on frictional, 185 
Geometry of the slide valve, by J. Mc F. Gray, 16 
Gill, W., on cornish mines, 280 
Girders, paper on comparison of, 197, 270 

, wrought-iron bridges and, effects of vibratory 



action upon, by W. Fairbairn, 228 

, paper on continuous, 78 

, paper on lattice, 101 

, paper on proportioning, 149, 173 

, testing for the Manchester corporation, 221 

i strength of, 49 



Glue, new marine, 262 
Government appointments, 95, 193 
Government dockyards, 42, 73, 96, 98, 145 
Government troop steamer for the Indus, 29 
Grantham, J., on the classification of iron ships, 163 
Gray, J. Mc F., on the strength of boilers, 26 
Great Eastern steam ship log returns, 137, 179, 206 
Great Eastern steam ship, auxiliary engines of the, 101 
Gunpowder, F. Hudson on white, 216 

Guns: 

Armstrong, 43, 72, 121, 194, 216, 249, 264, 289 

Clay's breech loading, 149 

Experiments with, 43, 72, 194, 241, 249, 264, 265, 
289 

For the navy, 19 

Lancaster cast-iron, 264 

New guns for the Government, 121 

Time gun at Edinburgh, 120 

Warry's breech-loading, 144 

Whitworth, 43, 72 
Gyrascope governor, 93, 117 



H. 

Hammer, compressed air, 18 
Hammers, large steam, 119, 192, 263 
Hammering rolled copper, 99 

Haebours : 
Blythe, 98 



Haeboues : 

Brean Down, 288 

Falmouth, 289 

Great Harbour, Malta, 98 

Holyhead, 145 

New harbour bills, 98 

Portsmouth, 290 

Refuge, 145 

Sebastopol, 265 

Swansea, 217 
Harwich, redoubt at, 143 
Haswell, C. H., on the strength of materials, 7, 157,. 

183, 248, 275 
Haswell, C. H, on the resistance of wrought iron 

tubes to external and internal pressure, 134 
Higgin's railway break, 12 
Hindostan Copper Company, 290 
Hooghly and the Mutla, J. A. Longridge on the, 278 
Houses of Parliament, 191 
Hughes, S., on gas lighting. 128, 151, 180, 200 
Hull, trade at, 289 
Hydrogen gas for illuminating, 20 
Hyperbolic logarithms, 252 



Ice, density of, 42 

Institution of Naval Architects, 84, 113, 163 

Institution of Civil Engineers', 13, 62, 110, 161, 189, 

277 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers', 211 
Institution of Engineers in Scotland, 43, 87 
International Exhibition for 1862 ; 20, 71, 95, 143, 

167 
Irish industry, museum of, 266 

Ieon : 

Bryson, W., on the strength of pillars of, 253 

Cementation of 74 

Conversion of, into steel, 50, 83 

Discovery of ore, 73 

Haswell, C. H., on the resistance of wrought irorr 

tnbes to external and internal pressure, 134 
Iron church for Soutbport, 119 
Plated ships of war, 5, 15, 20, 42, 84, 89, 120, 1C5, 

168, 192, 215, 239, 263, 287 
Mixing cast, with nickel, 21 
New plan for rolling, 263 
Passivity of, 46 

Preservation of, from decay, 120 
Shields, F. W., on iron construction, 231 
To distinguish iron from steel, 290 



J. 

Jones's targets, experiments with, 216, 240 

Joule, J. P., on the surface condensation of steam, 33 

Joule, Dr., remarks on some researches of, 103 



K. 



King, C. B., on steam fire engines, 279 
Krutzsch's improvements in cai fridges and projectiles, 
54 



L. 

Landing stage, Kew, 263 
Landing stage, Newport, 167 
Leaky vessels, apparatus for, 97 
Legal Decisions : 

Austen v. Asphaltum Company, 191 

Bawer v. Mackay, 213 

Blyth v. Samuda, 69 

Burgess v. Wickham, 191 

Clapham v. Langton, 142 

Cottam, v. Metropolitan Railway Company, 286 

Freemantle v. London and North Western Kailway 
Company, 94 

Glass v. Boswell, 119 

Grist v. Colyer, 18 

Howard v. Ledger, 18 

Howes v. the great Ship Company, 69, 119 

Newall v. Elliot, 18 



The Aetizan,"] 
January 1, ]8C2. J 



Index to Foh XIX., 1861. 



Legal Decisions: 

Neville v. Wright, 94 

Pym v. Great Northern Railway Company, 166 

Rae v. Thames Iron Works Company, 70 

Russell .1. Scott v. Great Eastern Steamship Com- 
pany, 18, 41, 119 

Schluruberger v. Salt, 70 

Thames Iron Works Co. v. Royal Mail Steam Pac- 
ket Co., 191 

Smith v, Bowers, 191 

Smoking in a coal pit, imprisonment for, 18 

St. Thomas's Hospital v. Charing Cross Railway 
Company, 94 

Train v. Lamheth vestry, 261 

Warden of Dover Harbour v. Loudon Chatham 
and Dover Railway, 95 

Young v. Gillespie, 166 

Letters, damper for copying, 185 

Lifeboat services, 287 

Life belt of the national lifeboat institution, 164 

Lighthouses : 
American screw pile, Pamplico Sound, 269 
On the Atlantic coast, 7 
Welsh coast, 290 
West Gavo Island, New South Wales, 20 

Lime light, 95, 214, 221, 247, 286 
Liverpool, trade of, 192 
Loch Katrine, temperature of air at, 73 
Loch Lomond lake, survey of, 170 

Locomotives : 

American wheel tyres for, 239 

Bill to regulate road, 213 

Goods engine locomotive for the great North of 
Scotland Railway, 1 73 

Locomotives on common Roads, C. B. King on. 164 

Passenger locomotive for the Edinburg and Glas- 
gow Railway, 77 

Plate frames for, correspondence on, 165 

Steam breaks for, 20 

Winans Locomotive Engines, 19 
Loewensteins apparatus for submarine cables, 55 
Logarithams, table of Hyperbolic, 252 
Log returns of the Great Eastern Steamship, 137, 179, 

206 
London association of foremen engineers, 62, 211 
London streets, 239 

Longridge J. A. on the Hooghly and the Mutla, 278 
Loss by fricton of load in the principal parts of the 

steam engine, 245, 272 
Lucifer matches, manufacture of, 239 



M. 

Machinery and engines, notes on the construction of, 

by L. O., 131 175, 199 
Mail steam packets for the Holyhead and Kingston 

service, 6 
Magnetic hammei - , 41 

Manchester corporation, testing girders for the, 221 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, ] 62, 

279 
Martin's liquid iron shells, 241 
Mastic for setting boilers, 143 
Materials, strength of; by C. H. Haswell, 7, 157, 183, 

204 
Mechanics' Institution at Wolverton, 214 
Mercantile marine fund, 191 
Merchant service of Great Britain, 214 
Metropolitan sewers, 22, 99, 122, 145 
Metal, fusible, 170 

Meters, Shaw's improvements in, 222 
Midland Waggon Company, 71 

Mikes : 

Coal, 21, 46, 194 
Copper, 21 

Cornish mines, W. Gill on, 280 
Gold, 21, 122, 194, 263 
Lead, 99 

Mining in Australia, 170 
Mining in Turkey, 218 
Spanish, 21 
Ventilation of, 195 
Mirrors, manufacture of, 120 



Moorsom, Admiral, death of, 141 
Mulley's auxiliary rudder, 96 
Museum of Irish Industry, 266 
Musketry, annual report of, 289 

N. 

Naval engineers, appointments of, 193, 215, 239, 263, 

287 
Navy: 

American, 42 

British, 19, 42, 70, 71, 96, 120, 143, 167, 192, 215, 
239, 263, 287 

French, 19, 42, 70,95, 168 

Prussian, 287 

Russian, 19, 168 

Sardinian, 42 

Spanish, 20, 42, 96 
New metallic alloy, 170 
New surveying chain, 71 
New exchange for Liverpool, 143 
New motive power, 41 
Nickel, properties of, 74 
Notes on the construction of engines and machinery, 

by L. O., 131, 175, 199 
Notices to correspondents, 18, 40, 69, 94, 118, 142, 

165, 191, 213, 238, 260, 286 
Notice to our readers, 17 



Oar, on the, 258 

Oil wells of America, 41, 242 



P. 



Paper from wood, 262 

Patents : 
Applications for letters patent, 146, 170, 195, 219, 

243, 267, 291 
Applied for with complete specifications deposited, 

24, 48, 76, 100, 124 
Provisional protection obtained, 23, 47, 74, 99, 123 

Patera's process for extracting silver from its ores, 13 

Photographs of microscopic objects, 239 

Pier at Bombay, 22 

Pier at Bournemouth, 260 

Pier at Southport, 110 

Pillars, strength of iron, 253 

Pipes or tubes, uniting, 167 

Platinum coating for porcelain cru cibles, 214 

Pneumatic tube experiments, 262 

Postal Service, 143 

" Powhatan," power required to overcome the re- 

sistence of the feed pumps of the, 138 
Practical papers for practical men, 49, 78, 101, 125, 

149, 173, 197, 270, 285 
Prevention of over winding, 73 

Pbopexloes : 

Disc wheel, 19 

Griffiths's, 5 

Young's, patent, 120 
Public libraries, 262 
Purification of coal gas, 24 
Pyronome, to supersede gunpowder for blasting, 143 



Queens yacht, and the Holyhead mail packets, 207, 
212 



R. 



Railway Engineebing : 

Accidents on railways, 18, 22, 41, 43, 70, 73, 98, 
121, 144, 168, 193, 215, 241, 264, 288, 

American, 19, 43, 97, 121 

Ashton under Lyne and Guide Bridge junction 
railway. 72 

Australian Railways, 72 



Railway Engineering : 

Breaks, Higgins improved, 12 
—— Martins improved. 193 
Caledonian railway, 72 
Canadian railways, 19, 43, 120 
Charing Cross railway, 72 
Dividends of, 19, 241 
Exeter and Exmouth, 97, 144 
Floating railway across the Forth, 101 
French, 72, 168 

Fyen, railway through the island of, 43 
Great Northern Railway, 97 
Indian, 72, 97, 121, 144, 168, 193, 21 5, 264, 288 
Junction of railway curves at transitions of curva- 
ture, 33 
Lahore to Umritsir, 264 
Lancashire and Yorkshire, 72 
Liverpool and Garston, 97 
London and Bristol, 288 

Chatham and Dover. 288 

and North Western, 72, 122 

Luxembourg and Treves, 215 

Lym and Hunstanton, 288 

Metropolitan, 121. 280 

Newcastle and Derwent. 1C8 

New bills, 19, 43 

Norwich and Spalding, 288 

Pertli and Inverness, 588 

Prevention of accidents, 288 

Prussian, 97 

Railway bridges, 22, 77, 98 

Railway capital, 215. 241 

Railway curves, piper on, 87 

Railways in progress, 19, 7'J 

Railway signals, 241 

Russian, 87, 193 

Saxby's improved railway sjgnals 3 110. 

Seville and Cadiz, 193, 

Sheffield and Chesterfield, 268 

Shrewsbury and Welshpool, 97 

Signals for railway carriages, 288 

Smyrna and Aden, 121 

Spanish, 193, 241 

Stratford-ou-Avon, 97 

Street railways, 19, 43, 97, 120, 121 

Tenbury and Shrewsbury, 215 

Traffic on railways, 19, 241 

Tunnel at Mont Cenis, 20, 214 

West Riding and Grimsby, 288 

Rankiue, W. J. M., on the application cf transversals 

to engineering field work, 37 
Rankine, W. J. M., on the resistance of ships, 231 
Rarefied air, E. Frankland on some phenomena attend- 
ing combustion in, 188 
Reaping and mowing machines, 1G7 
Remarks on some researches of Dr. Joule, 103 
Rennie's, G. B., patent floating pontoon or dock, 50 
Report of the committee on steamship performance. 
256 

Reviews and Notices of Bocks ; 

Bowditch, Rev. W. R., on coal gas, 91 

Bourne, J., a treatise on the steam engine, 142 

Boyds railway bridge between France and England. 

66 
Burnell, G. R. — The Builder's and Contractor's 

Price Book for 1861, 65 
Campin, F. — Diagrams to facilitate the calculation- 

of Iron Bridges, 237 
Campin, F. — The practice of har.d turning in Wood, 

166 
Chalmers, J. — The Channel Railway for connecting 

England and France, 260 
Dirks, H. — Perpetuum Mobile, or search for self- 
motive Power, 66 
Engineer'* Pocket Book for 1861, 66 
Fairbairn, W. — Useful information for Engineer's 

64 
Fairbairn, W.— Treatise on Mills, 118 
Ganot, Professor. — Elementary treatise on Physics. 

260 
Gesner, A. — A Practical Treatise on Coal,Petroleum, 

and other distilled oils, 65 
Gill, J. — An Essay on the Thermo-Dynamics of 

Elastic Fluids, 66 
Hughes, S. — Gas Legislation, 260 
Hull, E— The Coalfields of Great Eritain,90 
Humber, W. — Treatise on Cast and Wrought iren 

Bridge Construction, 212 



\n. 



Index to Vol. XIX., 1861, 



("The Abtizait, 
L January 1, 1862 



Reviews and Notices op Books: 

King, W. H. — Lessons and practical notes on Steam 

65, 118 
Lamborn, Dr. E. H. — A Rudimentary Treatise on 

the Metallurgy of Silver and Lead, 166 
Laiton's Price Book for 1861, 90 
Miller, T.— Catechism of the Marine Steam Engine, 

90 
Moore, R. — A sectional view of the Lanarkshire 

Coal Measure, 65 
Murray, A. — The Theory and Practice of Ship 

Building, 142 
Nystrom, J. W. — Pocket-book of Mechanics, 142 
Oppermann, C. A. — Portefeuille Economique des 

Machines de L'Outillage, 142 
Plimsoll, T.— Our Black Diamonds, 260 
Russell, J. Scott. — The Fleet of the future, Iron or 

Wood, 65 
Shields, P. W. — The straius on structures of Iron, 

Work, 118 
The Electrician, 260, 286 
The Popular Science Review, 286 
Transactions of the Institution of Naval Arch itects 

67 
Walker, W. M. — Notes on Screw Populsion, 66 
Wordsworth, C.— Summary of the Laws of Patents, 

90 
Young, C. P. T. — The Economy of Steam Power on 

common roads, 63 
Young, J. R. — A Course of Elementary Mathe- 
matics, 90 
Robertson. J. — On Prictional Gearing, 185 
Roscoe, H. E. — On Spectrum Observations, 187 
Royal Institute of British Architects, 280 
Royal Institution of Great Britain, 89, 186, 209 
Russell, J. S. — On the Wave-line principle of Ship- 
building, 163 
Russian military works, 19 



S 



Sawing machine, new, 263 

Saxby's improved railway signals, 110 

Scale of terrestial divergence for the long range, 284 

Scientific notes, 20, 73, 120, 122, 143, 194, 214, 217 

218, 242, 262, 287 
Shaw's improvements in gas meters, 222 
Shears for Sebastopol, 70 
Shells, liquid iron, 169 
Shields, P. W., on iron construction, 231 
Shipbuilding on the Clyde, 71, 283 
Shipbuilding, J. S. Russell on the wave line principle 

of, 163 
Shipbuilding and repairing, 70 
Shipbuilding on the Tyne, 71 
Ship Launches : 

Actif, 145 

Ajax, 73 

Amalia, 21, 97 

Battalion, 145 

Bristol, 73 

Chanticleer, 72 

China, 264 

City of New York, 121 

Hebe, 215 

Lady Nyassa, 145 

Lord, of the Isles, 96 

New Brunswick, 264 

North Eastern, 215 

Olympus, 288 

Palakari, 21 

Polynia, 72 

Prince of Wales, 168 

Rapid, 21 

Resistance, 121 

Rio Jerome, 21 

Scotia, 190 

Speedwell, 73 

St. Andrew, 215 

Talca, 240 

Undaunted, 43 

Vasco Andaluz, 215 

Village Blacksmith, 168 

Volunteer, 145 

Warrior, 120 
Ships (steam), Dimensions of : 

City of New York, 193 



Ships (Steam), Dimensions of: 

Daniel Drew, 61 
Fire Dart, 61 
Guayaquil, 29 
Hankow, 61 
Hansa, 215 
John P. Jackson, 62 
John P. King, 61 
New Brunswick, 61 
Primeira, 61 
Reliance, 62 
Resolute, 62 
Scotia, 190 
Seminole, 61 
Zouave, 61 

Ships, Trials of -. 

Barossa, 71 

Black Prince, 193, 287 

Briton, 263 

Chantlicleer, 263 

Eugenie, 288 

Gibraltar, 120 

Howe, 20, 192 

Leander, 287 

Linnet, 42 

Lord of the Isles, 143 

Meeanee, 120 

Minos, 144 

Octavia, 284 

Pelican, 71 

Penelope, 19 

Philomel, 71 

Prince of Wales, 241 

Rangoon, 19 

Results of trials, in H.M.'s ships and vessels, 245 

Rinaldo, 168 

Rosario, 96, 287 

Scarus, 120 

Sentinel, 19 

Taganrog, 19 

Troop steamer for the Indus, 29 

Trust y, 192 

Undaunted, 239 

Wanderer, 71 

Warrior, 263, 284 

Western, 168 

Ships, Accidents to : 
Cleopatra, 22 
Collissions at sea, 22 
Piel, 41 

Great Eastern, 222, 240 
H. R. W. Hill, 19 
Queen Victoria, 97 
Shannon, 22 
St. Louis, 42 
Tasmanian, 22 

Ships, Losses of: 
Alarm, 168 
Canadian, 168 
Empire, 22 

Shipping losses of the United Kingdom, 20, 70 
Ship Ventilating Committee, 239 
Ships, unsinkable iron, 193, 264 
Ship's pumps, trials of, 70 

Ships, resistance of, W. J. M. Rankine, on the, 231 
Signal lanterns for the Admiralty, 143 
Silver from its or - es, Patera's process for extracting, 13 
Sir William Cubitt, death of, 260 
Smoke, apparatus for prevention of, 96 
Smelting iron ore, 21 

Societies, pboceedings of : 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 

223, 256, 277 
Civil and Mechanical Engineer's Society, 90, 164, 

212, 258, 279 
Institution of Naval Architects, 84, 113, 163 
Institution of Civil Engineers, 13, 62, 110,161, 189, 

277 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 211 
Institution of Engineers in Scotland, 43, 87 
London Association of Foreman Engineers, 62, 211 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 162, 

279 
Royal Institute of British Architects, 280 



Societies, proceedings of : 

Royal Institution of Great Britain, 89, 186, 209 
Royal Society, 30 
Society of Engineers, 167 

South Foreland, lime light at the, 221, 247 

Spectrum observations, H. E. Roscoe on, 187 

Speed of armour-cased ships, C. Atherton on the, 28 

Stability, paper on, 81 

Steamboats in Russia, 42 

Steamship capability, 17, 40, 92, 237 

Steamship performance, report of the Committee on, 

256 
Steamship performance, 116, 140, 165 
Steam shipping, duties on, 20 
Steamship paddle floats, 71 
Steam vessels at high velocities, R. Armstrong on the 

measure of the, 107 
Steam shipping notes, 71, 193, 215, 240, 264, 288 
Steam ; 

Clark, D. K, on, 55, 82, 104, 142 

Expansion of, 38, 53 

Generation of, bj r means of gas, 167 

Stimers, A. 0., on the relative economy of using 
steam with different measures of expansion, 138, 
154 

Surface condensation of, 33 

Tables of the properties of saturated, 203 
Steam Navigation Companies : 

China and Japan Navigation Company, 143 

Company for the Navigation of the Yang-tse, 120 

East India and London Shipping Companj', 19 

Great ship company, 144, 193 

Inter-colonial Royal mail steam packet Compauy, 
143 

Peninsular and Oriental Steam ship Company, 19 

Kiver Salado, 167 

Royal Mail steam packet Company, 19, 218, 264 

Steam Navigation Company new, 71 

Steel, conversion of cast iron into, 50, 83, 237 

, from cast iron, manufacturing, 20 

, manufacture of, 145, 170 

— — , from New Zealand, 21 
Stone breaking machine, 70 
Stoney B. B. on the construction of floating beacons, 

111 
Straw paper, new kind of, 41 
Street lighting, improvements in, 214 
Street railways, 19, 43, 97, 120 
Strength of materials, by C. H. Haswell, 7, 157, 183, 

204, 248, 275 
Sulphide of potassium, 21 
Sun, structure of the luminous envelope of the, 162 



Tables of the properties of saturated steam, 203 
Targets, Brown's, 241 

, Fairbairn's and Robert's, 211 

, Jones's, 216, 240 



Telegeaph Engineering : 

Atlantic telegraph, 97, 144 

Australian telegraphs, 265 

Bagdad to Teheran, 43 

Electric telegraph progress, 43 

France to Algeria, 121 

Holyhead to Howth, 19 

Indian telegraphs, 97, 217 

London and Paris, 72 

London district, 72 

Malta and Alexandria, 72, 97, 121, 144, 169, 241, 
265 

Malta and Corfu, 265 

Mediterranean telegraph extension company, 217 

Ocean telegraph, new scheme, 92 

Otranto and Sidari, 72 

Oxydation of telegraph wires, 265 

Private telegraphs, 43 

Red Sea Telegraph, 19, 72, 289 

Report of Committee on submarine cables, 169 

Russian telegraphic lines, 43, 144, 169, 241 

Submarine telegraphs, 43 

Telegraph improvements, 265 

Telegraph at Oldham, 43 

Toulon and Corsica, 169 
Telescope in New York, 119 



The Aktizan,"] 
January 1, 1862.J 



Index to Vol XIX., 1801. 



vn. 



Tempering steel, 122 

Thames embankment, 143, 192 

Thames Tunnel Company, 95 

Thermometer, Casella's patent mercurial minimum, 

259 
Timber from New Zealand, 20 
Tin streaming in Spain, 122 
Tite, W., on current topics, 280 
Trials made in H.M.'s Ships, results of, 245- 
Tunnel at Mont Cenis, 20, 214 
Tunnel through the Alps, proposed, 120 
Turner and Gibson's improved bridges, 77 
Tyndall, J., on the action of gases on radiant heat, 186 
. on the physical basis of solav chemistry, 

209 



Valve, geometry of the slide, 16 



Vapours, elastic force of, Eegnault on the, 9 
Viaduct over the Tay, 265 

W 

Walton, J. B., on the various methods of sinking iron 

cylinders for foundations, 279 
Wandle, P. Braithwaite, on the rise and fall of the 

river, 62 
War, armour-cased ships of, 5, 15, 20, 42, 84, 96, 120, 

168, 192, 215, 239, 263, 287 
Ward's signal lamps, 20 
Warrior, correspondence on the performance of the, 

285 

trial of the, 263, 284 



Water test apparatus, Danchell's, 185 
— — as a fuel, 287 

• effect of pressure on, 287 
i notes on the freezing and thawing of, 162 



Watee Supply : 

Lyme Regis Water Works, 98 

Metropolitan, 98, 265 

Nelson's water elevator, 95 

New River Company, 217 

Stockton and Darlington Company, 22 

Whitehaven, 73 
Weather prognostications, 262 
Weir for canals and other similar works, 131 
Westminster Bridge, 122, 197 
Williams, C. W., on unsuitable iron ships, 163 
Wood, J., death of, 40 
Woolwich, arsenal at, 18, 20, 265 
Wheel for lifting water, 211 



Yacht, the Queen's, and the Holyhead mail packets, 

207, 212 
Yarrow, A. P., on the foundry, 90 



LIST OP PLATES. 



184. Plans and Section of the Steamships " Guayaquil" and " San Carlos. J 

185. Railway Curves, by Professor W. J. M. Rankine. 

186. Geometry of the Slide Valve. 

187. Boilers of the Steamships " San Carlos" and " Guayaquil." 

188. Iron Floating Dock, designed by Mr. G. B. Rennie, M.I.C.E. 

189. Passenger Locomotive for the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway. 

190. Illustrations of Various Papers. 

191. Illustrations of Various Papers. 

192. Auxiliary Engine of the " Great Eastern" Steam-ship. 

193. Weir for Canals and other similar works. 

194. Determination of Distances on the Field. 



195. Diagrams from Feed Pump of U.S. Steamer "Powhatan." 

196. Clay's Breech-loading Cannon. 

197. Determination of Distances on the Field. 

198. Indicator Diagrams, by A. C. Stimers. 

199. Goods Engine of the Great North of Scotland Railway. 

200. Frictional Gearing. 

201. Elevation, Plans, and Sections of Westminster Bridge. 

202. Testing Girders for the Manchester Corporation. 

203. Ratio of Breaking Weights — Weight and Span of Tubular Girder 

Bridges. 

204. American Screw Pile Lighthouse. 



TO THE BINDER. 
Plate No. 201. — Elevation, Plans, and Sections of Westminster Bridge to face title-page. 



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THE ARTIZAN. 

No. 217.— Yol. 19.— JANUARY 1, 1861, 



"ARTIZAN" ADDRESS, 1861. 

With the advent of a new year comes a duty which for several years 
past has devolved upon us, and which we have endeavoured to perform to 
the best of our ability within the limited space which can be spared in any 
one number of our journal, and we shall not on this occasion depart from 
a practice which has given satisfaction to o\ir friends, if we may fairly 
assume the reiterated expressions of satisfaction to be sincere. We will 
therefore at once to our task, and, in as small a space as is consistent with 
only a moderate glance at past and passing events, and a hasty sketch of 
things we deem interesting, we will sum up what we have to say. 

During the year 1860, we are glad to find that the number of our friends 
and supporters has increased steadily ; and it is satisfactory to find that, 
whilst we are thus progressing, our contemporaries, monthly and weekly, 
are also, we believe and hope, advancing in public favour ; for it has 
been our study, knowing there is room enough for all, to welcome, and, as 
far as we have been permitted, to hold out the right hand of good fellow- 
ship to our younger brethren, "and to old friends with new faces ;" although 
we are sorry to perceive that some of our brethren connected with 
those journals are dreadful sufferers from occasional but severe attacks of 
bile, which prevent them living in peace and harmony, and on terms of 
good fellowship with the rest of their fellows; but we are happy to say 
that, like Lord Derby's " coal-heaver," in his celebrated reply to the attack 
upon him by the Duke of Argyll, — If it amuses them it does not hurt us 

Satisfactory as has been our progress or increase during the past year, 
we need scarcely remind our friends, that by affording us increased 
support, by every means in their power, they will thereby benefit them- 
selves, by enabling us to extend the sphere of our usefulness, increase the 
quantity of information, and the number of the plates and illustrations 
during the year ; and it is with no small amount of pleasure and pride 
that we are able to point to what we have already done, and to challenge 
comparison with any other scientific journal throughout the world for the 
amount of valuable information, and the number and expensive character 
of the illustrations; remembering that our sheets of engraved illustrations 
are not mere fancy sketches, illustrative of ingenious mouse-traps or 
circular portable steam-engines ; nor mere puffing advertising pictures of 
every senseless stupid invention, advertised for business purposes, for the 
sake of gain. But, gently ; we fear biliousness is contagious, and we are 
warned not to stray from our original purpose. We shall, therefore, simply 
thank our friends for the support they have hitherto afforded us, and ask 
ihem not only to continue, but to extend their support, and by their 
influence in every available channel, to induce their friends to become our 
friends and supporters; and thus a mutual column of support will be 
raised of permanent advantage to all. 

What we have done for our subscribers during the past year may in 
part be briefly summed up as follows : — We have given them the most 
valuable and recent series of experiments on the strength of steel and 
wrought-iron, ever made; and these, together with the large sheet of* 
illustrations accompanying them, will be found in the January number, in 
addition to the usual quantity of valuable information. We have given the 



only published series of views of the new Westminster Bridge, and the 
various details connected with its construction, accompanied by textual 
descriptions of the whole of the works. The continuation of the valuable 
series of plates illustrative of the highly economical and much-approved 
engines, boilers, and machinery of the several ships fitted by the eminent 
firm of Randolph, Elder, & Co., of Glasgow, has been hailed with the 
greatest enthusiasm in all parts of the continents of Europe and America, 
as being a greater boon to steam-ship owners and others interested in 
economic ocean steam navigation ; and we have reason to know that it has 
been highly instrumental in stimulating marine steam engineers to do 
better things than they had previously done, and perhaps to induce them, 
for the first time, to study the philosophical questions involved in the 
economic generation and use of steam as a motive power ; whilst we hope 
it has also had the advantage of bringing before the public in a prominent 
manner, merit of the highest scientific order, in combination with 
practical engineering skill, and has shown that there is at least one 
firm on the Clyde, who do not make marine engines " by rule of 
thumb," and as mere shapers of material. On the 16th of July we 
published a supplemental number, double our usual size, containing a vast 
amount of valuable tabulated matter, collected by the British Association 
Committee on Steamship performance ; and we produced exclusively all 
the more important scientific papers read at the British Association, 
in the Mechanical Section, in the numbers of July 1st and 16th, and 
August 1st. In the November number we gave a large extra sheet, 
printed on both sides, containing tables arranged for laboratory re- 
ference, for which we have received very complimentary letters from 
many of our subscribers, particularly in the manufacturing districts. 
Besides these large sheets of engravings and valuable tabulated matter, 
we have had recourse to both sides of the sheets upon which our plate 
illustrations have been printed, so as to enable us to give the greatest 
number of figures or diagrams without trenching upon the letter- 
press portion of our journal. Amongst the series of papers given 
during the past year, those on the laws of steam and on the geometry of 
the slide valve, with the great circle diagrams and other illustrations, 
have been found of great practical value ; and the series of papers on 
coinage, as " Golden Days at the Mint," &c, have been of interest 
to a large number of our readers; the various other papers and 
articles contributed to the Journal, and the selected letters from 
correspondence, have, it is hoped, afforded that amount of useful infor- 
mation which we are at all times desirous of imparting in return for the 
support of our friends. The selection of "Notes and Novelties " might 
be made of still greater interest, if our friends would act upon the sug- 
gestion which they will find printed every month at the head of that 
division of our work; and we must here repeat how much obliged we shall 
be for whatever contributions they will forward to us of recent scientific 
events, and matters of interest which come under their own observation. 

During the past year, railway wcrks have been extending stead ly 
throughout Great Britain and elsewl ere, and a heavier or stronger 
description of road has been found necessary oa most of the trunk lixes 



2 



Artisan" Address, 1861. 



("The Aetizan, 

LJanuary 1, 1861. 



to -withstand the increase of weight of engines and higher speed of 
travelling. Coal is rapidly displacing coke as fuel for locomotive engines, 
and it is being economically and successfully substituted ; and, on some 
lines it is consumed without producing smoke — the engine illustrated in 
the April number, fitted with D. K. Clark's patent apparatus, is one of 
the best examples. Giffard's injector has been extensively applied, and, 
as an addition to existing feed-pumps, we think it may be usefully em- 
ployed for feeding locomotive engines with water of moderate temperature 
and good quality. A more perfect system of breaks than those generally 
in use is still much required, and means should be provided for discharging 
the sand from the sand-box in front of the driving wheels by means of a 
handle worked from the foot-plate, and larger sand-boxes should be provided, 
and kept constantly filled. We recently witnessed a case in which several 
thousand pounds would have been saved to a railway company had these 
precautions been taken. Ranisbottom's ingenious contrivance for supply- 
ing tenders with water whilst in motion deserves special mention. 

The local requirements for working the Metropolitan Underground 
Railway, necessitate, it is said, an arrangement of engine, or other means 
of giving motion to the trains, by which the emission of coal smoke or 
vapour from a coke fire is to be avoided ; and although this will not, if 
attained, dispose of the exhaust steam emitted from the blast pipe, an 
English engineer — Mr. Gregory, of Barreira, near Lisbon — made some 
successful experiments for the same object about twelve months ago, when 
he ran an engine and train some 10 kilometres without fuel, after having 
heated a fire-brick cone, and lining within the furnace, to a red heat, and 
raised the steam in the boiler to a pressure of lOOlbs. on the square inch. 

In working railway traffic, the London and North-Western Company 
have introduced in some of their tunnels a second pair of rails upon the 
same sleepers, and a few inches only apart, so as to reduce the greatly 
increased wear and tear which would otherwise arise from the concentration 
of the traffic from off two or three lines of rails upon one line only, and also 
to save the necessity for, and risk from working facing points, as the traffic 
thus worked is enabled self-actingly to run in and out. The numerous 
accidents which have occurred upon the principal lines in the kingdom 
point to the greatly increased traffic and crowded state of those lines 
converging to London ; but they also strongly direct attention to the abso- 
lute necessity for a more vigilant system of supervision, and regulation 
of the traffic between stations, and the employment of the independent 
electric signals or telegraph instruments, by which the state of the 
line between one station and another may with certainty, at any time, be 
known; and such instruments as those which have been specially designed 
by Mr. Geo. Sandys, the electric engineer, for the purpose of meeting 
these requirements, deserve to be immediately pressed upon the atten- 
tion of railway companies. It has frequently occurred to us that 
every train despatched from a terminal station might be made to 
automatically record its progress towards its destination, and exhibit 
its exact position at any moment upon a board in the office of the super- 
intendent at each end of a line of rails, by means of a very simple 
arrano-ement of electric apparatus. Too great a reliance upon the 
constant burning of oil lamps in distant or auxiliary signals has been 
a source of great mischief and loss; and where gas cannot be used 
for such signals, proper means should be taken for preventing the 
possibility of the light being extinguished by accident, and without the 
knowledge of the signal-man. The importance of enabling the guard or 
official in charge of the train to gain ready 'access to any carriage, is now 
becoming better understood, and we hope, in the course of time, to see 
such modifications in the external construction and arrangement of the 
carriages, and in- their mode of connection, as will facilitate communication 



between one part and another. One great source of accidents, to which 
the metropolitan lines more especially have been subjected, and to which 
all lines of railway crossing each other are subject, at their junctions or 
intersections, will, we believe, in future be rendered impossible by the 
adoption of a very ingenious, yet simple and very inexpensive arrange* 
ment for working points and signals, invented by Mr. Saxby, of Brighton, 
aud introduced at the New Victoria Station of the Brighton Railway 
Company. 

The Parliamentary Session of 1861 promises to be pretty fully occupied 
with railway matters, if we may judge from the large crop of railway bills 
deposited ; and London seems to be specially favoured, and the region of 
Finsbury, about the most favourite spot in the metropolis, to which the 
attention of railway engineers, surveyors, lawyers, and Parliamentary 
agents seem to have been devoted; and whilst the Metropolitan Railway 
and other junction lines are projected, central stations are each being 
advanced for public support. The connecting chain, by which the lines on 
the north and south sides of the River Thames in the regions east of 
Blackfriars-bridge is much r equired, and should not be neglected, whether 
or not the Thames Tunnel be at last made of some practical use by being 
made available for this purpose ; and as the Great Western and the other 
broad guage lines in connection with it are, we believe, now inevitably 
settled to be relaid as narrow guage lines, and so brough t into the general 
railway system of Great Britain, we shall then hope to 'see the value of 
Great Western property materially improved. 

In Portugal, the 4ft. 8Jin. guage is, it is said, to be altered to the 5ft. 
6in. Spanish guage ; it is supposed, as a preliminary step to other changes 
in that country. 

The railway system is extending rapidly over most parts of the earth's 
surface ; and a reference to our monthly notes, &c, will show how rapidly 
and how generally the railway system is extending. The completion of the 
Great Victoria Bridge in Canada, across the River St. Lawrence, has been 
one of the most important events of the year. 

In marine steam engineering, our pages have recorded all that is worthy 
of note, and we refer to the various papers, notices, and illustrations to be 
found in The Abtizan during the last twelvemonths for the only true and 
thoroughly reliable epitome of progress in this important branch of 
engineering; but we cannot dismiss this portion of our task without 
directing especial attention to the very useful labours of the Committee on 
Steamship Performance, reappointed by the British Association at the meet- 
ing held at Oxford in June last, and to express the opinion, that if the 
objects which the Co mmittee have in view were better understood by 
steamship owners as well as the builders of ships and engines, the store of 
thoroughly reliable and useful facts which the Committee would be able to 
accumulate and publish would be of the greatest possible advantage to the 
cause of progress in this branch of practical science. Surface condensation 
is, as we long ago and almost singly predicted, becoming extensively 
introduced into our mercantile marine ; but the Admiralty, who are always 
slow to move, and difficult to be made to understand anything out of the 
most common way, have not yet thought it worth while to " run the risk 
of failure;" for although surface condensers might answer very well in a 
commercial ship, it is no reason why they should answer or be conducive 
to economy on board H.M.'s ships, very much for the same reason that 
Silver's Marine Engine Governors were objected to at the Admiralty as 
"things unnecessary." Dr. Joule, of Manchester, has done good service by 
experimentally investigating the question of surface condensation, al- 
though we should have preferred that his experiments should be con- 
ducted on a much larger scale. Early in the year we look forward 
to some interesting results to be derived from the introduction of 



The Artizan,"] 

January 1, 1861. J 



" Artisan " Adfaess, 1861. 



a radical change in] the form and arrangement of steam machinery on 
board of three of H.M.'s ships, of about the same size, by which two of the 
old marine engineering firms of the Thames are to compete with a more 
modern engineering firm of the Clyde. Changes, too, are likely to be made 
in the Administrative and Executive Departments of the Admiralty, 
especially in the Steam Department, where quaint and obsolete views 
obtain about important practical questions, and scientific subjects, which, 
within the region of Spring Gardens, it has been supposed unnecessary to 
embarrass themselves with the state of modern knowledge ; and, perhaps, 
the day is not far distant when the department charged with the 
construction and equipment of steam ships of war— more especially — will 
be presided over by men of advanced intelligence in their respective 
spheres of action. 

Griffiths's recent improvements in the screw propeller, to which we ha ve 
referred elsewhere in the present number, promise to be the means of 
extending the use of that instrument for vessels of shallow draft. 

In naval architecture it is to be hoped great progress will be made, 
since the establishment of an important association — the Institution of 
Naval Architects — which we were right glad to see inaugurate the com- 
mencement of its career with so excellent a display of good names and 
excellent papers. 

Iron, as a material for building ships of war, has once more been permitted 
by the naval authorities, and the Warrior, iron-cased frigate, and the 
sister ships are in rapid progress towards completion ; and possibly before 
this number of The Abtizan meets the eye of our country subscribers, H.M. 
ship the Warrior will have been launched from the building-yard of the 
Thames Iron Company, at Blackwall. As it is generally known, she is an 
iron frigate of large size, intended to be cased with thick plates of iron 
upon her wall like sides. The Imperial French frigate La Gloire, about 
which so much has been written, is a wooden hull, iron-plated or cased, and 
with vertical sides also. Recent experiments, made with great care, and 
on a suitably large scale, have shown the superiority of placing iron plates 
in the position of angular or inclined sides instead of vertically, as they 
are usually'designed to be in H.M.'s ships ; but elsewhere we have referred 
to this subject. One tiling which struck us forcibly when examining the 
designs of the Warrior class of ships was the unmechanical and unecono- 
mical disposition of the material to attain the greatest amount of strength 
and permanent character of structure, with the least weight of material. 
For the shell, or covering plates of ships, steel plates do not appear to have 
been successful; whilst for steam boilers, where they have been substituted 
for Bowling plates, they have utterly failed. The punching of plates and 
angle-irons, and such-like articles for ship-building purposes, is likely in 
future to be performed in a very superior manner, and at considerably less 
cost by means of very ingenious machinery, invented by Mr. Richard 
Roberts, of Manchester, whose world-wide celebrity as a mechanic, is a 
guarantee for the thoroughly practical character of his inventions. 

In steam navigation, the establishment of new ocean lines, and the 
improvement of existing lines, by the introduction of larger, more 
powerful, and more economical steam-ships, will give an impetus to the 
commerce of nations, and keep employed the shipbuilders and engineers 
for some time to come; and although our old friend, the Or eat Eastern, 
is for the present " laid up in ordinary," we entertain the hope that early 
in the coming spring proper opportunities will be afforded for testing her 
capabilities thoroughly. The establishment of a new line of screw steamers, 
with auxiliary power only, between this country and India and China, via 
the Cape, is, we believe, a thing done ; and as the present costly route is 
only available for first-class passengers, the bulk of the passenger traffic 
and cargo, carrying trade, seems pretty certain to he destined for the 
auxiliary screw steamers. The accounts received of the continued pros- 



perity attendant on the introduction of steamers on the rivers of India, 
and the great commercial success achieved, leads us to believe in the rapid 
extension of steam navigation on the inland waters of India and China. 

The extension of dock accommodation, and improvement of harbours in 
this country and abroad, is, like the introduction of railways, though 
somewhat slower, advancing to meet the necessities of extended trade ; 
and engineers have still a wide field of enterprise before them in this branch 
of the profession. We are glad to see that Mr.Thos. Page, C.E., has identified 
himself with the increase of dock accommodation, in that finest of English 
harbours — Milford Haven. Mr. G. B. Rennie has admirably contrived a 
novel arrangement for docking ships in places where there is no rise and 
fall of tide, and where a shallow shelving beach or roadstead prevents the 
formation of permanent docks in masonry available in all states of the 
tide; part of the arrangement is applicable in connection with any of 
the existing descriptions of docks. 

Submarine telegraphy has been associated with want of success to which, 
too commonly, great operations dependent on scientific knowledge, are 
liable when undertaken by those who are mere tradesmen. Nearly every 
cable made by, and laid under the direction of Messrs. Newall & Co. has 
continued to work satisfactorily, whilst a dozen competitors have started 
up who were only capable of performing satisfactorily the twisting of 
wire into toasting-forks. The scientific investigation, by Government 
officials, of the various kinds or forms of cables for submarine telegraph 
purposes, ought to have been productive, ere this, of correct knowledge 
connected with this important subject ; and if we are to judge exclusively 
from reports, the use of gutta-percha as an insulator, and of exterior pro- 
tective coatings of iron wires, will cease to be the favourite forms of 
telegraph cables ; and light materials, and non-metallic external coatings, 
are likely in future to be preferred. The North Atlantic route of communi- 
cation between England and America has been surveyed, and favourably 
reported upon by eminent navigators and other scientific men ; and we 
sincerely hope, for the interests of commerce, and to remove the reproach 
from practical science at the present day caused by the failure of the 
Atlantic Telegraph Cable, that some practical route will be speedily opened 
for conveying intelligence between this country and our Anglo-Saxon 
Transatlantic brethren. It is curious to note that the Submarine Telegraph 
Company are daily in the habit of communicating between London and 
Berlin, through the entire length of the Dutch cable, quickly and regularly, 
with a surprisingly small amount of battery -power. What would have 
been the value, during the late Chinese war, of direct communication 
between this country and India and China ? It behoves the public to 
press upon the Government the absolute necessity of expediting that im- 
portant and desirable work, ere another difficulty may arise in our Eastern 
possessions. 

Military engineering, ordnance, and other matters of a kindred nature, 
have received a larger share of public attention during the last year 
than perhaps during any previous period in the history of this country. 
Fortifications and works of defence are most properly being planned and 
executed in many parts of these islands, particularly the neighbourhood of 
the naval arsenals and harbours around the coast. The Armstrong rifled 
ordnance has at last been put to practical test of actual warfare, and with 
what success the able letters of the late lamented correspondent of The 
Times has made the public familiar; and with the experience gained by the 
practice of making them, and in their daily use, there is no doubt that the 
manufacture of the Armstrong gun, under the great practical skill of so 
eminent a mechanic as Mr. John Anderson, of Woolwich Arsenal, will be 
thoroughly perfected and made to meet the requirements of every unpre- 
judiced artillery officer ; and with the extensive means which have been 
placed at his command by the erection of the magnificent works at 
Woolwich Arsenal— the exact method of construction once settled— our 
means of producing rilled ordnance will exceed the united capabilities of 
the whole of the governments of the civilised world. The Whitworth 
cannon, which have been tried with so much success at long ranges, will 
also, no doubt, be improved so as as to meet the objections of practical 



4 



Artizan" Addi'ess, 1861. 



("The Artizak, 
L January 1, 1861. 



artillerists; and now that the making of ordnance and projectiles for long 
ranges, and as instruments of precision, has engaged the attention and 
practical skill of the mechanical engineers of this country, the achievement 
of perfect success is only a work of time ; and every modification or new 
form, or new mode of constructing either cannon or projectiles, is a 
stimulant to rival inventors, and promotes useful competition. The very 
ingenious and accurate sights for ordnance, introduced by Sir William 
Armstrong, have much to do with the precision of firing which has been 
obtained. In mortars, a very great improvement has been effected by a 
very simple but ingenious means — the invention of M. Krutzsch, a talented 
German mechanic : the flight of shells projected from mortars may be 
vastly increased with only the ordinary charge of powder, and by means ot 
this invention, the mortar is made to keep pace with its new military 
companion — the rifled cannon. In small arms, but few improvements have 
been effected within the last twelve months, and the War Department still 
persist in ignoring the advantages to be obtained from the use of breech- 
loading fire-arms. The vast extension of the Volunteer movement in so 
brief a period has surprised foreigners more than any other event con 
nected with this country, and the rapid attainment of an accurate know- 
ledge of target practice has been rendered much more easy by a very 
ingenious contrivance, — the electric target, by which the necessity for a 
marker, mantlets, &c, is superseded, and the record of the firing is 
instantaneously effected. 

Street railways, and steam on common roads, during the past year 
obtained for themselves an amount of public attention which had never 
previously been devoted to them. An enterprising American gentleman, 
Mr. G. F. Train, possessed himself of the notion, that as the citizens of 
several of the American States had street railways, and the English people 
not having them, and therefore not knowing the comfort and other 
advantages which their existence would afford, undertook to agitate the 
matter, and insisted upon our having street railways ; and the Com- 
missioners of Birkenhead, in Cheshire, were induced to allow Mr. Train to 
inaugurate his system of street railway communication ; and it seems very 
probable that Mr. Train's talent and persistence will be rewarded with 
success. Mr. Thomas Wright, Mr. W. B. Adams, and others, years ago 
attempted to occupy the same field ; but lacking those qualities which are 
likely to carry Mr. Train through many a difficulty, they did not succeed 
in inducing the public and others interested to follow them. The Marquis 
of Stafford and the Earl of Caithness have successfully worked steam 
pleasure carriages on common roads, and through streets, without rail- 
ways; and the latter nobleman, and the charming Countess, his wife, 
recently performed several days' journey uninterruptedly along the steep 
and hilly roads of the Scottish highlands. Mr. J. Taylor, of Birkenhead, 
has also been most successful in constructing admirable and most powerful 
steam engines for common roads, to draw, at moderate speeds, a train of 
several heavily -loaded trucks — each engine he has made being an improve- 
ment on the preceding one. 

In agricultural machinery, and the application of steam power and 
machinery to agriculture, there seems to have been a lull during- the past 
year, although the quality of the steam engines and machinery manu- 
factured for these purposes has undergone considerable improvement, and 
we find the Boydell description of portable steam engine — which is better 
suited for agricultural purposes than for common roads — is being but 
slowly introduced, owing, as we believe, to its being manufactured in an 
unmechanical and imperfect manner. Steam ploughing and cultivating is 
being gradually extended, and we are glad to see that Mr. Romaine is still 
devoting himself to the subject. Circular rotating harrows are being 
successfully used and gradually substituted for the ordinary kinds of 
harrows hitherto employed; and generally, scientific agriculture and the 
substitution of steam power and mechanical contrivances for hand labour, 
and the ordinary means in use, is being received with greater favour by 
even the less enlightened amongst the agriculturists of this country. The 
introduction of bitumenized paper pipes will beneficially affect the 
extension of systematic drainage and irrigation, and the distribution of 
sewage and liquid manures : their lightness, and their ability to withstand 



careless removal and rough usage, fit them for many purposes for which 
neither cast-iron nor earthenware pipes could be advantageously employed. 
The purification of coal gas has been further materially improved by a 
very simple, and, it is said, very successful process, discovered by the 
Rev. Henry Bowditch, and by which the chief objection to the use of gas 
for lighting and heating in private houses, and generally in close apart- 
ments, is obviated — the gas being entirely freed from the sulphurous acid 
vapours so prejudicial to health when inhaled, and so destructive to 
interior decorations. In London, the utmost dissatisfaction is being 
expressed by consumers of gas at the generally unsatisfactory manner in 
which the Metropolitan Gas Companies are manufacturing and supplying 
gas ; for not alone is the illuminating power generally inferior, and the 
prices charged too high, but in consequence of the private compacts, and 
the territorial arrangements entered into between the various Metropolitan 
Gas Companies, it is a universal complaint that they have become more 
arrogant and exacting, and less scrupulous than formerly, — not that 
London Gas Companies were ever celebrated for either their honesty or 
their liberality to their consumers,— and we hear that it is in contemplation 
in several districts to in troduce numerous private gas works to supply a 
number of consumers, combined together for that purpose. 

Amongst the several staple manufacturers and industrial operations of 
this country, the metal trades continue to increase in extent and import- 
ance ; and as the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer process has come 
into extensive operation in this country and abroad, the gradual cheapening 
of steel, with equal excellence of quality, must be the means of substituting 
it most beneficially where previously it could not be afforded. The 
improved processes which have been introduced since the reading of Mr. C. 
Binks's paper upon the manufacture of steel, at the Society of Arts, has led 
to the manufacture being undertaken by numerous parties, under various 
designations, as " cyanogen steel," &c. ; but theie is little doubt that Binks 
was the first who experimented and wrote upon the subject, and understood 
correctly the true chemical nature of the process. In some recent investi- 
gations into the respective merits of different makes of Yorkshire and 
Northern and Midland Counties iron, used in the construction of steam- 
boilers, Bowling iron seems to possess superior structural character, and 
uniformity of quality and strength, which are very important considerations, 
especially for those portions of steam-boilers subjected to intense or long- 
continued action of fire. 

The rapid extension of trade and commerce between Great Britain and 
all parts of the world will certainly be materially augmented by the 
opening of Japan, and the opening up of commercial intercourse with the 
Chinese throughout the length and breadth of that vast empiie,— which will, 
it is certain, afford enormous outlets for our manufactures, and new fields of 
enterprise for the professional engineer, as well as for the artizan, whose 
habit it now is, to follow up the military successes of our arms, however 
remote the corner of the world in which such successes are achieved ; and 
we hope ere long to hear of the introduction into China of steam engines 
and machinery of British manufacture for the service of his Imperial 
Majesty ; and that whether Mr. G. P. Train, with his street railways and 
cars, be the pioneer, or they jump at once to the more permanent kind of 
work, the Chinese will allow us [to civilise them with our railways, 
locomotive engines, and railway carriages, and our electric telegraphs on 
land, and steamers, for their inland navigation and for coasting ; and that 
we give them the benefit, by a rope's end, of direct submarine telegraphic 
communication. 

With the gradual removal of onerous Excise duties at home, and Customs 
duties on our manufactures abroad, and the extinction of those restrictions 
upon manufacturing processes which impede their healthy development and 
extension, and with the establishment of better commercial, and more 
friendly political relations between ourselves and our continental neign- 
bours, and other sections of the human family, and with a continuation of 
the blessings of peace, and the enjoyment of plentiful harvests, and 
ample employment for the industrious, we look forward, under the Divine 
Providence of the Great Architect of the Universe, to times of plenty 
peace, and contentment in 1861. 



TnE Artizan,"] 
January 1, 1861. J 



Screiv Propellers. — Armour-cased Ships. 



SCKEW PROPELLERS. 

Amongst those to whom credit is due for the introduction and improve- 
ment of the screw propeller, Mr. Robert Griffiths deserves the foremost 
place ; for, as a practical experimentalist, he has laboured hard for the im- 
provement of this description of propelling instrument, and his labours 
have been eminently productive of advantage to ocean, steam navigation 
and we believe in some degree pecuniarily profitable to himself. Be this 
latter point, however, as it may, we cannot but observe that the Admiralty 
have exhibited so much confidence in the soundness of his views respecting 
the forms and mode of applying screw propellers for ships of war, that they 
have on many occasions granted him, most readily, permission to make 
experiments, and have placed at his disposal ships, men, and materials, to 
enable him to prosecute experiments on that large scale which alone is of 
practical value, and each occasion has given rise to modifications which, 
when applied in practice, have been of advantage to the service, and have 
aided the advancement of scientific knowledge in connection with the 
application of the screw propeller generally, and thus been of great public 
good. 

Very recently an exceedingly interesting series of experiments have 
been made on H.M.S. Cygnet, of 80-horse power. They were made at 
Portsmouth during the last month, under the superintendence of Mr. Lynn, 
of the Steam Department, and Mr. Eames, Inspector of Machinery Afloat. 

These experiments were undertaken with the view to ascertain whether 
the screw propeller could not be reduced in diameter by the application of 
a recent improvement patented by Mr. Griffiths, without reducing its 
propelling effect. 

It has been a serious objection to the application of the screw propeller, 
to vessels of shallow draught, that the top edge of the propeller was of but 
little value from being so near the surface, or not submerged ; and in 
every case it is of consequence to have a propeller of the smallest diameter, 
capable of giving out usefully the power of the engine. This has been 
more apparent since the almost universal introduction of direct-acting 
engines for driving the screw, and with the increase of power put into 
ships of light draught, engineers are now well aware that if they are 
obliged to increase the pitch of the screw beyond about 1-| times its 
diameter, the power is not usefully exerted, and want of economy is the 
result. 

A screw propeller, which when working at its most useful speed, has a 
velocity of, say about 3000ft. per minute at its periphery, and the velocity 
taken at the middle of the blades, as one half of that number of feet. At 
the periphery, the blades strike the water at an angle of about 22^°, and 
at the middle about 45° ; and it appears the greater the velocity, and the 
less the angle at which the water is struck, the quicker it recedes from the 
surface of the blade by which it is struck, and consequently any amount 
of surface at that part of the blade where the water recedes from it 
becomes of no value for propelling effect ; neither does an increase of the 
number of blades give any useful effect, for when the water is struck, and 
set in motion, the next blade following in the same course or thread, as it 
were, finds more or less of a void, or nothing to strike against ; hence the 
explanation : that blades made narrow at their extremities, and wide at 
their roots or nearest to the boss, resist the engine power, and propel the 
vessel much as when made three or four times as wide at the extremities, 
and that screws with two blades thus formed have the same hold on the 
water as those made with three or four blades of the ordinary form. 

The alteration made in the screw of the Cygnet, which after due trial 
las been found so successful, is an additional piece on the after edge of 
each blade ; it is an angular surface set throughout its whole length at the 
same, or nearly the' same angle to the propeller shaft as that of the 
widest part of the blade near to the boss ; this angular surface, added to 
the after edge of the blade, commences at or springs from the widest part 
near the boss, and gradually increases in width as it extends outward to 
the periphery of each blade, where it stands at an inclination to the after 



face of the propeller blades, and as the propeller blades rotate, the water, 
which has been acted upon by each blade, is again struck or acted upon a 
second time by the angular piece. 

AVe can only, for the present, give the results of one or two trials ;*but 
these will enable our readers to judge of the advantages obtained through 
the introduction of Mr. Griftiths's last improvement. With a screw 9 ft. 
in diameter and 13ft. Gin. pitch, a speed of 10 - 7 knots was obtained. When 
the screw was removed, cut down to 7ft. 6in. diameter, and the pitch re- 
duced to 12ft., and the addition made to the after edge of 9in. wide at the 
point, tapering down to nothing at the boss, an average speed of 10'8 knots 
was obtained, the power exerted in each case being the same. The blades 
were then reduced to 7ft. diameter, the pitch being 12ft., and the width 
of the pieces on the after edges was increased to lOVin. at the point, the 
speed then obtained was 10 - 5 knots ; but there is little doubt had the 
screw been made of the right shape and the proper proportions for a 7ft. 
diameter, the detrimental effect of the stern-post, which was 12in. wide, 
would have left the result equal to the 9ft. diameter screw. 

The propelling area of the 9-ft. screw, after deducting the centre sphere 
or boss, was say 9 x 9 = SI — 8 = 73 feet ; whilst the propelling area of 
the 7ft. screw, making the same reduction for the boss, was only 41ft. 

We hope soon to be able to place before our readers the details connected 
with this interesting series of experiments. 



ARMOUR-CASED SHIPS. 

We regret to find that the article on this subject, contained in our last 
number, has been the cause of a most unprovoked, ungentlemanlike, and 
scurrilous attack upon us, by a weekly periodical called The Engineer, 
which, in its impression of the 7th ult., devotes a leading article to que 
annihilation. 

This paper, we may inform our readers, is a weekly publication, profess- 
ing to be an authority on engineering and scientific matters generally ; but 
is, unfortunately for its pretensions, " edited " by a person who is not an 
engineer at all ! and is also assisted by a person who is said to be one of 
the editors of another rival weekly scientific journal. An old proverb says, 
" Too many cooks spoil the broth •" and we think this is well proved in 
their paper of the 14th ult., where we find the textual description of 
one engine appended to an engraving illustrating another ; in fact, such 
is the lack of capability for original writing, that in several instances the 
same leaders and matter have been given twice over ; and entire articles 
are copied "bodily" from other papers — in fact, being "got up on the 
cheap ! " 

This paper might have occupied a respectable position amongst scientific 
and practical men could it have been kept from degenerating into a mere 
advertising sheet; and it can only be considered as an advertising medium, 
and a vehicle for puffing the wares of those who advertise in it. To prove 
the truth of these remarks, we would refer our readers to the impression of 
the 14th ult., where, in an extremely able report of the Smithfield Club 
Cattle Show, he will find ample ground for the truth of these remarks. 

For a sample of the amount of scientific and practical knowledge 
possessed by the " editor," the reader will find amongst the useful infor- 
mation for practical men that, whilst at the Smithfield Club Cattle Show, 
this "editor," or his assistant, becomes captivated with what — why, a 
mouse-trap! and forthwith devotes a considerable portion of a column 
to its description! Surely so important a subject deserved a block 
Shade of Peter Pindar, this is "Solomon and the Mouse-trap" with a 
vengeance ! 

The next discovery he makes is a " Ciectjlae Portable High Pressure 
Steam Engine !" but what this is we must leave our readers to discover, 
as we must bow to such ldgh scientific attainments as are exhibited 
throughout that article, and the paper generally. 

We must now make a few remarks on the matter which gave rise to 
this outburst from our talented contemporary and, having blown off some 



6 



New Mail Steam-Packets. — Value of Barometrical Indications. 



("The Aetizak, 
L January 1,1861' 



of the " froth " of this polite and gentlemanlike effusion, see what he 
really is writing about. We find that our having urged " the adoption of 
the best plan, whether the sides be vertical or inclined," is where the 
shoe pinches ; and our not having " told us which is the best plan " makes 
our suggestion " a little imperfect." Now, we beg to say that we did not, 
as our contemporary has done, write down, or at least attempt so to do> 
any particular plan ; but we do say that, as far as we can judge, the 
inclined side is a much better form for resisting the impact of shot fired 
from low elevations, than a vertical one. 

If our talented contemporary will recollect the hurry and push on the 
part of the Government to get in the tenders from several builders by a 
certain hour on a given day, to construct a certain number of these 
Warriors on a similar plan, and the sudden manner in which it was 
decided not to construct them with vertical sides, we think he will find 
that there still exists some doubt in the minds of the "powers that be" in 
regard to the " vertical side " being " undoubtedly to be preferred;" and 
we have yet to learn that " the inclined side has but an equal resisting 
power with a vertical" — which is so dogmatically asserted by our contem- 
porary. We remarked that, if a shot-proof vessel can be constructed with 
vertical sides, we do not see any advantage to be gained by the adoption 
of angulated sides ; and we may remark that, if the " sapient man of 
science" had less " dullness," or " something worse," he could not fail to 
see in the indecision of the Government every proof that they were in 
doubt on the matter, and that we were perfectly right in hoping that the 
lest plan might be adopted; especially, as we find in most Government 
matters, that this is not always the case. 

We can quite understand, for example, a Dockyard apprentice objecting 
in toto to Iron as a material for constructing ships — especially ships of war ; 
for, as Wood is at their head, so is it the limit of their "ken" for such pur- 
poses ; indeed, everything with them, or about them, or belonging to them, 
is " wooden j" but to expect that " inclined sides" would " square" with the 
notions of one educated at a Dockyard School of Naval Architecture is too 
unreasonable ; and we cannot but feel surprised, now that we have time for 
a calm and deliberate reconsideration of the matter, that toe should have 
even hinted at the possibility of any other arrangement of materials being 
better capable of resisting shot, than vertical iron sides for ships of war. 

Apologising to our talented friend for presuming to "undertake to 
correct" so important and unerring a periodical as the Engineek, we 
would just call his attention to the fact, that the correct orthography of 
the great French Naval Architect is not De Lolme, but De Lome ; and we 
must again, in conclusion, reiterate our hope as to "the adoption of the 
best plan," and finish by assuring the " silly scribblers " who " have 
striven hard to gain our notice, and to have been not very choice in their 
means of securing it," that we cannot bestow further attention upon their 
"puny efforts." 

We may, however, refer to a letter published elsewhere, which was 
originally addressed to the editor of The Engineer, but which has not been 
published in that journal. In the letter referred to, the writer takes 
nearly a similar view to ourselves in respect to angulated sides; and 
although there appear to be several " Richmonds in the field," each the 
"Simon Pure" from whom the original idea emanated, we care not whose 
plan be followed, so as we secure the " adoption of the lest plan," and 
" whether the sides be vertical or inclined." 



THE NEW MAIL STEAM-PACKETS FOR THE HOLYHEAD 
AND KINGSTOWN SERVICE. 

We have awaited patiently the official announcements respecting the 
actual performances of the four new ships during their experimental trips, 
and also whilst in actual performance of their daily work at sea ; but, 
unfortunately, there has been much more mystery and desire for con- 
cealment than is usual even in "Admiralty trials. Why, ere this, 
the public should not have been furnished with accurately recorded details 
respecting the performance of their machinery, the actual power developed 



to propel each ship at accurately noted speeds, and the quantity of fuel 
consumed in each case in giving out the requisite power, is a matter of 
surprise to all interested in steam-ship economy. 

No scheme could have been better devised for testing the comparative 
merits of the machinery supplied to each ship, as also the qualities due to 
the forms given to the vessels by their respective builders, than that which 
the distribution of the orders for the building of the ships, and for their 
steam machinery, have put it in the power of the owners of these vessels 
to arrive at with accuracy ; and such results, thus obtained, would be of 
the greatest possible value to the owners of steamships, to engineers, and 
ship-builders. 

The inference which we are compelled to draw from the studied con- 
cealment to which we have referred to is, that, up to the present time, neither 
of the four ships have realized the expectations of their owners, the re- 
quirements of the service, or the conditions of the contracts. Be this as 
it may, we were not a little surprised to observe that several of those im- 
portant improvements which we naturally anticipated finding combined in 
these most modern specimens of express steamship construction are 
absent. Among other improvements the absence of which we noticed, was 
any successful apparatus or contrivance for preventing smoke ; this we 
naturally expected to find applied on board these steamships. 

Having ourselves witnessed the denseness of the smoke emitted during 
nearly the entire time of the voyage between Holyhead and Kingstown in 
these new steam-vessels, and the fearful waste of fuel which must be the 
result, we cannot avoid adding, that we think Mr. C. W. Williams is called 
on, not only for the sake of the public, but in his own justification, to 
explain the cause of these serious defects in vessels constructed under his 
own eye, as the chief managing director of the company, and now under 
his own immediate control. 

So far from these new steam-vessels presenting, as was universally 
anticipated, all that could be done in the way of improvement, we infer 
they are the very reverse, as regards the important consideration of economy 
in fuel, and freedom from the waste and nuisance of smoke and consequent 
deposit of soot. 

Mr. Williams was awarded the Prize Medal by the Society of Arts for 
the best Essay on the Prevention of Smoke. 

The judges, also, at Newcastle awarded him the £500 premium for the 
best method of avoiding the issue of smoke in marine tubular boilers. 

In the printed report now before, us made by Sir William Armstrong, 
Dr. Richardson, and Mr. Longridge, we find the following remarks, speak- 
ing of Mr. Williams's system (p. 54) : — " The results show a large increase 
above the standard in every respect." (P. 55.) " The prevention of smoke 
was, we may say, practically perfect, whether the fuel burned was 15 or 
271bs. per sq. ft. per hour. Indeed, in one experiment we burned the 
extraordinary quantity of 37^-lbs. of coal per sq. ft. per hour, upon 
a grate of 15^ sq. ft., giving a rate of evaporation of 5i- cubic feet of 
water per hour per sq. ft. of fire-grate, without producing smoke." 
(P. 56.) "No particular attention was required from the stokers. In fact, 
in this respect the system leaves nothing to desire, and actual labour is 
even less than that of the ordinary mode of firing." (P. 57.) "Mr. 
Williams's system is applicable to all descriptions of marine boilers, and 
its extreme simplicity is a great point in its favour."* 

Under these circumstances, then, we ask, why do the boilers in Mr. 
Williams's own steamers present so remarkable a contrast ? Why does his 
theory and his practice at Newcastle present so extraordinary a difference 
with that in the steam -vessels under his own management ? 

We believe the speed attained by these ships, under the most favourable 
circumstances, to be rather less than was expected by their designers ; 
and, as is usual, or most frequently the case, the shipbuilders and the 
engineers are not agreed as to which of them is really at fault. But, as 
to the cost of attaining the maximum speed in either of the ships, we are 
quite in the dark, and are forced to the conclusion that, had the per ■ 
formances of these ships been as satisfactory, economically, as the public- 
were at first led to believe, they would long ago have been blazoned forth 
as triumphs of science and art. 

* See. p. 19 of Eeport. 



VALUE OF BAROMETRICAL INDICATIONS. 
On the occasion of the hurricane which swept the Island of St. Kilda, 
in the Hebrides, on the 3rd October last, and inflicted such distressing 
loss on its poor inhabitants, the following were the indications of a new 
verified barometer, on board Her Majesty's steamer Porcupine, then off 
the island, as reported by her commander, Captain Otter, R.N. The rapid 
and regular fall of the mercury, to the extent of 1\ inch, between 8 a.m. 
on the 2nd October, and 3.26 a.m. on the 3rd, at which latter time the 
hurricane began, and its then rapid rise of nearly an inch, are interesting 
verifications of the certainty by which coming weather is indicated by this 
valuable instrument, which is at this moment deservedly attracting so 
much public attention : — 



The Aetizan,") 
January 1, 1861. J 



Strength of Materials. 



A SPECIMEN OP A DAILY BAROMETER DIAGRAM FOR NOVEMBER, 1860. 

Days of the Moxth. 



ETCHES 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27128 29 


30 31 


ikciies 


30 


90 






















































i 






90 


80 


































































80 


70 


































































70 


60 
































































! 60 


50 
































































! 50 


40 


























1 




























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4-0 


30 
























































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30 


20 








































1 
























20 


10 
































































10 


00 
































































30 


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29 


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80 


70 


























































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' s 








00 


50 
















































'\ 








/ 










50 


40 














































y 








A 


f 




\ 






40 


30 












































V 






V 




/ 












30 


20 


















































s^ 


** 












20 


10 
















































1 














lio 


00 






























1 


















1 




e<> 1 oo 



Oct. 2 . 



Oct. 3 . 



....8.0 a.m., 

8.0 p.m. 

8.15 p.m. 

8.1." p.m. 
10.'-' p.m. 
Vf.p.m. 
J-l.Jjp.m. 
....0.15 a.m. 

0.45 a.m. 

2.0 a.m. 

2.40 a.m. 

3.20 a.m. 

3.26. 

5.30 a.m. 

6.10 a.m. 

7.15 a.m. 
Noon. 

2.30 p.m. 



Inches, 
mercury 30.32 
29.75 



29.70 wind S. 

29.62 SSW. 

29.34 SSW. 

29.26 SW. 

29.22 SW. 

29.16 SW, heavy squalls. 

29.10 SW, 

28.96 SW, 

28.87 SW, nearly calm. 

28.87 SW, westerly. 

Nff, hurricane began. 
29.52 N, NNW, gale. 
29.65 NNW. 
29.55 N", nearly calm. 
29.87 Nff by N. 
29.87 



Admiral Cator recently reported to the National Life-Boat Institution, 
that while at Cullercoats, near Shields, in the beginning of October last, 
the fishermen of that place had expressed to him their gratitude for the 
barometer which the Duke if Northumberland, President of the Institu- 
tion, had presented to th'^ [ A fearful gale from the westward had about 

that time somewhat sudcs- 'sprung up. The fishermen were preparing 
to go to sea. Some of ti-cv^E oserved the fall of the barometer, while others 
disputed its utility and v:-^. °'and even treated it with derision. The ma- 
jority of the fishermen, nowe^er, decided that they would not go to sea 
while the barometer was falling, although it was quite fine at the time. 
A few hours afterwards a terrific gale of wind came on from the westward, 
when they expressed their firm conviction that every one of them would, 
if they had gone to sea, as most assuredly they would have gone, in the 
absence of the barometer, probably have perished by being blown far 
into the ocean, and there overwhelmed. 

The diagram annexed is for the month of November just passed. The 
accompanying one-inch diagram, by Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., is an 
illustration of the two-inch diagram, which will be placed by the side of 
the barometers of the National Life-boat Institution on various parts of 
the coasts of the United Kingdom. An inspection will show that, till the 
fifth day, the deviations from a horizontal line are very small; then there 
is an ascending line to the 7th, when the highest point in the month is 
reached ; from this time till the 12th the barometer reading was con- 
stantly decreasing ; on the 13th there was scarcely any change ; on the 
14th two points are laid down, as the reading decreased from 29.46 in., 
in the morning, to 29.28 in., in the evening ; on the 15th the lowest 
reading in the month took place ; on the 16th the reading was steady 
all day ; it then decreased during the night to 29.30 in. ; on the following 
morning there was a rise of half an inch between the 17th and 18th ; and 
the increase continued till the 19th ; there was then a decrease to the 
21st ; and alternately an increase and decrease about the point 29.5 in. 
till the end of the month. 

Now, if day by day such curves be laid down, an 1 be watched in con- 
nection with the direction of the wind, and the Barometer Instructions by 
Admiral Fitzroy, F.R.S., they will certainly tend to save many lives, and 
to preserve much valuable property from destruction. We ma; ?dd that 
the gallant Admiral, as well as Mr. Glaisher, F.R.S., are cordia > co- 
operating with the Royal National Life-Boat Institution in the establish, 
ment of thoroughly efficient barometers on the coast. 



STRENGTH OF MATERIALS : DEDUCED FROM THE LATEST EXPE- 
RIMENTS OF BARLOW, BUCHANAN, FAIRBAIRN, HODGKINSON, 
STEPHENSON, MAJOR WADE, U. S. ORDNANCE CORPS, AND 
OTHERS. 

By Chas. H. Haswell, Civil and Marine Engineer. 
Teansvebse Steeng-th. 

Tlie Transverse or Lateral Strength of any Beam, Rod, Bar, <Sfc, is in 
proportion to the product of its breadth, and the square of its depth ; and in 
like sided beams, bars, &c, it is as the cube of the side, and in cylinders as the 
diameter of the section. 

When one end is Fixed and the other projecting, the strength is inversely as 
the distance of the weight from the section'acted upon ; and the strain upon any 
section is directly as the distance of the weight upon that section. 

When both ends are Supported, only, the strength is four times greater for an 
equal length, when the weight is applied in the middle between the supports, than 
if one end only is fixed. 

When both ends are Fixed, the strength is six times greater for an equal length, 
when the weight is applied in the middle, than if one end only is fixed. 

The strength of any rod, bar, &c, to support a weight." in the centre of it, 
when the ends rest merely upon tivo supports, compared to one ivlien the ends are 
fixed, is as 2 to 3. 

When the weight or strain is uniformly distributed, the weight or strain 
that can be supported, compared with that when the weight or strain is applied 
at one end or iu the middle between the supports, is as 2 to 1. 

In metals, the greater the dimension of the side of a beam, &c, or the diameter 
of a cylinder, the less its proportionate transverse strength. 

The strength of a Cylinder, compared to a Square of like diameter and sides, 
is as 4'71 to 8. 

The strength of a Hollow cylinder is to that of a Solid cylinder, of the same 
length and quantity of matter, as the greater diameter of the former is to the 
diameter of the latter ; and the strength of hollow cylinders, of the same length, 
weight, and material, is as their greatest diameters. 

The strength of an Equilateral Triangle, having an edge up, compared to a 
Square of the same area, is as 22 to 27 ; and the strength of an equilateral 
triangle, having an edge down, compared to one, an edge up, is as 38 to 23. _ 

Note. — i n these comparisons, regarding the triangle, the beam or bar is con- 
sidered as one end being fixed, the weight suspended from the other. In Barlow, 
and other authors, the comparison is made when the bar- or beam rested upon 
supports. Hence, the stress is contrariwise. 

JDetrusion is the resistance that the particles or fibres of materials oppose_ to 
their sliding on each other, under a detrusive strain. Punching and shearing 
are detrusive strains. 

Deflection.— Whew a beam, bar, &c, is deflected by a cross strain, the side 
of the bar, &c, which is bounded by the concave surface is compressed, and the 
opposite side is extended. . . 

The Neutral Line, or Axis of Equilibrium, is the line, at which extension 
terminates and compression begins. . 

In Stones and Cast metals, the resistance to compression is greater than the 

l*fiS!Sll3.TrtjP TO P"\rtG11^1011 

In Woods, the resistance to extension is greater than the resistance to com- 
pression. . . 

The general law regarding deflection is. that it increases, ca-te-ns paribus, 
directly as the cube of the length of the rod, bar, &c, and inversely, as the 
breadth and cube of the depth. . .-.,.,. 

The Resilience, or toughness of a body is a combination of flexibility and 
strength. . . . 

The resistance of Flexure of a body at its cross-section is very nearly nine- 

aths of its tensile resistance. 



8 



Strength of Materials. 



I'The Abtizan, 
L January 1, 1S6I. 



Relative Stiffness of materials to resist a transverse strain :— 

Wrought Iron, P3 Oak, -095 

Cast Iron, V Ash, -089 

White Pine, 1> Beech, -073 

Yellow Pine, "087 Elm, "073 

The strength of a .Rectangular Beam in an Inclined position to resist a verti- 
cal stress, is to its strength, in a horizontal position, as the square of radius to 
the,square of the cosine of elevation ; that is — as the square of the length of 
the beam, to the square of the distance between its points of support, measured 
upon a horizontal plane. 

Beams of cast metal, having small dimensions, are stronger pro rata than 
those having larger dimensions, in consequence of their having a greater propor- 
tion of chilled surface compared to their elements of strength resulting from 
dimensions alone. 

Experiments upon bars of cast iron, 1, 2, and 3 inches square, give a result of 
447, 348, and 338 lbs., respectively ; being in the ratio of 1", '78, and '756. 

The strongest rectangular beam that can be cut of a cylinder, is one of which 
the squares of the breadth and depth of it, and the diameter of the cylinder, are 
as 1, 2, and 3, respectively. 

Table op the Transverse Strength op Materials. 

Deduced from the experiments of U. S. Ordnance Department, Barlow, Rennie, 
Stephenson, Hodgkinson, Fairbairn, Pasley, Hatfield, and the Author, and re- 
duced to a uniform measure of One Inch Square and One Foot in Length ; 
Weight suspended from one end. 



MATERIALS. 



Woods. 
Teak 
Oak, English ''\"\[\\'.'.' '.'.'.'.'.'. 

Do. do. superior 

Do. Canadian 

Do. American, superior . 

Do. Dantzic 

Do. African 

Ash 

Beech 

Birch %. 

Elm 



Specific- 
gravity. 



Pitch Pine 

Ditto American 
White Pine 

Ditto American . 

RigaFir 

Norway Pine 

Locust 

Deal, Christiana 

Larch 

White wood 

Maple 

Hickory 

Chestnut 

Riga Fir, Wet 

Ditto Dry 



Metals. 

C means of 5") 

Cast-iron, American < divisions of > 

(.grades ) 

Ditto, Mean by Major Wade 

Ditto, West Point Foundry, extreme 
Ditto, English, Low Moor. Cold 

blast 

Ditto, Gartsherrie, Hot blast 

Ditto, Carron, Cold blast 

Ditto. Muirkirk, Hot blast 

Ditto, Ponkey, Cold blast 

Ditto, Hot blast, mean 

Ditto, Cold blast, mean 

Ditto, Ystalyfera, Cold blast 

Ditto, Mean of 65 kinds 

Steel, greatest ■ 



Wrought Iron. 



Ameri 



■745 
•934 
•748 
•872 

■756 
•982 
•760 
•696 
■711 

•553 

•660 

•777 
•553 

•753 

■577 
•936 
•698 
•556 



•632 
•330 



Breaking 
weight. 



f7-087 
| 7182 
■{ 7-246 
I 7-270 
L7-340 
7-225 



7-055 
7-017 
7-094 
6-951 

7122 



7-862 



1500 



lbs. 

206 

140 

188 

146 

230 

122 

208 

168 

130 

160 

C 82 

1170 

136 

160 

92 

130 

94 

123 

295 

137 

93 

116 

202 

250 

160 

107 

96 



507 
632 
733 
762 
772 
681 
980 

472 
447 
443 
418 
581 
500 
516 
770 
500 
1918 



Permanent 
bend. 
C700-) 
^650>- 
(.600) 



Weight 

borne 

while the 

elasticity 

was 

perfect. 



lbs. 
65-5 
43-8 

49-5 

43-8 

49-5 
33- 

27-5 

45- 

33" 

33- 

27-5 
44- 

33- 



Value of 

W 

for general 

use. 



60 
35 
45 
36 
50 
30 
50 
55 
32 
40 
25 
40 
45 
50 
30 
45 
30 
40 
100 
45 
25 
38 



53 
30 

30 



125 to 160 
155 „ 210 
180 ,,240 
190 „ 250 
192 ., 250 
170 ., 225 
250 „ 325 



110 „ 140 

1 15 „ 190 
125 „ 165 
130 „ 170 
195 „ 255 
125 „ 165 
400 „ 500 



160 „ 210 



MATERIALS. 



English 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Swedish* 

English, stress applied horizontally 

Mixture of Cast cy Wrought Iron, S(c. 

Cast-iron, Blaenavon 

Ditto 10 per cent, of wrought . . . 
Ditto- 20 ditto ditto... 

Ditto 30 ditto ditto... 

Ditto 40 ditto ditto... 

Ditto 50 ditto ditto... 

Ditto and 2i per cent, of Nickel \ 
mean ) 

Ditto Stirling, 2nd qualitv 

Ditto ditto 3rd ditto" 



Stones, American. 

Flagging, Blue 

Freestone, Little Falls, N. Y. 

Ditto Belleville, N. J 



Ditto Connecticut.. 
Ditto Dorchester .. 

Ditto Aubigny 

Ditto Caen 

Granite, blue, coarse .. 
Ditto Quincy, Mass. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Stones, English. 

Yorkshire Blue Stone 

Ditto Paving 

Ditto Landing 

Caithness Paving, Scotland 
Valentia ditto, Ireland... 

Welsh ditto 

Arbroath 

Craigleith Sandstone 

Hailes 

Felling 

Kentish Rag 

Cornish Granite 

Portland Oolite 

Bath 

Bangor Slate 

Llangollen Slate 



1000 
1080 
1200 



575 
703 
842 
920 
767 
727 
693 
750 
623 
499 



2-707 
2-326 

2-300 

2-462 
2-289 
2-472 
2-218 
2-604 
2-658 



Breaking 
weight. 



lbs. 
400 
520 
550 
665 
set. -001 in. 
190 



2-266 






2-145 



31- 

24- 

(201 

1 17-8 

1 10-8 
93 
6-1 
18" 
26- 



26- 
10-4 
22-5 
68" 
68-5 
157- 
17- 
10-7 
; 7-4 
' 7-5 
"' 35-8 
22- 
fl-2 
a S'2 
90- 
43' 



Weight 

borne 

while the 

elasticity 

was 
perfect. 



lbs. 



}■• 



Value of 

W 

for general 

use. 



100 „ 130 
130 ,,'170 
135 „ 180 
165 „ 220 

180 ,,240 



145 
175 
210 
230 
195 
185 
173 
188 
154 
125 



Breaking 

Concretes (English). weight. 

Aberthaw lime 1, gravel 7 - 8 

Hydraulic lime and gravel (old) 2 - 

Firebrick beam, Portland cement 31 

Ditto ditto sand_3 parts, lime 1 part '7 

Cements (English). 



Portland 

Portland 1 part, sand 2 parts 10' 

Blue clay 5 parts, chalk 4 parts \ ..^ 

Blueclaj' and chalk 5'4 

Sheppy 5" 

Bricks (English). 

Fire brick 14" 

Stock brick, well burned 5'8 

Ditto inferior burned 2'5 

Old brick ") ( 91 

New brick \ (English) -? 107 

Best stock ) (.191 



The Aetizan, - ! 
January 1, 1861. J 



Strength of Materials. — Mastic Force of Vapours. 



( J 



COMPABATIVE TEANSVEESE STRENGTH OF A PbISM OE LlME AND CEMENT 

mixed with vaeious prepaeations oe geavel and sand (sle c. w 
Paslet). 
One Inch Square, and One Foot in Length, the Weight being suspended 
from one end. 



Mixtuke. 



Days 

immersed in 

water. 



Chalk lime 1, sand 3'25 

TVi.i i ( gravel 3 7 

tvi.± i Caravel 6 7 

Dltt0 Msand 3J 

Hailing limel, sand 3 

^•i.i. i (gravel 4 7 

Dltt0 Msand 25 

t,.,, , C gravel 6 7 

Dltt0 Hsand 3J 

BlueLiaslime ijf^g} 

Rosehill lime 1, sand 2 

Sheppy and Harwich cements 1, gravel 1'5, 
and sand 2'0 

™ alk i ol Gravel 1-5, sand 2-0 

Blue clay 2 ) 

™ alk , ol Gravel 5, sand 2 

Blue clay 2) 

Chalk 5-) Gravel3 sand4 

Blue clay 1 ) 

Chalk 5) Gravel6 sand2 

Blue clay 1 > 

Chalk 67 Gravel 5, sand 4 

Blue clay 1 ) 

Chalk 77 Gravel5, sand 4 

Blue clay 1 ) 

Chalk lime 1, screened ballast 5 

Ditto 1, ditto 10 

Hailing limel, ditto 3 

Ditto 1, ditto 10 

Blue Lias lime 1, ballast 6 

Ditto I, ditto 10 

Sheppy and Harwich cements 1, ballast 2 .. 
Ditto ditto 1, ditto 7 .. 



19 

32 

18 
32 



18 
18 
16 
16 



Age in days. 



396 
446 

446 
342 

457 

453 

345 
342 

385 
385 

439 

431 

431 

429 

429 

270 
256 
270 
270 
239 
268 
143 
234 



Breaking 
weight. 



lbs. 
•81 

•156 

•39 
1*40 
1-62 

1-43 

•80 
1-56 

•93 
•156 

•41 

•76 

1-03 

•45 

•44 

1-12 

■27 
1-40 

•42 
1-08 

•33 
1-04 

•12 



Table of the Teansveese Steength op Cast Ibon Bars and Oak 
Beams op Vaeious Figuees, 

Having a Uniform Sectional Area of One Square Inch, One Foot in length, 
fixed at one end, Weight suspended from the other. 

Breaking 
Weight. 

lbs. 
Cast Iron. IIHI Square 673 



Form of Bar or Beam. 



Ditto, diagonal vertical 568 

Cylinder 573 

Hollow cylinder, greater diameter twice that 
of less 794 

Rectangular, 2in. deep x £in. thick ..r. 1456 

Ditto 3in. „ x Jin. „ 2392 

Ditto 4in. „ x £in. „ 2652 

Equilateral triangle, an edge up 560 

Ditto ditto an edge down 958 

2in. deep x 2in. wide k -268in. thick 2068 

Ditto ditto ditto 555 



Oak. 



Equilateral triangle, an edge up 114 

Ditto ditto an edge down 130 



Table op the Transverse Strength op Solid and Hollow Cylinders 

op Vaeious Materials, 

One Foot in Length, Weight suspended from one end. 



IIateeials. 


1 

"o 

03 

oa 


« . 

s 


gjj 

« 3 


.S 

to 

.3 

u 

S 


Breaking weight for 
lin. external diameter, 
and proportionate in- 
ternal diameter. 


Woods (English) : 
Fir* 


■588 
■590 
•580 
•601 
•586 


2" 
2- 
2- 
2- 
2" 
1- 
2- 

3- 

2-87 


1- 

•75 
•50 

1-928 


772 
685 
604 
625 
636 
75 
610 

12,000 

190 


97 
86 
75 
78 
79 
75 
76 

444 

8 


Ash 








White Pine, American ... 

Metals : 
Cast iron, cold blast 

Stone Waee : 
Rolled pipe of fine clay... 



* An inch square batten from the same plank as this specimen, broke at 1391bs. 

Result of Expeeiments on the Teansveese Strength of Scaephed 
Battens (Baelow). 

Sattens 4 feet in length, fixed at one end, and loaded at the other. 
{Note. — Dimensions of battens not given.] 



Scarph, 12in. in length, small ~\ 
end up, and lin. from face of >■ 
fulcrum '....j 

Scarph, 12in. in length, large") 
end up, and lin. from face of > 
fulcrum J 

Scarph, vertical 



Broke in the neck of the scarph, 
close to the fulcrum 

Fastenings of small end of scarph 
drew out 

Broke in the scarph 




(To be continued.) 



ON THE ELASTIC FORCE OF VAPOURS. 
Br M. V. Regnattlt. 

{From the Journal of the Franklin Institute.) 
I presented to the Academj', in August, 1854, the principal results of the ex- 
periments which I had made to determine the laws which exist between the 
elastic forces of vapours and the temperatures to which they are subjected. This 
work is a portion of a long series of investigations, the first part of which was 
published in 1845,* the principal object of which is to collect the physical ele- 
ments necessary to calculate the theoretical work which can be obtained from a 
substance, either when it is transformed into an elastic fluid by means of a known 
quantity of heat, or when the elastic fluid, losing a certain quantity of heat, de- 
velops a known moving power, either in resuming the liquid state, as in the con- 
densing steam engine, or simplj- in increasing in volume, as occurs in high 
pressure steam engines and in hot-air engines. 

The law which connects the elastic forces of gases and vapours with their tem- 
perature necessarily plays an important part in this general question. Moreover, 
it appears that it ought to be one of the simplest of the fiieory of heat, because 
it depends only upon two elements which are clearly defined and susceptible of 
precise determination, the temperatures and the pressures which the elastic forces 
balance. 

This announcement will explain the interest which I attached to an investi- 
gation of this sort, and the perseverance with which I collected its elements. In 
fact, my work extends from gases which have been liquefied by compression, to 
substances, such as mercury and sulphur, whose boiling-points are not so high 



I 



See Journ. Frank. Inst, present series, vols, xv., x7i., and xvii. 



10 



Elastic Force of Vapotirs. 



["The Abtizan, 
L January 1, 1861. 



but that they may be kept in ebullition, under high pressures, in apparatus which 
can now be constructed. 

1 ' The Memoir which includes the whole of these observations has been printed 
for several years ; it forms a part of vol. xxvi. of the " Memoirs of the Academy." 
The publication has been delayed by circumstances beyond my control, and par- 
ticularly by the necessity of myself tracing upon the plate, as I did for steam 
(" Memoirs of the Academy," vol. xxi.), the points determined by each separate 
experiment, and the curves which exhibit their connexion. 

This Memoir, as I announced in 1854 (" Comptes Rendus," vol. xxxix. pp. 301, 
345, 397), is divided into five parts : 

1st. The first includes my examinations into the elastic forces of saturated 
vapours through a great range of temperatures. 

2nd. The second treats of the elastic forces of vapours emitted by saline solu- 
tions, and of their boiling point under different pressures. 

3rd. In the third, I study the elastic forces of these same vapours in the air and 
in other gases. 

4th. The fourth treats of the elastic forces of vapoui-s from two volatile 
liquids, either dissolved in one another, or simply superposed when they exercise 
no- mutual dissolving action. 

6th. Finally, in the fifth, I endeavour to determine whether the solid or liquid 
istate of the same body exercises any influence for the same temperature over the 
elastic force of the vapour which it emits. 

I shall not here again allude to the lasc four parts of the Memoir ; the general 
conclusions which I thought could be drawn from my experiments appear to be 
sufficiently 'expressed in the " Comptes Rendus" of 1854. I ask of the Academy 
only the permission to give it some developments of the first part, that which 
treats of the elastic forces of saturated vapours in vacuo, of which I could cite 
but a few examples in my communication in 1854. 

The various apparatus which I used in these researches are described in the 
Memoir ; I shall not dwell upon them ; remarking only that they are referable 
to two different methods. 

The first, which I call the statical method, consists in determining the pressure 
which equilibriates the elastic force of the vapour, at rest, which a liquid in 
excess emits at various temperatures. In the second method, which I call the 
dynamical method, the vapour is always in motion, and we determine the tem- 
perature of the vapour which the liquid continually emits when boiling under 
different pressures. 
These two methods give results which are identical : 

1st. When the liquid is perfectly homogeneous. It is not so when it is im- 
pure ; the presence of the smallest quantity of a volatile foreign body shows 
itself immediately by the non-superposition of the two graphical curves belong- 
ing to the two methods. 

2nd. When the liquid has not a great molecular attraction. In the opposite 
case the liquid boils intermittently with violent starts, and the determinations by 
the dynamical method become very uncertain. 

The two methods could be successfully applied to the greater part of the 
volatile substances which were submitted to my experiments, and they have 
enabled me to determine their elastic forces from the lowest temperatures up to 
those which correspond to pressures of from 12 to 15 atmospheres. The greatest 
part of the gases liquified by pressure give liquids which possess great molecular 
attraction and resist ebullition notwithstanding their extreme mobility. Their 
elastic forties can only be certainly determined by the statical method. When 
we wish to apply the dynamic method, the thermometer cannot be placed in the 
vapour of the boiling liquid unless the boiling-point is above the temperature of 
the surrounding air ; for if it be inferior, the vapour may become overheated, and 
the indications of the thermometer will be wrong. If the thermometer is placed 
in the boiling liquid, it does not show a constant temperature during ebullition, 
although the pressure remains the same. The indications of the thermometer 
change much according to the manner in which the heat is applied. The boiling 
is not continuous ; it takes place with violent shocks, which are attended by a 
sharp noise, like that of the water-hammer when it is suddenly inverted. These 
effects vary much with the pressure under which the boiling takes place. Certain 
liquids present them even under pressures below that of the atmosphere ; in 
others they appear only under high temperatures. 

The limits to which I am obliged to confine myself in this resume do not allow 
me to state the individual observations which I have made on each substance, nor 
even to explain the method of graphical construction, nor the formulae of inter- 
polation by which I endeavoured to express the results of my experiments in the 
best way. I will remark only, that of all the modes of interpolation which were 
successively tried, the formula by exponential series proposed by De Prony and 
applied by M. Biot to the vapour of water under the form 

Log. F = a + bat + c fit 
is the one which applied most exactly to all the substances studied. This formula 
has besides the advantage of containing five constants, for the determination of 
which, five points of the graphic curve, having equidistant abscissae, may be 
selected, so that the curve represented by the formula? can vary but very little 
from the curve traced through the intermediate points. Moreover, I show in my 
Memoir that for a great number of the substances studied we may, by a con- 
venient adjustment of the fixed points which serve to calculate the constants, 
without sensibly departing from the data of direct observation, calculate a formula 
with two exponentials 

Log. F = a + bat + c fit 
in which the term cfit introduces only quantities less than the errors of observation 
so that it may be reduced to the more simple one, 
Log. F = a + b at 
This consideration, and the great resemblance which the curves traced for the 
different substances have to each other, when the ordinate is taken equal to 

— leads me to think that the law of the elastic forces and temperatures would 
760 



present itself under a very simple form, if for the variable independent we should 
assume not the temperature as we define it in an entirely arbitrary manner, but 
another element which should be immediately connected with the constitution 
of each body, and whose origin should be fixed for each one of them. 

I have in the following tables presented the elastic forces of the different 
vapours, calculated for temperatures varying by 5°, according to the formula? 
which I calculated from my experiments. The temperatures are those of the 
mercurial thermometer which I used. In my Memoir I also give the corresponding 
temperatures taken by the air-thermometer. The reduction of the temperatures 
from the mercurial to the air-thermometer was detennined by especial expe- 
riments. 

TABLE No. I. 

LIQUIDS OF MEAN VOLATILITY. 
Boiling Point between 14° and 150° Cent. 





Alcohol. 


Ether: 


Sulphuret of 
Carbon. 


Chloroform. 


Benzine. 


Chloride of 
Carbon. 
C% Cls. 


T. 


F. 


F. 


F. 


F. 


F. 


F. 


dear. 


m. 


m. 


m. 


m. 


m. 


m. 


— 25 










2-37 




— 20 


3-34 


67-49 


43-48 




4-94 




— 15 


4-69 


87-89 


60-91 




8-62 




— 10 


6-58 


113-35 


81-01 




13-36 




— 5 


9-21 


144-82 


104-40 




19-30 







12-83 


183-34 


131-98 




26-62 


30-55 


+ 5 


17-73 


230-11 


164-53 




35-60 


40-09 


10 


24-30 


286-40 


203-00 




46-59 


52-08 


15 


33-02 


353-62 


248-40 




60-02 


67-09 


20 


44-48 


433-26 


301-78 


160-47 


76-34 


85-49 


25 


59-35 


526-93 


364-24 


199-40 


96-09 


107-94 


30 


78-49 


63633 


436-97 


245-91 


119-89 


13512 


35 


102-87 


763-27 


521-36 


301-13 


148-37 


167-73 


40 


.133-64 


909-59 


616-99 


366-20 


182-27 


206-51 


45 


172-14 


1077-22 


729-72 


442-37 


222-37 


252-31 


50 


219-88 


1271-12 


856-71 


530-96 


269-51 


305-39 


55 


278-61 


1484-59 


1000-87 


633-36 


324-61 


367-68 


60 


350-26 


1728-52 


1163-73 


751-01 


388-62 


439-66 


65 


436-99 


2002-13 


1346-86 


885-41 


462-57 


522-26 


70 


531-21 


2307-81 


1551-84 


1038-09 


547-51 


616-48 


75 


665-52 


2647-75 


1780-28 


1210-62 


644-59 


723-29 


80 


812-76 


3024-41 


2033-77 


1404-57 


756-63 


843-70 


85 


985-97 


344030 


2313-90 


1621-52 


879-55 


978-71 


eo 


1188-43 


3898-05 


2622-23 


1863-12 


1019-96 


1129-04 


95 


1423-52 


4400-55 


2960-30 


2130-90 


1177-10 


1296-47 


100 


1694-92 


4950-81 


3329-54 


2426-52 


1352-27 


1481-19 


105 


2006-34 


5552-18 


3731-37 


2751-23 


1546-59 


1684-45 


110 


2361-63 


6208-37 


4167-18 


3106-83 


1761-29 


1907-21 


115 


2764-74 


6923-55 


4638-14 


34.94-69 


1997-48 


2150-47 


120 


3219-68 


7702-20 


5145-43 


3916-17 


2256-26 


2415-23 


125 


3730-41 




5690-08 


4372-73 


2538-66 


2702-54 


130 


4301-04 






6273-03 


4865-65 


2845-66 


3013-49 


135 


4935-40 






6895-06 


5396-23 


3178-18 


3349-28 


140 


5637-00 






7556-88 


5965-76 


3537-05 


3711-23 


145 


6410-62 








6575-41 


3923-00 


4100-81 


150 


7258-73 








7226-49 


4336-70 


4519-73 


155 


8185-02 








7920-19 


4778-69 


4969-97 


160 










8657-72 


5249-43 


5453-88 


165 












9440-40 


5749-26 


5974-28 


170 














6278-40 


6534-58 


175 














6837-04 


7138-90 


180 














7425-66 


7792-33 


185 














8042-41 


8501-02 


190 
















9272-67 


195 
















10116-74 



TABLE No. I. — continued. 

LIQUIDS OF MEAN VOLATILITY. 

Boiling Point between 14° and 150° Cent. 





Chlorhvdrie 
Ether. 


Brorohydrie 
Ether. 


Iodohydric 
Ether. 


Methylie 
Alcohol. 


Acetone. 


T. 


F. 


F. 


F. 


F. 


F. 


deg. 


m. 


m. 


m. 


m. 


m. 


— 30 


110-24 












— 25 


145-01 












— 20 


187-55 






6-27 






— 15 


239-60 






9-29 






— 10 


302-09 






13-47 






— 5 


376-72 






19-17 









465-18 




41-95 


26-82 






+ 5 


569-32 




1 54-14 


36-89 







The Aetizan,"] 
January 1, 1861. J 



Elastic Force of Vajwurs. 



11 



T. 

deg. 

10 

15 

20 

25 

30 

35 

40 

45 

50 

55 

60 

65 

70 

75 

80 

85 

90 

95 

100 

105 

110 

115 

120 

125 

130 

135 

140 

145 

150 



gChlorhydric 
Ether. 



F. 
m. 
69111 
832-56 
996-23 
1184-17 
1398-99 
1643-24 
1649-58 
2230-71 
2579-40 
2668-43 
3400-54 
3878-52 
4405-03 
4982-72 
5614-11 
630161 
7047-51 
7853-92 
8722-76 



Bromhydric 
Ether. 



F. 



380-30 

463-30 

559-81 

671-31 

799-35 

945-56 

1111-65 

1299-41 

1510-69 

1747-43 

2011-57 

2305-24 

2630-45 

2989-38 

3384-22 

3817-11 

4290-33 

4806-11 

5366-67 

5974-26 

663108 • 

7339-33 

8101-15 

8918-64 

9793-86 



Iodohydrie 
Ether. 



F. 
m. 
69-20 

87-64 
110-02 
13695 
169-07 
207-09 
251-73 
303-77 
364-00 
433-21 
512-25 



Methylic 
Alcohol. 



F. 
m. 

50-13 

67-11 

88-67 

115-99 

149-99 

192-01 

243-51 

306-13 

381-68 

472-20 

579-93 

707-33 

•857-10 

1032-14 

1238-47 

1470-92 

1741-67 

2051-71 

2405-15 

2806-27 

3259-60 

3769-80 

4341-77 

4980-55 

5691-30 

647932 

7337-10 

8308-87 

9361-35 



Acetone. 



F. 
in. 



197-89 

226-27 

28100 

345-15 

420-15 

507-52 

602-86 

725-95 

860-48 

1014-32 

1189-38 

1387-62 

1611-05 

1861-81 

2141-66 

2452-81 

2797-27 

3177-00 

3593-96 

4050-02 

4546-86 

5086-25 

5669-72 

6298-68 

6974-43 



TABLE No. II. 
LIQUIDS BOILING ABOVE 150° CENT. 



Essence of Turpentine. 


Essence of Lemon. 


Methyloxalic Ether. 


T F. 


T. 


F. 


T. 


F. 


deg. m. 


deg. 


m. 


deg. 


irn. 


2-07 


98-99 


69-80 


109-41 


117-26 


10 2-94 , 


115-40 


129-39 


109-53 


117-46 


20 4-45 


115-10 


129-09 


125-98 


222-67 


30 6-87 


124-85 


178-31 


126-06 


222-87 


40 10-80 


125-03 


179-01 


136-45 


320-11 


50 16-90 


137-00 


263-42 


145-14 


423-37 


60 26-46 


147-35 


357-04 


155-70 


591-36 


70 40-64 


155-52 


449-23 


164-30 


761-35 


80 61-30 


165-08 


576-50 


188-92 


1589-81 


90 90-61 


174-25 


748-67 


192-37 


1589-81 


100 131-11 


174-16 


749-69 


217-16 


2958-68 


110 185-62 


201-60 


1439-68 


228-95 


3875 95 


. 120 257-21 


223-30 


2328-04 


237-16 


4849-72 


130 348-98 


236-65 


3213-49 


164-48 


763-48 


140 464-02 


239-70 


4374-42 


242-86 


4867-83 


150 605-20 




••• 


253-53 


6203-14 


155 686-37 










160 775-09 










165 871-27 










170 975-42 










175 109011 










180 1207-92 










185 1336-45 










190 1473-24 










195 1618-26 










200 1771-47 










The experiments on the 


When these experiments 


The boiling 


of methy- 


essence of turpentine were 


were ended, the essence of 


loxalic ether 


ls pretty 


carried to much heavier 


lemon showed the same 


steady under 


pressures. 


pressures, Irat I judged it 


boiling point 


at atmo- 


but little above that of 


useless to transcribe thein 


spheric pressure as before, 


the atmosphei 


•e, but un- 


here, because they had re- 


but it had completely lost 


der heavy pressures it be- 


ference only to an essence 


its power of r 


jtating po- 


comes very irregular and 


completely modified in its 


larized light. 




produces violent starts. 


molecular constitution. I 










have in my Memoir de- 










scribed the series of re- 










searches by which I stu- 










died the isomeric modifi- 










cations which the essence 










successively undergoes by 










its boiling under various 










pressures. 











TABLE No. 3. 





Mercury. 




T. 


F. 




Deg. 


MM. 




o-o 


0-0200 




10 


0-0268 




20 


0-0372 




30 


0-0530 




40 


0-0767 




50 


0-1120 




60 


0-1643 




70 


0-2410 




80 


0-3528 




90 


0-5142 




100 


0-7455 




110 


1-0734 




120 


1-5341 




130 


2-1752 




140 


3-0592 




150 


4-2664 




160 


5-9002 




170 


8-0912 




180 


11-00 




190 


14-84 




200 


19-90 




210 


26'35 




220 


34-70 




230 


45'35 




240 


58-82 




250 


7575 




260 


9673 




270 


123-01 




280 


155-17 




290 


194 - 46 




300 


242'15 




310 


299-69 




320 


368-73 




330 


450-91 




340 


548-35 




350 


66318 




360 


797-74 




370 


954-65 




380 


1136-65 




390 


1346-71 




400 


1587-96 




410 


186373 




420 


2177'53 




430 


2533-01 


■ 1 


440 


2933-99 


1 


450 


3384-35 


i 


460 


3888-14 


1 


470 


4449-45 


s 


480 


5072-43 


i 


490 


5761-32 


i 


500 


6520'25 




510 


7353-44 




520 


8264-96 





TABLE No. 4. 
Veet Volatile Liquids, Liquefied Gases. 





Sulphurous 




Sulphydric 




Acid. 


Ammonia. 


Acid. 


T. 


F. 


F. 


F. 


Deg. 


MM. 


MM. 


MM. 


— 78-2 




157-95 


441-42 


— 40 


... ... 


528-61 




— 35 




684-19 




— 30 




876-58 


2808-57 


— 25 


373-79 


1112-12 


350802 


— 20 


479-46 


1397-74 


4273-01 


— 15 


607-90 


1740-91 


5090-18 


— 10 


762-49 


2149-52 


594500 


— 5 


946-90 


2632-25 


6822-74 





1165-06 


316287 


7709-27 


+ 5 


1421-14 


3854-47 




10 


171955 


4612-19 




15 


2064-90 


5479-86 




20 


2462-05 


6467 - 00 




25 


2915-97 


7581-16 




30 


3431-80 


8832-20 




35 


4014-78 


10144-00 




40 


4670-23 


11776-42 




45 


5403-52 






50 


6220-01 






55 


7125'02 






60 


8123-80 






65 


9221 - 40 







Note to Table 3. — The temperatures here re- 
corded are those of the air-thermometer. The boil- 
ing of the mercury is pretty steady under pressures 
below that of the atmosphere. At the atmospheric 
pressure the starts begin ; they become more and 
more violent as the pressures augment, and under 
the pressure of 10 atmospheres the shocks are so 
strong as to produce a noise as loud as that of a 
forge-hammer striking upon the anvil. The appa- 
ratus appeared in danger of flying in pieces. 



The condensation of the gases was effected in the same apparatus which was to 
serve for the determination of the elastic forces, and which was so arranged that 
it could be completely purged afterwards of every trace of air or other gas which 
might be in it. The liquefaction of sulphurous acid was easily effected under the 
ordinary pressure of the atmosphere when the apparatus was plunged into a 
freezing mixture. For ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen, the apparatus was 
plunged into a mixture of ice and crystallized chloride of calcium, and the gas 
was then compressed by a hand-pump. Only, care must be taken to replace the 
ordinary grease for the pump by fixed non-saponifiable oils. A pressure of 2 or 3 
atmospheres is sufficient to liquefy as much ammonia as is desired ; but for 
sulphuretted hydrogen the pressure must be carried to 7 or 8 atmospheres. 

As I have had occasion to liquefy these gases on a large scale for researches of 
which I will soon present the results to the Academy, and especially for the 
determination of the latent heat ot volatilization under different^ pressures of 
very volatile liquids, and for the examination of the quantities of heat which 
their vapours absorb during their expansion, I will here briefly indicate the 
process which I employed. 

I prepare carbonic acid gas by supplying in a continuous and regular stream 
properly diluted chlorhydric acid to fragments of marble enclosed in a very large 
glass vessel. The solution deprived of the acid and charged with chloride of 
calcium flows out as fast as it forms ; the carbonic acid gas passes over to a gas 
receiver of a cubic capacity of 1 cubic metre. A condensing pump with several 
ban-els, moved by my steam engine, draws the gas from the receiver, and having 
caused it to pass over drying materials, it forces it into a first recipient of 3 or 4 
litres capacity which serves only as a regulator ; thence the gas passes freely into 
the apparatus in which it is to be condensed, which is buried in]a freezing mixture 



Improved Railway Break. — Electric Cables. 



("The AKTizi.iT, 
L January 1. 1861. 



of ice and crystallized chloride of calcium. The gas which does not condense 
passes into a second closed recipient of o litres capacity. Into this last vessel 
the air and other more condensable gases pass, and from it they may from time 
to time be discharged by opening a stop-cock. 

The same arrangement will serve to liquefy large quantities of protoxide of 
nitrogen, or sulphuretted hydrogen. But for these gases, which are easily ren- 
dered impure \>y contact with the grease and pistons of the pump, I employ a 
peculiar forcing-pump, in which the gas is in contact only with mercury. This 
pump is composed of two equal cast-iron cylinders, united in the form of a U. 
The first cylinder is turned, and contains a solid piston which, in its movement, 
acts only on a quantity of mercury, which fills exactfy one of the pump cylinders. 
The suction and compressing (foot and head) valves are attached to the second 
cylinder. It will be seen that by this arrangement the gas never comes into 
contact with the piston or the greasy sides. 

Liquid ammonia particularly occupied my attention, owing to its great capacity 
for heat, its great latent heat of evaporation, and the ease with which it is pre- 
pared and collected after it has assumed the gaseous state. I determined to use 
it principally for obtaining very stationary low temperatures by boiling it under 
different pressures. I prepare the ammonia as a gas by passing continuously a 
thread of a concentrated solution of ammonia into a copper tube enclosed in a 
small boiler containing water, which is kept boiling by a gas-light. The ammonia 
flows in a spiral along the walls, and the liquid, nearly deprived of ammonia, 
escapes by a tube below, which enters to a depth of several decimetres into the 
liquid which has previously flowed out. 

The gaseous ammonia sucked by the pump traverses several copper recipients 
filled with soda lime. The pump itself regulates the production of the gas, and 
delivers it into the receiver, which is buried in a freezing mixture of ice and 
hydrated chloride of calcium. By means of this arrangement, several litres 
(quarts) of liquid ammonia may be obtained in a few hours. 

To submit an apparatus to a stationary low temperature, it is hermetically 
adjusted in the condenser, and the liquid ammonia is condensed in this receiver 
buried in a freezing mixture. When it is sufficiently filled with the liquid, the 
freezing mixture is removed and the receiver placed in communication with one 
of my large air-reservoirs, in which the pressure is kept rigorously stationary, 
either above or below that of the atmosphere. 

The ammonia thus distils under pressures as light as are desired, which are 
easily kept perfectly constant, provided the ammoniacal gas is prevented from 
reaching the air-reservoir. For this purpose, in front of this reservoir is placed 
a cylindrical vessel containing pieces of ice, which, as they liquefy, almost entirely 
redissolve the ammonia, and after this another cylinder filled with large pieces of 
pumice stone soaked with acid. 

I thus hoped to obtain, by means of this apparatus, low temperatures which 
should be perfectly stationary, but I was not successful, for reasons which I have 
explained before. A certain amount of steadiness can only be obtained by passing 
a continual current of small bubbles of air through the liquid ammonia, which 
thus continually stirs up the liquid and destroj's its viscosity. An air-ther- 
mometer should be placed in contact with the apparatus experimented on, and 
plunged entirely in the liquid ammonia ; by means of a regulating screw, the 
current or air-bubbles is controlled so as to keep the thermometer stationary. — 
Comptes Kendus de I 'Academie des Sciences de Paris, 11 Juin, 1860. 



HIGGIN'S IMPKOVED RAILWAY BEEAK. 

We have received the following description of Mr. Higgin's Improved 
Railway Break from a Manchester correspondent, who, as an engineer, con- 
siders this invention to he one deserving the serious attention of rail- 
way companies, railway carriage builders, &c : — 

The plan patented by Mr. James Higgin, of Hopwood Avenue, in this city, differs con- 
siderably, from any of the existing methods. Mr. Higgin proposes to inciease the friction 
surface on each break-carriage at least a hundredfold, as compared with the present 
4-wheel break. To secure this and other improvements some rather considerable change 
is made in the construction of the ean-iage or portions of it. .For the existing small 
wheels it is proposed to use wheels about 6ft. diameter; but the carriages, so far from 
being higher, will run much nearer the rails, the object being to obtain the break power 
by causing the carriage to settle down upon the rails like a sledge, a suitable under-surface 
being provided for that purpose. This consists of two iron plates, each about 23ft. long 
(supposing the carriage to be 33ft. in length), one under each of the main beams of the 
carriage immediately over the rails, anil furnished with inner flanges similarly to the 
wheels. When the carriage is in motion these plates will be about four inches above the 
rails, and there is a mechanical arrangement, under the control of the engine driver, for 
lowering the carriage these few inches. The axle-bearings are made with screw nuts, 
in which work strong screws for the raising or lowering, and the screws are turned by 
bevil wheels, actuated by a shaft running under the carriage, and receiving its power 
from a small donkey engine attached to ; and of course receiving steam from, the locomo- 
tive. This auxiliary engine has two cylinders, and it works a crank shaft running from it 
to the break carriage or carriages. Whenever, therefore, it is wished to stop the train, 
this engine is started, and it revolves the shaft extending beneath the carriages ; the 
shaft turns the bevil wheels, — which are, in fact, the heads of the screws, — and the 
carriage is gradually and softly lowered (the work of two or three seconds) until the 
long friction plates come in contact with the rails, on which, it is easy to perceive, they 
will not glide very far. The donkey engine is like some real donkeys— it takes care not 
to do too much. As soon as the carriage is lowered sufficiently it shuts off its own steam, 
and it does the same when, by reversing the motion, it has again raised the carriage to 
the proper working level. To avoid the possibility of mistake, an index shows the height 
of the plates above the rails. There is an arrangement to allow for the expansion and 
contraction of the buffers, and for conveniently joining the carnages ; while there is 
sufficient play to admit of turning curves without straining the joints of the shafting. 

Mr. Higgin calculates the relative increase of break-snrface as 828in. in his carriage, to 
Sin. in the present one. The best breaks now in use do not, we Delieve, profess to stop a 
quick train in less] than 200 yards, and that is a great advance on former times — 
but the patentee, arguing from the immense increase of rubbing surface, concludes that 
a rapid train would be brought to a stand in less than half as many feet. Many persons 
will be apt to suppose that this could not be accomplished without the passengers 
suffering a serious shock ; but there is no cause for apprehension on that ground, where 



the retardation is gradual, as it must be when resulting only from friction. This has been 
clearly proved by the experiments with centrifugal railways. After descending from a 
considerable altitude, a line of rails placed at an angle of 45°, an immense speed is attained, 
yet the passenger (and it happens that the writer can speak from experience, having made 
one of those whirling journeys) is so gradually retarded, by passing round the circle and 
then running up an incline, that he is safely brought to rest in a distance of 40 or 50ft. — 
which is less than a foot per mile of rate. This fact must have been witnessed by 
hundreds of people. 

The increased size of the wheels would add much to the comfort of travelling ; as 
wheels of something like double the diameter of those in general use must pass over 
more smoothly, make rough places plain, and do far less injury to the rails. The con- 
comitant circumstance of the carriages hanging from the springs at a lower level will, it 
would seem, be also attended with some advantage; as much of the oscillation, which at 
high speeds is sometimes alarming, — especially when the carriages are not tightly coupled 
together, — will be materially reduced, and the danger of swinging off the rails avoided, 
while the carriages will be more convenient for ingress and egress. The patentee's idea 
is, that the principle (as new carriages are made) should be applied to the whole of the 
train, but that, in the first instance, such a break-carriage at each end of a train would 
be far more efficient than anything at present adopted— an opinion which we should think 
most practical men will be inclined to endorse. 

Many of the serious accidents— fatal to life, and destructive to railway property— 
which have occurred through collision, would not have happened had the break power 
been sufficient to bring uprthe train when danger became visible. In such eases the stoker 
applies the break, the engineer reverses the engine, then (having done all they can) both 
leap for their lives: whereas, with such a break as this promises to be, — and we see no 
reason why all that is assumed of it Should not be realised, — the engineer might stand 
courageously to his post, confident that the amount of friction at his command would 
overcome the momentum of the train before reaching the point of danger. The recent 
destructive collision at Leigh would not have happened, had such an amount of break- 
power as this been at conmiand, as the danger was known within what would have been a 
safe distance. The great loss of life, destruction of property, and sacrifice of not less than 
£5000 for compensation, resulting from the calamity at Helmshore, also could not have 
occurred, since, if the last Carriage had been resting upon the rails (according to this 
plan), that portion of the train which broke loose could not have run backwards down the 
incline. Very many instances, unfortunately, might be enumerated of accidents arising 
from deficiency of break-power. 



ELECTRIC CABLES. 

The 'Examiner gives the following : — " The question of electric cables 
was the subject of two nights' discussion at the last meeting of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, and was debated with all the scientific and 
practical skill to be expected from the inheritors of the knowledge and 
inventions of Watt and Stephenson. The discussion took place on a very- 
able paper on the ' Channel Islands Cable/ by its engineer, Mr. Preece. 
We give a few of the results. The Channel Islands cable extends from 
Weymouth to Alderney, Guernsey, and Jersey. The submerged portion of 
the cable is 93i miles long, and the underground portion 26 miles, making 
the whole length of the electric wire little short of 120 miles. It has been 
in action about seven and twenty months, and within this short period the 
marine portion of it has been broken eleven times, five times by ships' 
anchors, and six by rocks and tides. The government has guaranteed an 
interest of six per cent, on £30,000, hut the original subscriptions are 
exhausted, and the stock pays no dividends. When such is the result at 
our own doors, it may easily be supposed what is to be expected from 
cables ten times the length, and at a distance of 5000 and 12,000 miles 
from home. All the long electric cables have proved dead and irretrievable 
failures. The Atlantic cable, which was to bring the Old and New World 
into proximity, has utterly failed. So has the Red Sea cable, which was 
to have brought the Nile and the Indus within call of each other. The 
Dutch have not been more successful than ourselves. They laid a tele- 
graphic cable between their fine island of Java and the nearest British 
possession, the colony of Singapore. The distance is 600 miles, and much 
of it through narrow straits with jstrong tides. For the first few days it 
was in working condition, but has never been so since, for the friction of 
the cable over sharp coral rocks has broken it a dozen times over, and its 
condition is already hopeless. Even the cables of the Mediterranean, 
which are for short distances, are constantly getting out of order. At 
the cost of our government a cable was constructed to connect Malta and 
Gibraltar, but the Mediterranean being found too deep for it, it is destined for 
India, to connect Rangoon with Singapore, which are distant from each 
other by fifteen degrees of latitude and nine of longitude, probably not 
less than 1100 miles, some 800 of which are through^innumerable islands, 
with coral andgranite reefs and strong tides, to say nothing of a temperature 
at least twenty degrees higher than that of the sea for which the cable 
was fabricated. Of course it will be a sure failure ; and the sum which it 
cost, £400,000, might just as well be pitched in sovereigns into the Bay of 
Bengal and Straits of Malacca. The North Atlantic has been just surveyed 
with the view of connecting Britain with Labrador, by the route of the 
Orkneys, Iceland and Greenland. Besides rocks and currents, there will 
be here the obstacles of glaciers and icebergs ; but probably after the 
failure of our ambitious experiments elsewhere we shall be saved from this 
one. Even in the narrow seas that connect us with the continent the 
short cables require constant attention and frequent repairs, and, in fact, 
they last but three or four years. Not only is the external wire liable to 
abrasion by rocks, and to fracture by oxidation, but the gutta-percha to 
decomposition. Our ambition to span oceans must be given up. The 
pride o* science, in truth, has had a great fall ; and such notions as wafting 
sighs, from India to the Pole' must, as heretofore, be left to the poets. 



The Artizan,! 
January 1, 1S61. J 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



13 



Beset as it was by projectors, encouraged by the public, we can hardly 
blame the government for the thousands it has committed to the deep ; 
for to disabuse the nation, and bring it to its sober senses, the costly 
trials which have been made were, perhaps, indispensable." 



PATERA'S PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING SILVER FROM ITS 
ORES. 

By Clement Le Neye Foster. 

The process in question was originally suggested by Dr. Percy, F.R.S., 
of the Government School of Mines, and has been of late years taken up 
and carried out on a large scale by one of the most celebrated metallur- 
gical chemists in Austria, viz., Herr von Patera. This process is of special 
interest, on account of the analogy it presents with the well-known 
" fixing " in photography, which is nothing more than dissolving out the 
chloride of silver (which has not been acted on by light) by means of 
hyposulphite of soda. 

In the metallurgical process this property is made use of in the following 
manner : — The ores which contain the silver in combination with sulphur, 
or with sulphur and arsenic, are roasted with green vitriol and common 
salt, and thus is produced a chloride of silver which may .be dissolved out 
by a solution of hyposulphite. The silver can then be precipitated by 
sulphide of sodium, falling down as sulphide of silver. All that is 
necessary to be done then is to heat the sulphide in a muffle in contact 
with the atmosphere ; the sulphur escapes in the form_of sulphurous acid, 
and the silver remains in the metallic state. It is then melted in plum- 
bago pots and cast into ingots for the mint. Such is a rough outline of 
the process which is now, and has been for some years in operation at 
Joachimsthal, on the northern frontier of Bohemia. The ores which are 
subjected to this process are rich in silver, containing on an average two 
per cent., but often as much as 10 per cent. Ores containing less than one 
per cent, are melted down with pyrites in a cupola blast furnace for regulus 
or matte, which is then treated as the ore. 

The advantages of this proceess are manifold ; lstly. Ores containing 
large amounts of arsenic can be thus successfully treated, when Ziervogel's 
process would fail. 2ndly. The expense of heating a strong solution of 
salt, as in Augustin's process, is got rid of, as the hyposulphite is used 
cold. 3rdly. The hypo-sulphite filters quicker and better than the brine 
in Augustin's process, for the dissolving power of hyposulphite bein°- 
great, a weak solution may be used. 4thly. The solution of hyposulphite 
may be used over and over again, for it is being continually renewed, and 
as this is one of the peculiar points in the process it deserves particular 
attention. The precipitation of the silver is effected, as has been 
before stated, by sulphide of sodium, and this is a polysulphide, for it is 
prepared by calcining soda with sulphur and then boiling it with sulphur. 
In this manner a polysulphide of sodium is formed, but in contact with 
the air some hypo-sulphite of soda is generated, and thus, each time that 
the silver is precipitated, some hyposulphite of soda is added to the solu- 
tion. In this way Herr von Patera, who commenced with 14 lbs. of hypo- 
sulphite of soda (and who yearly extracts more than 3000 lbs. of silver), 
has never needed a fresh supply, and has, in fact, been obliged to throw 
away quantities of solution, as his stock was always increasing. The expense 
of this process is not great ; the extraction of a pound of silver from the 
ore costs, on an average, only 9s. 9d., whilst by the method of smeltino- 
formerly in use, the cost of production of a similar quantity of metal was 
no less than 16*. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

November 27, I860. 

John Hawkshaw, Esq., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The Paper read was "On the Maintenance and Durability of Submarine 
Cables, m shallow Waters," by Mr. W. H. Preece, Assoc. Inst. C E 

Referring to an opinion expressed by the late Mr. Robert Stephenson, un- 
favourable to the durability of Submarine Cables, the Author hoped by detailing 
his own practical experience in the maintenance of the Cable connecting the 
Channel Islands with England to elicit a discussion which, by tendin«- to°solve 
that important question, might prove beneficial to the Profession, and serviceable 
to the progress of Submarine Telegraphy. 

The geographical position of the Channel Islands, their rocky and ru°-°-ed 
structure, and their exposure to storms, the strong currents by which they were 
swept, and the nature of the bottom of the sea by which they were approached 
were hilly described; and it was stated that they were all calculated to try to 
the utmost extent, the qualifications, for permanence and durability of a sub- 
marine cable connecting these islands with the main land. The Channel Islands 
Telegraph Company was formed under the Limited Liability Act with a 
capital of £30,000 and a conditional guarantee of 6 per cent, from Government, 
lne contract tor the whole undertaking was let to Messrs. Newall and Co who 
had submerged the cable, constructed the land lines, and handed them over to 
the Company, before the author was appointed Engineer. The route and con- 



struction of the line, submarine and underground, from Weymouth, through 

Alderney, and Guernsey, to Jersey, and its excellent working condition, were 
then described. The whole length of submarine cable submerged was 93i miles. 
The length of underground work was 23 miles. The underground work con- 
sisted simply of a gutta-percha covered wire, coated with tarred yarn, and laid in 
a Cl'eosoted wooden trough, buried about 20 inches in the ground. The cable 
comprised two portions — the sea part and the shore ends. The sea part was a 
No. 1 gutta-percha covered wire, served with tarred yam, and protected by ten No. 
6 iron wires. It weighed 2j tons to the mile. The shore ends were similar, but 
were protected by ten No. 2 iron wires. They weighed 6 tons to the mile. The 
line was opened to the public in September, 1858. 

The interruptions which had occurred to the working of the line, and the plans 
adopted to remedy the defects, were then successively enumerated. In approach- 
ing rock} - shores, swept by fierce currents, and in landing the ends upon such 
points, great care was required to avoid danger. It was also necessary to protect 
the cable from detrimental exposure to the surf, spray, and atmosphere. The 
chief accidents to this cable had been peculiar, and were different to all previous 
ones with other cables, which were the result of well known causes. With the 
exception of one instance, these accidents arose quite unexpectedly, without any 
previous symptom of weakness or decay having been given. Since the submersion 
of the cable, in August, 1848, the cable had been ruptured in eleven different 
places. Two of these accidents were the results of carelessness in landing the 
end of the cable on the Jersey shore ; four were caused by ships dragging 
their anchors : and five were produced by the abrasion of the slender wire upon 
the rocky bottom. The accidents arising from ships' anchors took place between 
Jersey and Guernsey. Those resulting from abrasion occurred between Alderney 
and Portland. Between Guernsey and Alderney there had not been a single 
failure. The constant interruptions of this line were attributable to two causes 
— weakness of cable, and error of judgment in selecting the route pursued. 

Although the cable was in the Author's opinion too weak, yet he did not 
attribute the failure of the system, so much to that cause, as to the route 
selected. In justice to those who laid the cable, it should be known, that if 
reliance had been placed on the Admiralty Charts, there was an explanation of 
the reason why this particular route had been chosen. But, unfortunately, in 
describing the nature of the bottom, these official charts were altogether incorrect, 
as they not unfrequently showed rock where sand was found, and sand and 
gravel where there were rocks. Cables should, however, never be trusted to the 
unseen and unknown action of the bottom of the sea, without the course having 
first been most carefully surveyed. 

The author next proceeded to point out the oxidation and decay of the cable 
in different localities ; showing how, in sand and mud, when it had become 
buried, it was in perfect preservation, while on rocky ground, where swept by the 
tides, it was being rapidly corroded. The extra difficulty and expense in repair- 
ing decayed cables, and the necessity of retaining their strength unimpaired, 
were adduced as imperative reasons for adopting some outer protecting coatmg to 
the present form of submarine cables. 

In designing a cable, its durability and maintenance should] be primarily con- 
sidered. The present heavy cables were believed to have been erroneously 
constructed ; and it was recommended that in future the outer wire of cables 
should either be stranded, or else be surrounded with two servings of smaller 
sized wires. 

The plan adopted in repairing the numerous breaks to the Channel Islands 
cable was then described. The system of grappling, buoying, picking up, &c, 
having been previously brought before the Institution (vide Minutes of Proceed- 
ings, vol. xvii., p. 262), allusion only was made to the method adopted in 
testing, and in calculating the distance and position of faults and breaks. This 
could now he accomplished with such accuracy, that instances were mentioned, 
in which Messrs. Varley, G. Preece, and the author, had indicated the ex-act spot 
of faults, though 30, 50, and 60 miles distant. The principles employed in 
testing were divided into two classes, according as they were dependant upon 
the laws of resistance, or upon the laws of induction. The basis of all resistance 

L C. 
tests, was the fundamental law of Ohm, expressed by the formula, R = -g— 

where R was the resistance, L the length of the wire, C the specific resistance of 
the material employed, and S the sectional area. The advantage of expressing, 
in units of resistance, the insulation and conduction of substances, was con- 
sidered. The construction of resistance coils, the various standards of resistance 
employed by different individuals, and the manner in which one standard could 
be reduced to another, were described. The instruments employed in measuring 
resistances,— the differential galvanometer of Becquerel, Wheatstone's parallelo- 
gram, and the author's " Multiplying Differential,"— were then noticed. By the 
last instrument, resistances could be measured from small fractions to high 
multiples. From the standard coils attached to it, the resistance of any other 
standard, or anv cable, could be read, without going through the usual arith- 
metical calculation. Another system by which much higher multiples could be 
read was shown. 

The laws of induction were next considered, and their various formula? given ; 
showing how the charges and discharges, in different wires, were regulated, and 
could be compared. The basis of all induction was the law expressed by the 
following formula, C = -^i?^-, where C was the induced charge, n the battery 

power, S the surface of the wire, R the resistance of the conductor, s the specific 
inductive capacity of the insulator, and d the ratio of the distance between the 
inside and the outside coatings. The difference between discharge and return 
current was pointed out. The instruments emplos'ed in measuring and register- 
ing the discharge were described, including the author s ■' Reduction Iuducto- 
meter," which could measure the discharge of any wire of any length, from one 
mile and upwards. The errors that tests were liable to, such as the resistance ot 
ends and faidts, and the occurrence of partial faults in different localities, with 
the plans adopted to detect and allow for these discrepancies were fully de* 



14 



Institution of Civit Engineers. 



["The Aetizait, 
[.January 1, 1861. 



tailed. The various kinds of faults to which a cable "was subject, were then 
adverted to. 

In conclusion, it was remarked, that there was no imperfection which could 
not be detected and no accident which could not be provided against. But when 
experience was ignored, and when the errors that had been committed by those 
who had hitherto had the control of Submarine Cables, were considered, 
it could not be wondered at, that opinions should be expressed unfavourable to 
the progress of Submarine Telegraphy. 



December 18, 1860. 
George P. Biddeb, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

In presenting an account of the proceedings during the last twelve months, it 
was remarked, that the principal duty of the Council had been to carry out, and 
persevere in, the practice and regulations established during previous years, 
which had been found to contribute so much to the stead3' growth and increasing 
importance of the Institution. 

On this occasion a short account was given of the state of engineering in a few 
distant countries, and, particularly, in some of the British Colonies ; because 
those undertakings might not be generally so well known, and because attention 
had previously been chiefly directed to engineering progress in the United 
Kingdom, and on the continent of Europe. 

At the Cape 1 of Good Hope, a railway, the first undertaking of the kind in that 
colony, had been commenced, which would run from Cape Town, through Stel- 
lenbosch, to the Paarl and Wellington, a distance of about 58 miles. The first 
section of this line would, it was expected, be opened shortly. At Cape Town 
arrangements would be made to connect, the railway with the harbour works 
now being carried out, under an Act passed by the Colonial Legislature, in 1858. 
These works comprised a pier, or breakwater, running from the western shore of 
Table Bay, in a north-easterly direction, for a length of 3250 feet, which would 
provide refuge accommodation, and commercial facilities, at an estimated cost of 
£400,000. In order to procure materials for the breakwater, which would be 
formed by a rough rubble mound, a basin was to be excavated having an area of 
10| acres, with a depth of 20 feet at low water of spring tides ; and there would 
be about 4100 feet of quays. An outer basin, 4£ acres in extent, would be avail- 
able for trade, it was thought, in about two years and-a-half. 

The principal engineering works in progress in Australia were roads, telegraphs, 
and railways. Telegraphic communication was established between the capitals 
of the three colonies, and Tasmania had been connected by a submarine cable 
which was now unfortunately damaged, between King's Island and the Hum- 
mocks. The telegraph wires, which were carried overground, might be seen 
wherever there were towns, as would be gathered from the statement that there 
were now 1000 miles in operation in Victoria, about 1000 miles in New South 
Wales, and nearly 500 miles in South Australia. The railways, with the excep- 
tion of two or three short lines nearMelbourne, all belonged to government, and 
had been carried out by means of loans ; the only private undertaking of any 
magnitude, the Geelong and Melbourne line, having lately been purchased 
by government for about £750,000, at par. In South, Australia, a proposal 
had recently been made to inaugurate a fresh policy. Two new railways 
were projected — a short suburban line, to which it was proposed to give 
a limited guarantee ; and a more important line, towards which a dotation 
of land was offered. Unfortunately, a uniform gauge had not been adopted, 
as it should have been in all the colonies; for, whilst in Victoria and in 
South Australia, the rails' were laid to a gauge of 5ft. 3in., in New South 
Wales the guage was 4ft. 8iin. This was likely to cause considerable incon- 
venience in the future, when the niain trunk lines to connect the capitals of the 
respective colonies were completed. 

The railways in progress in New South Wales were : — 1, The Great Southern ; 
2, the Great Western ; 3, the Great Northern. The Southern, or main trunk 
line from Sydney, ultimately intended to join the Victorian system of railways at 
the river Murray, had been opened as far as Campbelltown, a distance of. thirty- 
four miles. Up to Paramatta, 13| miles, there were two lines of way, and be- 
yond, only a single line. A further length of twenty miles, as far as Picton, was 
expected to be completed in a few months. The cost of the double line, in- 
cluding rolling stock and machinery, and workshops at the terminus, had 
amounted to upwards of £40,000 a mile, and of the single line about £10,000 a 
mile. Trial surveys had been made, and estimates prepared of the cost of ex- 
tending this line to Goulburn, from which it appeared that the natural difficulties 
were such as would necessitate an expenditure greatly in excess of that hitherto 
incurred.— The Western, starting from the Southern, 1| mile west of Paramatta, 
was opened as far Blacktown, on the Windsor-road, a distance of 8 miles, in 
August last. The cost had averaged about £10,500 a mile of single line. The 
works were now in progress up to Penrith, a further distance of 12 miles. This 
line was at present proposed to be carried to Bathurst, and extensive surveys and 
explorations had been made of the country between the Hawkesbury and that 
place, including the valley of the Grose, in order to discover a practicable route 
by which to pass the range of the Blue Mountains.— The Northern Railway 
started from Newcastle, about 60 miles north of Sydney, between which places 
there was steamship communication daily. The line was opened two years ago 
to East Maitland, and subsequently to West Maitland, a distance of 20 miles ; 
and in August last to Lochinvar, a further length of 8 miles. From Lochmvar to 
Singleton, 23 miles, the works would be finished in the middle of 1861. The ex- 
penditure had amounted to about £12,000 a mile of single line. The country was 
under survey beyond as far as Muswellbrook, 70 miles. It abounded in minerals, 
particularly in coal, from which all the Australian colonies, as well as India and 
China, might be supplied. 

In the thriving colony of Victoria, the railways now open were the Geelong 
and Melbourne, a single line, 40 miles long, passing through a level country, in 
connection with which there were extensive piers and wharves at WiUiamstown, 



the port of Melbourne. Also the Suburban Railways, which had been con- 
structed by private companies, in whose hands they still remained. These 
were : — 1, Melbourne and St. Kilda ; 2, St. Kilda and Brighton ; 3, Melbourne 
to Richmond, Hawthorne and Brighton ; and 4, Melbourne and Hobson's 
Bay, a double line, 3 miles 'in length. The great lines to the interior 
were : — 1, Melbourne and Mount Alexander, to Castlemaine, Sandhurst, and 
Echuca, on the river Murray, a length of 152 miles. The main line had been 
opened to Sunbury, 22 miles, and also the branch to Williamstown. The por- 
tion of the line from Sunbury to Woodend, 28 miles, was expected to be finished 
early next year. 2, Geelong and Ballarat, a length of 53 miles, of which no 
part is yet open. The estimated cost of these two lines, both of which would 
consist of a double way, was seven millions (upwards of £34,000 a mile), of 
which three millions sterling had been already raised and expended. With 
respect to the general character of the country, it was described as rising 
regularly from the coast to the dividing range, — with the exception of one sudden 
step of 300 feet, — to a height of about 2000 feet in 40 miles. There were 
occasional chasms, or ravines, 100 to 500 feet in depth, and 660 to 3300 
feet in width, through which the water falling on the higher ranges was dis- 
charged with impetuous velocity. But there was a total absence of those great 
leading valleys which were found in England. The larger rivers, creeks, and 
ravines had been 'crossed generally by viaducts constructed with abutments and 
piers of Milestone masomy, and wrought-iron superstructures. The permanent- 
way was of the most substantial character, consisting of a double-headed rail, 
weighing 801bs. per yard, fished, and laid in chairs in the ordinary way, on 
native timber sleepers. 

In South Australia, a double line of railway, from Port Adelaide to Adelaide, 
a distance of 3k miles, had been opened for three or four years, and a single line 
from thence to Gawler, |29 miles, for two years and a half. From Gawler to 
Kapunda, 16 miles, the line was opened this year. It was proposed to extend 
this line northwards. 

The oldest railway in Canada, a short line called the Laprairie and St. John, 
was opened for traffic in July, 1836. From that period until the year 1849, 
little progress was made in the extension of railways. At the commencement of 
1857, there were 1402 miles of line in operation, and at the present time the 
mileage was 2093, ;'and the number of railways fifteen, all which, with one 
exception, had been constructed between 1852 and 1860. The three principal 
lines were the Buffalo and Lake Huron, the Great Western, and Grand Trunk. 
They ran longitudinal^ through separate divisions of Canada, and were con- 
structed with a view to secure a share of the large traffic in passengers, goods, 
and agricultural produce, which found its way from the Western States to the 
Atlantic seaboard, and vice versa. The Welland Railway (25 miles long), wis 
constructed two years ago, mainly for the transportation of grain in bulk, and 
heavy goods, in opposition to the Welland canal, which had an ascent of upwards 
of 300 ft. of lockage to overcome between Lakes Ontario and Erie. All the 
other lines depended chiefly upon local traffic. The Canadian railways had 
nearly all a uniform gauge of 5 ft. 6 in., and were all single lines. The average 
cost per mile of the main lines had been about £15,000, inclusive of rolling 
stock and other expenses. The cost of the branches had ranged from £6000 to 
£10,000 a mile. The bridges were generally built of timber, which it was 
thought cheaper to renew every ten years than to build at first in stone or iron. 
But on the Grand Trunk, the bridges consisted chiefly of tubular iron girders, 
and on the Great Western main line there were also some wrought-iron bridges. 
The capital embarked in Canadian railways amounted at present to about 
£26,000,000 sterling, of which £4,161,150 might be considered as the contribu- 
tion of the province of Canada, inasmuch as the interest on that amount 
(£249,669) was an annual charge upon its revenue. 

The only other Engineering works constructed in Canada during the last few 
years, were the deepening and improvement of the river St. Lawrence, between 
Montreal and Quebec, the erection of lighthouses in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and 
works for the supply of water to Quebec, Montreal, and Hamilton. 

During the past three or four years, there had been great stagnation in the ex- 
tension of railways in the Northern and West States of America. In Michigan, 
the Grand Trunk (of Canada) had constructed 55 miles, and the Great Western 
(of Canada) had contributed largely towards the completion of the Detroit and 
Miliwaukie Railway, 186 miles in length. The other American railways in 
progress at present in the North Western States were all westward of Chicago, 
and had all the common object in view of opening up new territories west of the 
Mississippi and Missouri rivers. 

In Russia, the St. Petersburgh and Warsaw Railway was commenced, as a 
government undertaking, about the year 1851 ; but in 1856 it was ceded, with 
others, to the Grand Russian Railway Company. The length of this line was 
about 670 miles, one half of which was completed, though many of the works were 
merely temporary. A branch to connect this line with the Beriin-Koaigsberg 
Railway was being" vigorously pushed forward, and the portion to the Prussian 
frontier was already open for traffic. The Riga-Dunaberg Railway, 140 miles., 
long, running from Riga towards the producing districts, and by its junction at 
Dunaberg with the Berlin and Warsaw Railways, connecting Riga with the net- 
work of European railways; was rapidly approaching completion ; the earthworks 
and permanent masonrv having almost all been completed before the close of the 
last season. The Moscow and Nijni Novgorod line, which would connect the 
western ports with the extreme European end of that vast Empire, by means of 
those important thoroughfares for goods, the rivers Kama and Volga, was 
making rapid progress, and one-half of this line was expected to be ready for 
traffic next summer. . 

The improvements which had been made in the iron manufacture during the 
last few years, and the changes that were now taking place, were then referred 
to ; and it was stated that the result had been, that whereas the annual " make' of 
a blast furnace iu the year 1750 was only about 300 tons, now it ranged from 
5000 to 10,000 tons per annum ; and, in a few cases, amounted even to 15,000 
tons per annum. In reference to wrought iron, it was said that the plan of 



The Artizan,"] 
January 1, 1861. J 



Correspondence. 



15 



reversing the rolls had been considerably extended, and occasionally a second pair 
of rolls was placed close to the first, running continuously in the opposite 
direction, so that the iron could be rolled either in coming forward, or in going 
back. Plates 1\ in. thick, by 3 ft. wide and 20 ft. long, and plates 4J in. thick 
by 3 ft. wide and 15 ft. long had been rolled, as well as bars up to 72 ft. long. 
Most of the improvements in the manufacture of steelhad been introduced within 
the last half-century. Cast steel bells, weighing 53 cwt. each, had been made in 
this country, and castings of steel weighing 100 cwt. in Austria. Large plates 
and very heavy bars had also been made of puddled steel, produced direct from 
cast-iron ; and, lastly, steel wire, when hardened to about a deep blue temper, 
was found capable of carrying 130 tons per square inch. More than one process 
had been used in the production of cheap steel, which had been found by recent 
experiments to possess nearly double the strength of ordinary iron, accompanied 
by other valuable properties. With regard to the applications of iron, a new era 
commenced with the construction of the Conway and Britannia bridges ; as the 
elaborate experiments made prior to their construction tended to prove that 
previously received theories were in some respects erroneous. Again, the building 
erected for the Great Exhibition in 1851, from its lightness and security, called 
attention to the hitherto undeveloped capabilities of the combined use of cast 
and wrought-iron for such purposes. 

The improvements in the Artillery and Projectiles of the present day, which 
had resulted from the efforts of Civil Engineers, were calculated to lead to 
important changes in modern warfare. Simultaneous with the rapid advance in 
the destructiveness of weapons of offence in attack, there was a necessity for a 
corresponding alteration in the means of resistance. These subjects had led to 
elaborate researches and experiments for ascertaining the best qualities of metals to 
resist the enormous strains and concussions which had to be encountered, and the 
best dispositions in which to employ them. Iron-coated ships had for some years 
been regarded as a probable coming necessity ; but it was not until about the end 
of the year 1858, that the Admiralty for the first time seriously considered the 
subject. This resulted in the designs on which the Warrior, and Black Prince, 
were now being constructed. The problem was one of great difficulty. An 
enormous weight of armour had to be added to the weights hitherto carried. At 
the same time greater speed was demanded, and that involved increased weight 
of engines and a larger supply of fuel. Then, again, the weight was top-weight 
and wing-weight, which had to be carried on fine lines for speed. To reconcile 
these conditions with the practical points in a war vessel, and to give such a ship 
good seafaring qualities, to make her a good cruiser, and also well-suited for a 
voyage, and for the probable conditions that would attach to a European war 
was a problem which might well employ the professional skill of naval architects, 
and of every Member of the Institution. 

The principal papers read during the session were then noticed ; and it was 
remarked that there were still many important executed works, some even 
possessed of great novelty, which had not yet been brought forward at the 
meetings. It was hoped that accounts of these undertakings would still be 
brought before the members. The intense interest which the discussion 
upon Mr. Longridge's paper '" On the Construction 'of Artillery" excited, was 
referred to. On this occasion Sir William Armstrong and Mr. Whitworth — 
Members of Council — each exhibited a 12-pounder gun on his system, described 
its mode of manufacture, and explained its working; and the Council thought 
that both these gentlemen were entitled to the best thanks of the Members. 

It was stated that the libraa-y was now occupying the attention of a Committee 
of the Council, with a view to ascertain what was required to render it as 
complete a collection as possible of works on engineering and the allied sciences, 
as well as of books of reference on general scientific subjects. The Members were 
urged to assist in procuring copies of all treatises, reports, and documents 
relating to professional matters ; as this was the natural place for their reception 
and preservation, where they could be consulted by all. At the same time steps 
were being taken to have completed the set of the Ordnance maps of the United 
Kingdom, and to procure copies of the maps illustrating the geological survey of 
the British Isles and the trigonometrical survey of India. Endeavours were also 
being made to obtain copies of the reports of all the different Railway Companies, 

au h a collection would be, it was believed, of great interest and value. 

The deceases during the year were :— William Alers Hankey, Honorary 
Member ; William Blackadder, Terence Woulfe Flanagan, Colonel William 
Niarne Forbes, B.E., Robert Grundy, Joseph Locke, M.P., Charles May, Joseph 
Miller, Thomas Penson, Robert Berthon Preston, John Geale Thompson, William 
Francis Isherwood West, and Francis Mortimer Young, Members; Captain 
William Fullarton Lindsay Carnegie, R.A., Lieut. Edward Fraser, B.E., Robert 
Hughes, James Wardrop Jameson, William Sayce, William Simms, and 
Archibald Slate, Associates. 

The resignations of one Member and five Associates were announced. The 
number of members of all classes now on the books was 930, being an effective 
increase in the year of 36. 

By the death of Mr. Locke, the Institution was deprived of tile services of a 
valuable and influential member, who was most solicitous to do all in his power 
to advance the common interests, and to maintain the dignity and social position 
of the profession. The suddenness of his removal, while in the enjoyment of 
apparently sound health, and following so immediately after the deceases of his 
friends Brunei and Stephenson, tended to render this loss even more severely felt. 

The abstract of accounts showed that the receipts for subscriptions and fees 
amounted to £2550, and the expenditure to £2100, the outlay for Minutes of 
Proceedings being much less than in previous years. There being thus a balance 
in favour of the Institution, in addition to the £1000 already placed on deposit at 
the Union Bank, it was thought advisible that an investment should be made, 
and accordingly £1100 Norfolk Debenture Stock bearing 4 per cent, interest was 
purchased. During the recess the Stephenson and the Miller Bequests of £2000 
and £3000 respectively had been received. Thus, the funded property of the 
Institution now amounted to upwards of £12,000 ; in addition to which there was 
a further sum of £2000 to te received wider the will of the late Mr. Joseph Miller 
n which a relative"had a life interest. 



It was thought, that so munificent a benefactor as Mr. Miller deserved some, 
memorial ; and it was considered that none more appropriate could be devised 
than a portrait to be placed on the walls of the meeting-room. The Council had 
confided the task to Mr: Boxall, A.R.A., who would, it was presumed, produce a 
good picture of our late member. 

In conclusion it was observed, that the steady progress which had marked the 
career of the Institution from its commencement, and the estimation in which it 
was held both at home and abroad, should induce the members of all classes, by 
unanimity and energy, and by earnest co-operation, to study to maintain its high 
reputation, and to increase its sphere of usefulness. 

After the reading of the Report, Telford Medals were presented to Messrs. J. 
J. Berkley, and R. B. Grantham ; a Watt Medal to Mr. J. A. Longridge ; 
Council Premiums of Books to Messrs. E. L. Williams, E. B. Webb, F. C. 
Stileman, J. R. Walker, and D. K. Clark ; and the Manby Premium, in Books, 
to Mr. J. A. Longridge, 

The thanks of the Institution were unanimously voted to the President for 
his attention to the duties of his office; to the Vice-Presidents and other 
Members and Associates of Council, for their co-operation with the President, 
and their constant attendance at the meetings ; to Mr. C. Manby, Honorary 
Secretary, and to Mr. James Forrest, Secretary, for the manner in which they 
had performed the duties of their offices ; as also to the auditors of the accounts 
and the scrutineers of the ballot, for their services. 

The following gentlemen were elected to fill the several offices on the Council 
for the ensuing year: — G. P. Bidder, President; J. Fowler, C. H. Gregory, J. 
Hawkshaw, and J. R. M'Clean, Vice-Presidents; Sir William Armstrong, J. 
Cubitt, J. E. Errington, T. E. Harrison, T. Hawksley, G. W. Hemans, J, 
Murray, J. S. Russell, G. R. Stephenson, and J. Whitworth, Members; and 
Capt. Galton, R.E., and H.^A. Hunt, Associates. 

The meeting was then adjourned until Tuesday, January 8th, 1861, when 
the Monthly Ballot for Members would take place, and the discussion upon Mr. 
Preece's Paper, " On Submarine Telegraph Cables," would be resumed. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our Correspondents. 

IRON-PLATED SHIPS OF WAR. 

To the Editor of The Aetizan. 
Sib, — The following letter was addressed to the Editor of The En- 
gineer, and intended for the columns of that journal. As it has not yet 
appeared, and bearing as it does directly upon the subject of your article 
in last month's number, will you do me the favour to And space for it in 
the Aetizan for January 1st ? 

Yours respectfully, A — C — . 



To the Editor of The Engineee. 
Ser, — I have been a reader of your Journal since its commencement, 
and I am also a reader of the Aetizan. I have, therefore, seen the 
articles on " Iron-plated Ships of War," which have appeared in both, and 
have studied them with considerable interest. In your article of Nov. 
16th you couple Mr. Jones with some other "inventors (!) of the inclined 
side." I am one of these inventors. In the week that the Allies landed 
at Eupatoria, I forwarded drawings of my plans to the Admiralty ; but I 
am not one of the dozen known to you, who have received absolute 
promises from the authorities that then- plans shall be carried out ; indeed 
the only answer I received was a formal one, that my plans would not be 
of use to the Service. The rejection of my proposals was not a refutation 
of the principles on which they were founded, and I have always been 
confident of their adoption as the basis of our naval defences. Although 
I have no pecuniary interest in the question beyond that levied on me for 
income-tax, I [have taken it upon me to defend the principle of the 
inclined side in opposition to your articles, if you will give me space in 
your columns. 

This is the first time I have advocated publicly this principle, and I 
would not have intruded on your space now had your article of Dec. 7th 
dealt fairly with the answers given in the Aetizan to your objections, 
formerly urged. I must confess that I did not perceive the absurdity you 
have discovered in the recommendation to adopt the best plan, whether 
the sides be vertical or inclined, for in yours of Nov. 16th I find the 
following:— "It seems to us incredible that the Government can even 
entertain the project of building frigates with sides tumbling home at 
angles of 40° or 50°." Let us suppose, now, that in an American paper 
we read—" It seems to us incredible that the citizens of the United 
States can even entertain the project of raising a negro to the Presidency." 
Then, suppose another paper to comment upon the statement in these 
words—" So far from sharing these sentiments, we, on the contrary, would 
urge the election of the best man, whether his skin be black or white." 
Would you think the comment at all an absurd one ? that in the Aetizan 
is quite as reasonable, for you have rejected the inclined side for about the 
same reason that a Yankee would reject a black president, merely because 
he is black. Every objection to the inclined side can be removed but 



16 



Correspondence. — Geometry of the SUde Valve. 



("The Artizan, 
(.January 1, 1861. 



one, which is apparently the greatest one in your eye — the simple fact 
that they are inclined. But it is not upon such quibbles that I propose to 
argue the question. 

You say, on December 7, " It is well known that Mr. Jones and others 
claim, as the primary advantage of the inclined side, its enormous power 
of resisting shot, as compared with the upright side. To show that this 
advantage is illusive, we pointed out the fact that a given height of side 
must be defended, and that, weight for weight of metal, the thickness of 
the metal must decrease with the inclination, the rate of this decrease 
being pretty nearly identical with that of the decrease of the rending force 
of the shot." I am not known to Mr. Jones, but as one of the others who 
claim this advantage for the inclined side, I am also ready to defend the 
assertion. If the ball were indestructible and incompressible, and if the 
plates had the same qualities, the force of impact of the ball would be as 
the square of the sine of the angle of incidence, and the ball would fly oft' 
at an equal angle with undiminished velocity, having been but an instant 
in contact with the plate ; its action on the plate would have no duration, 
and would be confined to one spot of the plate. But neither ball nor plate 
have these qualities ; both are compressible and then destructible. The 
action is not confined to an instant, but has the quality of duration measured 
by the time the ball takes to make the indentation on the plate. When 
the ball first strikes the plate, it is that part of its motion only which is 
perpendicular to the surface which tells on the plate, — that component is 
measured by the sine of the angle of incidence ; but the other component, 
which is parallel with the surface and is measured by the cosine of that 
angle, is unaffected at first by the impact, and carries the ball over the 
surface of the plate during the impact, thus distributing the effect of the 
shot j and in this is the success of the inclined side. I do not know to 
what " Mr. Jones and other inventors " may have looked for success ; but 
this is the feature which always satisfied me of its final adoption, and this ad- 
vantage is quite independent of and in addition to the other, in which you 
admit that the rending force of the ball will be the same upon equal weight 
of plate in equal height, whatever be the inclination of the side. It must 
be apparent, then, that a distribution of this force over a considerable 
surface must neutralize the destructive effect of the shot. Reasoning, as 
you apparently do, on mathematical grounds, and resolving the force of 
the ball according to the parallelogram of forces, you fail to perceive any 
advantage in the inclined side, because that process of reasoning supposes 
one component of motion to be merely harmless, by reason of its being 
parallel to the plate ; hut if you examine the question as an engineer, you 
will find that the inclined side goes a step beyond this, and turns this com- 
ponent of the motion to good account, employing it to carry the ball over 
the surface during impact. It is only during the first instant that the 
angle of incidence is that of the motion of the ball, because any work done 
upon the plate destroys an equivalent part of the velocity of the ball in the 
direction in which that work is done. The velocity destroyed is part of 
that represented by the sine of the angle of incidence. This is the destruc- 
tive component of the original motion of the ball, and this must be entirely 
destroyed by the plate. Here the other component comes into action, and 
carries the ball over the surface during impact ; whereas on the vertical 
plan the horizontal shot strikes perpendicular to the surface, and its de- 
structive effort is concentrated on one spot of the plate. 

How much will you allow as the amount of this advantage ? I consider 
it to be under estimated when we attribute to it a reduction of the 
destructive effect of the shot in the ratio of the sine of the angle of 
incidence. Much will depend upon the nature of the material both of hall 
and plate ; for if both were of tempered steel the impact would be in- 
stantaneous, and there would be no appreciable translation of the ball. 
As the sine of the angle of incidence to a horizontal shot is inversely as the 
area of surface on the incline to unity of surface placed vertically, we may 
define this advantage thus : With equal weight to equal height, the power of 
resisting a single shot will be as the areas of the surfaces. But it is not by 
a single shot that these plates will be penetrated, but by repeated impacts 
and concussions. The total effect of these will be measured by the number 
of concussions received per square foot of plate. You say that an equal 
height is to be defended in either case, therefore the visual area will be the 
same in each. The number of shots which will take effect will be directly 
as the visual area, or the same in each. The concussions per foot of plate 
will be inversely as the area of surface : therefore in an action the impene- 
trability of plated vessels will be still further increased in the ratio of the 
area of their surfaces ; or, including the principle of translation, the im- 
penetrability of the structures will be as the squares of their surfaces. If 
two vessels were constructed, one with vertical sides, the other with a 
tumble home of 50°, with equal height and equal weight of sides, the angle 
of incidence will be 40°, and the ratio of surfaces would be T55 to 1 ; this 
would be the ratio of impenetrability to a single shot, and in an action the 
impenetrability would be as the square of this, or as 2"4 to 1. But in this 
estimate I have supposed equal weight in equal height ; but this does not 
amount to equal weight per foot of the length of the vessel, for by in- 
clining the sides we are reducing the breadth of the deck ; and if the 
lives of our men are to be protected, as well as the hulls of our vessels, 



we must have a bomb-proof deck ; and the reduced breadth of the decks of 
the vessel with the inclined side would render that vessel of less weight 
per foot of length. If the vessel have 60 feet beam and a height of 12J 
feet above the water, the tumble home would reduce the breadth of top 
deck to 30 feet ; and from the reduced length of deck beams, this deck 
could be rendered bomb-proof, with the same weight as the ordinary deck 
of the vertical side. Therefore a vessel can be constructed with inclined 
sides which will have only the same weight per foot of length as those with 
vertical sides, and possess in an action about 2i~ times the indestructibility 
of hull, and have a bomb-proof deck. Again, with vertical sides, when a 
plate is broken, the pieces either fall off, or the next shot which strikes 
them drives them through the side of the vessel; but with the inclined 
side the pieces would not fall off, and they cannot be driven through the 
side, for the cracks are always at right angles to the surface of the plate ; 
and although they were laid on the packing loosely, as paving stones, with 
an upper and lower course attached, with equal weight to equal height, 
they would still have a great advantage over the vertical system. 

I write in behalf of a principle ; and I hope that if my views meet with 
opposition in your paper, that opposition will manifest the same spirit. 



"GEOMETRY OP THE SLIDE VALVE." 
(Vide Plate No. 186.) 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — Whilst thanking you for the notice you have taken of my humble 
communication, I ask pardon for having, through an error in a former 
construction, made a wrong statement in my last letter, viz., the difference 
between those given by the diagram and actual measurements. I stated 
it to be greater than I have since found to be the case, on striking out 
afresh a new one. The error was my carelessness in taking half the length 
of connecting-rod and eccentric-rods, as radius, instead of the whole length. 
The amended diagrams I beg to enclose. With reference to the differences 
which appear between the enclosed and actual measurements, I may state, 
that, considering the measurements were not my own, but given to me by the 
" out-door engineer" who took them ; that a slight want of carefulness, 
on his part, combined with the extreme smallness of the scale, sufficiently 
account, to my mind, for the differences ; and that I regard the " Great 
Circle Diagram " as decidedly the best exposition of the movement of 
the slide valve which has hitherto come to my notice. 

I am, Sir, yours very truly, 

December 11th, 1860. AMATEUR. 

[Our Correspondent wrote last month, complaining that he had applied 
Mr. Gray's mode of constructing and setting the valve-gear of two small 
engines, but that he had failed to apply it successfully ; whereupon we 
forwarded this letter to the author, which has produced the explanation to 
be found in Mr. Gray's letter (and the illustration accompanying it), and 
above is our correspondent's reply. We are glad to perceive that he is now 
satisfied of the correctness of Mr. Gray's views, and of the practical value 
of the series of papers we have published. The following is Mr. Gray's 
letter. — Ed. Artizan.] 



To the Editor of The Artizan. 

" Amateur " writes with reference to the accuracy of the Great Circle 
Diagram, " It is mathematically correct, but in practice its apparent accu- 
racy will only be proportionate to the care with which the construction is 
made." Constructions for three sets of dimensions have been forwarded : 
instead of referring to all of them it will be better to examine the one 
which shows the greatest discrepancy. The dimensions of that are — 

ft. in. 

Stroke of piston 4 6 

Travel of valve 7 

bteam lap, mean 2§ 

Lead 0| 

Connecting rod 7 6 

Eccentric rod 10 9 

Exhaustlap 0^ 

The engine is a horizontal one with short piston rod, and the valve 
is worked by an intermediate lever. In the diagram constructed by 
" Amateur " there is no lead shown at the back port, and the steam lap is 
drawn of equal amount at each end of the valve, whereas the lead was one- 
eighth of an inch at each port, and with equal lead there must be some 
difference between the laps : its amount can be determined thus : — 
2| x (7 - 2|) _ , 085 Qr 112tli f an . nch 
129 



Tub Abtizan,"] 
January 1, 1861. J 



Correspondence — Steamship Capability. 



17 



If he constructs another diagram, taking these into account, he will 
succeed ; hut the positions measured from the engine are not correct for 
the dimensions given. An example of the calculation of these positions 
will not he out of place here. 

In the Decemher nurnher of this journal, rules were given for this com- 
putation, hut that given for the exhaust points is unnecessarily tedious : it 
is perfectly correct, hut there is an approximation which does not sensibly 
differ from its results : it should have been introduced there ; it is this : — 



a: = i^l-( A /l_C2 + CI) | 
= * { 1 - fV 1 - C* - CI) \ 



!) 



Or, in words : — The distance from the middle of the stroke at which the 
exhaust opens is half of the square root of (the difference between 1 and 
the square of the COVER) added to half the product of (the COVER mul- 
tiplied by the exhaust lap). 

And the distance from the middle of the stroke at which the exhaust 
shuts is found thus : — Deduct half the product of (the COVER multiplied 
by the exhaust lap) from half of the square root of (the difference between 
1 and the square of the COVER). 

21 + tV 2-4375 

c = 3i— Ts- =0-696 



0-696 2 = 0-*844 x 
5J = 

180,-.' 27-89 



■ , 8.-646 



26-157 _+ 
4-047 = 



30-204 = z on backward stroke. 
22'HO — z on forward stroke. 



Before calculating the exhaust points, the exhaust lap must be corrected 
for obliquity of eccentric rod. 

A = 0-1562, 3-5 + 0-1562 = 3'6562 
3-6562 x (7 - 3-6562 ) = 0-0474 
258 
0-1562 + 0-0474 = 0-2036 = value of exhaust lap on front port, 

0-1562 - 0-0474 = 0-1088 = ditto ditto on back port. 

= 0-2036 

iif 3-5 

an( 



C.= 2^= 



3-5 

0-1088 



0-714 



= -0582 on front port. 



= 0-0311 (Stle^ck port. 
3-5 ,-nts. 

stea. 
oals, c 

CALCUL.» Cht , T' FOB FRONT POET. 

2 a trl£ 

0-714 2 = 0-509!P ee <l *> 

1 - 0-5097 = 0-490' v , ca t le > 

0-700 = A/0-490: st . 1 ' 0KCS ' 

' TPANT, 1, ' 

0-0415 = 0-714-eased friJ2 
1 - 0-7415 = 2 ) 0-25* e e ^f e f c 1-0415 - 0"700 = 2 ) 0-3415 



54 - 6-9768 



0"12- steam-b- 
54' ' ., p 1 - { 

6-9768 x 
47-0232 = 



180 )_32_8W 

1-823 + 
6-977 = 
x on backward stroke = 8'800 



0-1707 x 

54 = 

9-2178 x 

54 — 9-2178 = 44-7822 = 

180 ) 412-79 

2-2939 - 
9-2178 = 



y on forward stroke = 6 - 9239 



Calculation foe Back Poet. 
0-700 

0-022 = 0-714 x 0-0311 
1 - 0-722 = 2)0-278 1-022 - 0-700 = 2 ) 0-322 

0139 x ~M&1 x 

J>* = 54; = 

7'506 x 8-694 x 

54 - 7-506 = 46^494 = -54 - 8-694 = 45-306 = 

180)348-98 



1-9388 - 
7-506 = 



180 ) 393-89 

2-1883 ■ 
8-694 



x on forward stroke = 5-5672 y on backward stroke = 10-8823 

These results may be arranged thus, measuring all the positions from 
the end of the stroke. 



Forward stroke : 
Steam shut off, z .. 
Exhaust shuts, y ., 
Exhaust opens, x ., 

Backward stroke 
Steam shut off, z .. 
Exhaust shuts, y .. 
Exhaust opens, x .. 



From 
Calculation. 



22110 
6-924 
5-567 

30-204 
10-882 



From Engine. 



22-75 
7-5 
6-0 

31-375 
12125 
10-5 



From 

" Amateur's " 

Construction of 

Great Circle 

Diagram. 



21-5 
625 
5-0 

27-5 
95 
7-5 



The calculated results are within one-sixteenth of an inch of the actual 
positions of the piston for the data given. If " Amateur " constructs another 
diagram carefully, he will find that it will agree with these. The positions 
measured from engine are either inaccurate, or the data of the valve are 
not correctly given. 

The illustration, Plate 186, shows, combined in one view, a " small circle 
diagram " to these dimensions, and agreeing with the calculation, and a 
test diagram, constructed from the positions measured on the engine. It 
shows that they are inaccurate, as the chords of the circle must he 
parallel with each other; but it will be seen they they are not so in the 

diagram. The dotted lines thus are the lines of the 

test diagram. 

These calculations have not been got up to prove the principles of the 
" Geometry of the Slide Valve," but are presented as examples of their 
application. 

J. Mc F. Gray. 



STEAMSHIP CAPABILITY. 



To the 'Editor of The Aetizan. 

Sie, — Mr. Atherton's reply to my proposition does not agree with his 
manifold professions in the cause of steamship economy. This reference 
to the Reports of the British Association is merely a prevarication. I have 
searched them, and have failed to discover the best means by which the 
co-efficient of a bad performance may be improved. It may pertinently 
be asked, what are the practical uses of a formula, if we cannot by the 
results enable the naval architect to produce in every steam-vessel the 
highest practical co-efficient ? 

It was for this purpose that I asked Mr. Atherton, in the November 
number of The Aetizan, to assign his reasons for the variation of the 
co-efficients in the Miranda, Rattler, Flying Fish, Victor, and Pioneer — 
vessels nearly identical in form. If Mr. Atherton will supply the public 
with a direct answer to this problem, or point out how the co-efficients of 
all steam-vessels may be made to equal 250, his actions will be more in 
accordance with his manifold professions, and, at the same time, rendering 
a service to the science of steamship economy. 
Yours obediently, 

December 21st, 1860. R. ARMSTRONG, Naval Architect. 



NOTICE TO OUR READERS. 

We are unavoidably compelled at the last moment to omit the insertion 
of the " Series of Tables for Calculating the Speed of Steam Vessels," 
which we promised last month ; as also several important papers, reviews 
and notices of new books, and other matters which have been prepared 
for the present number. 

PLATE 184 

The Plans and Section of the Pacific Steam Navigation 

Company's Steamships " Guayaquil " and "San Cablos." 

Having been frequently asked for plans and particulars of these vessels, 
we have much pleasure in presenting our readers with the large folding plate, 
No. 184 ; but, in consequence of want of space, we must defer for the present 
giving the textual description. 

PLATE 185. 
The papers " On the Application of Transversals to Engineering Field 
Works," by Prof. J. Macquorn Rankine ; and " On Railway Curves," by 
Mr. Wm. Froude, illustrated by this Plate, are, from want of space, un- 
avoidably deferred until next month. 



18 



Notices to Correspondents. — Recent Legal Decisions. 



[The Abtizan 
January 1, 1861. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Errata. — In Plate 185, the two Papers illustrated have the authors' names 

misplaced: the Paper "On Railway. Curves" is hy Mr. Win. Froude, and the 

Paper " On Transversals" by Prof. W. J. M. Rankine. 

Apprentice, C. B., J., and Argus. — Your communications will receive attention 
before the issue of the next number. 

Delta. — We do not know the formula for which you inquire. 

J. (Plasisa, Carnarvon). — Yon will find your inquiry replied to. 

J. Hart. — We have frequently given the particulars of the Battler's trials. Look 
through the back volumes. The mean thrust of screw as shown by dynamometer 
was about 80001bs.; it has been stated by us to be 80381bs., as a mean of five 
trials made in Yarmouth roads in 1845. 

D. S. — We believe that Professor Rankine, Mr. Sterling, and other Scotch en- 
gineers are still engaged in constructing air-engines, with a view to supersede 
the use of steam. Mr. Patrick Sterling has promised a paper on. the subject 
of air-engines for the Institution of Engineers in Scotland. 

Amateur. — We hope your inquiries have been satisfactorily answered. 

D.C.L ; Engineer, R.N. ; J. T. (Paris) ; T. C. (Rouen) ; Rr. (Havre) ; and 
Young Engineer. — Address Mr. Henry Wright, Hon. Sec. Steamship Com- 
mittee, Salisbury-street, Strand. 

J. M. (Wigan) ; T. 6. (Ormskirk) ; and D. (Liverpool). — The three analysts to 
whom we can recommend you with confidence are, for the liquid and oily 
matters, Mr. Thomas Keates, P.C.S. ; for the metallic investigations, Dr. A. 
Matthiessen; for the general investigations, Dr. T. L. Phipson — as perhaps 
having more leisure to devote to the careful consideration of the questions. 
Dr. R. H. Collyer has had considerable practical experience in connection 
with the production of paper-makers' stuffs. 

Nauticus. — Apply to Capt. Robertson, Board of Trade, Whitehall. Mr. R. 
Galloway is the gentleman referred to. 

Vapour. — The engine and machinery referred to were patented by M. du 
Tremblay, of Paris. They were fitted on board of vessels of various sizes em- 
ployed on trans-Atlantic and Mediterranean voyages, and in river navigation on 
the Seine and other rivers in Prance. It was Mr. Howard, of the King and Queen 
Works, Rotherhithe,who patented the mercurial steam generator ; it was fitted 
on hoard the Mercury, and tried for a considerable time in the Thames. Mr. 
A. Smith employed a shallow-metallic bath, traversed by a gradually 
increasing coil of pipes, terminated at the larger end by a series of steam 
receivers ; excellent economic results were obtained, but they were not suc- 
cessful in constructing sound vessels of a permanent kind for containing the 
fusible metal, nor could the oxidation of the fusible metal be perfectly 
arrested. 

Sproat. — Such patterns are usually first made in wood ; but for the purpose of 
making clean castings, as well as for sake of economy where large numbers of 
castings have to be produced, metal patterns are made. 

R. S. and T. ; D. Campbell. — The method of propelling boats for canal and 
river navigation, by means of chains, has recently been revived by Mr. W. 
Robertson. He exhibited his plan at the Aberdeen meeting of the British 
Association. In his boat he has an endless chain set in motion by an engine ; 
it passes over or through the bow and stern of the boat, and is sufficiently long 
to touch the bottom for about the same length as the distance between the two 
suspending pulleys fitted on board. He depends upon the friction between the 
chain and the bottom of the canal or river for the transmission of the power, the 
chain being picked up at the stern passes over the engine-barrel, and is hauled 
forward by its own weight, and passes over the bow to again come in contact 
with the bottom. A trial of the Vulcan, thus fitted, was made on the Irwell 
navigation, near Manchester, on the 18th December, in the presence of the Hon. 
A. Egerton, M.P., Sir H. de Trafford, and others, when a speed of four miles was 
obtained, but at what cost we do not know. The late Mr. E. Galloway, the Hon. 
Capt. Fitzmorris, Capt. G. Beadon, R.N., Mr. A.Smith, and others, have patented 
and tried chain and rope-traction schemes for hauling boats or trains of boats 
along canals. 

RECENT LEGAL DECISIONS 
AFFECTING THE ARTS, MANUFACTURES, INVENTIONS, &c. 
Undek this heading we propose giving a succinct summary of such decisions and other 
proceedings of the Courts of Law, during the preceding month, as may have a distinct 
and practical bearing on the various departments treated of in our Journal : selecting 
those cases only which offer some point either of novelty, or of useful application to the 
manufacturer, the inventor, or the usually — in the intelligence of law matters, at least 
— less experienced artizan. With this object in view, we shall endeavour, as much as 
possible, to divest our remarks of all legal technicalities, and to present the substance 
of those decisions to our readers in a plain, familiar, and intelligible shape. 



for the purpose of paying-out, yet in no place was it said that paying-out "would not, in 
point of fact, be made easy by it. Upon the whole case, therefore, his jhonour came to 
the conclusion that an injunction must be granted. 

Smoking in a Coal Pit. — At the Aberdeen Police Court, a few days since, James 
Jones was sentenced to seven days' imprisonment for smoking tobacco, in Messrs. 
Powell's colliery. Mr. Fowler, in passing sentence, said that the Act of Parliament gave 
the fullest power to the magistrates to punish all who violate the rules so necessary for 
the safety of the lives of persons employed in mines. The sentence would have been 
much heavier had it not been for the previous good character of the prisoner. 

Oir the evening of the 7th ult. an inquiry was held at Canterbury, by the City Coroner, 
into the circumstances connected with the death of John Mather, a sub-contractor of the 
works in the course of construction for the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, in the 
neighbourhood of Canterbury. About half-past eleven o'clock that day the deceased was 
on the New Brickfield Bridge over the above railway, engaged moving some earth from 
behind one of the abutments. By some means the earth, about a waggon load, slipped 
from the rear of the abutment and knocked him off, and completely covered him up. 
Assistance was promptly obtained, and in about six minutes he was extricated. On 
medical assistance arriving life was extinct. The jury returned a verdict that the deceased 
was accidentally suffocated. 

At the Couet op Queer's Bench, on the 6th ult., Mr. Howard, an eminent manu- 
facturer of agricultural implements, at Bedford, brought an action against Mr. Ledger, 
an ironfounder, of East Retford, for having fraudulently used the plaintiff's trade-marks 
upon certain parts of ploughs. On behalf of the defendant it was proved he had made 
articles for a Mr. Curtis with the name of Howard upon them, Mr. Curtis being at one time 
agent for Mr. Howard at East Retford. But there was no doubt that Mr. Ledger sold to the 
traveller of Mr. Howard pieces of a plough with the name and marks of the plaintiff 
upon them. The jury found that Mr. Ledger sold the goods knowing them to be spurious, 
and intending to pass them off as Mr. Howard's manufacture. Verdict for the plaintiff. 
Damages 40s. The Chief Justice certified that it was a fit action to be tried in superior 
court, and by a special jury. 

In the Covet op Exchequee, on the 10th ult., an action was brought by Mr. Grist 
to recover from Mr. Colyer, of Whitechapel, certain sums of money for the working, &c„ 
of patents for manufacturing casks, under certain agreements. The defendant pleaded 
that he had performed his pai-t of the contract. It appears that in 1853 and 
1854 the plaintiff invented certain machines for manufacturing casks (all except 
hooping them), without manual labour, except what was necessary to work the 
machines, the effect of which would be tu jnaterially lessen the cost of produc- 
tion. In 1854, the defendant applied to thff^sjntiff with a view to purchase the 
inventions, which resulted in an arrangemen, Sj-pjork them. The plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of £209, to be paid by instalments, j \^o i"ed the patents to the defendant, 
stipulating that the plaintiff should give his untrVirfed attention to their completion, and 
that the defendant should forthwith proceed to carry them out in a cooperage on a large 
scale. The plaintiff was also to have a salary of £100 for the first year, £150 for the 
second, and so on, with 15 per cent, on the profits on the saving of manual labour resulting 
from the working of the patents, and 50 per cent, on all licences to work the patents ; the 
defendant finding the money requisite for perfecting the patents. In 1855 and 1856 the 
plaintiff made further improvements, and other patents were taken out, which were as- 
signed to the defendant on certain conditions. In 1857, the defendant put up two or three 
of the machines, which proved satisfactory, and entered into negociations for working the 
patents by a company. The defendant informed plaintiff the parties with whom he was 
treating objected to his retaining his interests in the patents, and requested Mr. Broo- 
man, the patent a^ent, to give his opinion what should be awarded to the plaintiff to re- 
linquish them. Mr. Brooman named £350 for the purchase of plaintiff's 15 per cent, on 
the profits, or £1000 for his entire interests in the patents. The defendant approved of 
it, and sent it to the plaintiff, who subsequently agreed to it, when the defendant gave 
notice of abandonment. At this stage of the proceedings, the learned counsel conferred 
together, and informed his lordship that they had agreed to a verdict for the plaintiff of 
£400, subject to terms. The jury accordingly retv' ned a verdict for the plaintiff for £400,. 
on terms. 



The " Geeat Eastern " Aebiteation Awaed Case, which was disputed by the 
company, has resulted in cross rules, granted by the Court of Queen's Bench to J. Scott 
Russell, Esq., on one side, and the company on the other. It is stated, however, that 
before the case comes on for argument, an application will be made to one of the Equity 
Courts which will open up the past management of the company. 

>- Telegbaphic Cables. — Newall v. Elliott. — The Viee-Chancellor gave judgment in 
this case on Wednesday. He said the plaintiff was the patentee of an invention for 
laying down telegraph wires, consisting of a cylinder, and a species of cone, round which 
the cable was coiled. It appears that in paying-out cables there were two essentials in 
orderto prevent kinking ; first, it was necessary to havea large radius for the coil, and 
next to prevent the rope from becoming slack. This' was formerly prevented by men, who 
kept the rope taut. The plaintiff's invention had for its object to do away with the 
necessity of these men, and for this purpose he introduced the cone into the cylinder. 
The defendants had also introduced an internal stay into their cylinder, and this was the 
matter of which complaint was made. In reply to the complaint, it was stated that the de- 
fendant's plan simply amounted to packing the cable: that it was a matter of that simplicity 
that it could not be the subject of a patent. But it appeared in fact that this packing was not 
to be taken away before paying-out commenced, but that it was to be used in course of 
paying-out. And although it appeared from the evidence that the packing was but put in 



NOTES AND N tino .JLTIES. 

OUR "NOTES AND NOVELTIES" DEPAI it -.NT— A SUGGESTION TO OUR 



READE 1 hag 

We have received many letters from correspond • \>th at home and abroad, thanking 

us for that portion of this Journal in which, Hustrthe title of "Notes and Novelties," 
we present our readers with an epitome of si. ^i e " events of the month preceding" 
as may in some way affect their interests, so ^ o^heir interests are connected with 
any of the subjects upon which this Journal's view This epitome, in its preparation, 
necessitates the expenditure of much time ? , ,r ; and as we desire to make it as 

perfect as possible, more especially with a'Shea. .enefiting those of our engineering 
brethren who reside abroad, we venture t< iggesfion to our subscribers, from 

which, if acted upon, we shall derive conside ■» istance. It is to the effect that we 
shall be happy to receive local news of interef fre . all who have the leisure to collect 
and forward it to us. Those who cannot afford the time to do this would greatly assist 
our efforts by sending us local newspapers containing articles on, or notices of, any facts, 
connected with Railways, Telegraphs, Harbours, Docks, Canals, Bridges, Military 
Engineerine, Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, Boilers, Furnaces, Smoke Prevention, 
Chemistry as applied to the Industrial Arts, Gas and Water Works, Mining, Metatr 
lurgy, <fec. To save time, all communications for this department should be addressed 
" 19, Salisbury-street, Adelphi, London, W.C." and be forwarded, as early in the month 
as possible, to the Editor. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The Homogeneous Metal introduced some time since at Woolwich Factory for 
boilers, is ordered by the Admiralty to be applied experimentally in the manufacture of 
chains, links, fand similar purposes, and to be reported on accordingly after, being 
carefully tested. 

Compressed Aie Hammebs — As an improvement upon the ordinary mode of con- 
structing steam hammers, it is proposed to place beside the ordinary hammer cylinder 
another cylinder, which is connected with the hammer cylinder by a tube at bottom. The 
ascent of the piston of the other cylinder, by compressing the air, causes the piston of its 
companion to rise, and vice versa. 

Messes. Randolph, Eldee, & Co., of Glasgow, engineers and ship-bmlders, have success- 
fully completed the largest casting in the world. It is the sole-plate, containing the 
cranking, framing, condenser, air-pumps, and pillow blocks for the valve gearing;— all 
cast in one solid mass— a work of no ordinary difficulty. It measures 21ft. 8in. by 20it. 
broad, and 8ft. in height ; weighs over 59 tons; was cast in the open air; and will be fitted' 
up in a Government vessel (the Constance) by the above firm. 

Calobic Engines, to the number of nine, 32in. and 24in., have been ordered in New 
York for Spain. A manufactory of these engines has been established on a large scale 
at Bo'ckan, near Magdeburg, by the Hamburg Magdeburg Engine Company, aud placed 
under the charge of a machinist, who was sent to America on purpose to study tncir 
construction. 



The Abtizan,"] 
January. 1, 1861.J 



Notes and Novelties. 



19 



The " Lion," Screw Line of Battle Ship of 90 guns, and 400 horse-power, was tried 
on the 6th ult. The mean speed attained with 201bs. steam, 25in. vacuum and 66 revolu- 
tions, was 10'911 knots, the ship drawing 17ft. lOin. forward, and 21ft. 6in. aft. The 
engines worked at 1700 horse-power. This vessel was^launched in 1817 as a sailing ship, 
and was converted into a screw ahouttwo years since. 

The ship, drawing 20ft. 3in. forward, and 23ft. aft, with a mean of 56 revolutions with 
201t>3. steam and 25Jin. vacuum, gave as an average mean of six runs a speed of 12'296 
knots. The engines worked remarkably well, without any heating of the bearings. 

The " Orpheus," screw corvette, 21 guns, 400 horse-hower, was tried at the measured 
mile on the 4th ult. The vessel attained a mean speed of 12'8 knots per hour, with a 
mean of 66 revolutions. Her new machinery was found to work in the most satisfactory 
manner. 

It is Stated that the third naval power in Europe intends not to be behind-hand in 
putting on her armour, now that England has her Warriors, and France her Gloires. The 
Russian Admiral, Count Putiatine, left London a few weeks since for St. Petersburgh, taking 
with him, for Imperial approval and satisfaction, the drawings and contract for an iron 
ressel of war, which is to be built forthwith in the Thames. 

The " H.R.W. Hill," whilst on her voyage to New Orleans, on the 31st October last, 
struck on a snag; but after having- been run on the shore to stop the leak, again started 
oo. her trip, and on arriving within fifty miles of New Orleans the larboard boiler exploded, 
the head of which was blown through the engine-room and the after-part of the boat, 
followed by a tremendous rush of steam, killing and scalding every one who happened to 
be in its course. It appears that 30 persons were killed, and between 40 and 50 wounded. 

The " Frederick William," screw, 86 guns, laid down in 1842, from designs by Sir Wm. 
Symonds as a sailing three-decker, but now converted into a screw, gave on her trial, on 
the 29th inst., with no masts or stores on board, a speed of 11'782 knots as the mean of 
six runs, with and against tide, with a mean of 72 revolutions. Her bow retains the form 
originally designed by Sir Wm. Symonds for a sailing three-decker, and consequently she 
raised a very heavy sea forward when under full steam. She drew 17ft. 6in. forward, and 
23ft. 6in. aft. 

The Royal Mail Steam-packet Company own 24 ships, of an aggregate tonnage of 
44,345 tons, and 11,730 horse-power. They expended for coals on the half year to June 1860, 
£101,945 17s. '3d. The repairs in the ships for the six months amounted to £22,554 10s. Id. ; 
and on the machinery, £19,955 12s. 6d. 

The " Titania," Iron Yacht, designed and built by J. Scott Russell, Esq., for the late 
Robert Stephenson, Esq., the celebrated engineer, has been purchased by the Earl of 
Rosse. 

The Propellers of the ships General Admiral and Niagara are so arranged, that 
should any accident occur to them while at sea, they can be raised out of the water and 
so fixed that they can be readily attended to without delay, or the necessity of going into 
port for repairs. 

The "Argus," French screw despatch boat, lately built at St. Cloud, has a novelty 
sonnected with her boilers, which are heated by means of a jet of fire earned into the 
water itself by means of a metal worm. After having been submitted to various experi- 
ments before the Minister of Marine, and a body of scientific engineers, she will be sent 
to Cherbourg, there to be fitted out for sea. 

Thr French Minister op Marine has issued an order, directing that all vessels 
constructing for his government are to be built under shelter. 

The Screw Steamer "Rangoon," one of three steamers of 1800 tons each, built by 
Messrs. Palmer, Bros., and Co., of Jarrow, for laying the Rangoon and Pcnang cable, is 
now in the Thames, taking the cable on board. Her engines are by Messrs. Robert 
Morrison and Co., of Newcastle, on the direct-acting principle, with expansive valves and 
steam superheater. The nominal power is 250 horse ; diameter of cylinders, 55in. ; length 
of stroke, 2ft. 9in. On her passage from the Tyne to the Thames, she averaged 60 strokes 
per minute; and her consumption of coals was 20 cwt. per hour — the temperature of the 
iteam in the superheater being 310° ; pressure of steam in the boilers, 251bs ; indicated 
horse-power, 1000. 

The beautiful screw steam yacht Penelope, built by A. Leslie and Co., of Newcastle, 
made her trial trip on the measured mile in the Thames on the 24th of November last. Her 
average rate of speed was twelve and a half miles per hour. Her engines, built by 
Robert Morrison and Co., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, are upon the high-pressure direct-acting 
principle, with all recent improvements. They worked most satisfactorily, making 150 
revolutions per minute ; pressure of steam, 501bs. per square inch on the boiler ; nominal 
power, 20 horse ; consumption of coals, 3 cwt. per hour. 

The handsome screw steam yacht Taganrog, built by C. Mitchell and Co., Newcastle, 
for the Russian Government, made a trial trip on the Tyne at the measured mile on the 
8th of December. Her average speed was eleven miles per hour. Her engines are by 
Robert Morrison and Co., of Newcastle, of 30 horse-power nominal ; pressure of steam 
in the boilers, 201bs ; number of strokes, 120 per minute ; consumption of coals, 4 cwt. 
per hour. . 

The Thames Ironworks Company, it is stated, have received an order from the 
Russian Government for an iron-eased frigate of the Warrior class, but larger, say 6320 
tons, builders' measurement. Other vessels of the same class are to be built from year to 
year ; the vessels to be fitted with engines of 1250 horse-power. 

A Disc-wheel Propeller for steam-boats has lately been fitted to the Saucy Jack, 
steam-tug. It consists of a solid plain circular disc of metal or wood, or both in com- 
bination, with plain edges, made as thin as possible, consistently with its being strong 
enough to be turned rapidly in the water without " buckling" or breaking. One of these 
at the stem, or one at each side, will propel a boat. In the Saucy Jack, two wheels or discs 
replace the ordinary paddles; each wheel consists of four metal discs, open in the centre, 
about 14ft. in diameter, and dipping a little more than 2ft. in the water. With 47 revolu- 
tions a minute ; 61bs. steam in the boilers, and a consumption of 124 cwt. of coal per hour, 
the speed was 6 knots; the usual speed of the boat with ordinary radial paddles 
being 8 knots. 

The "Meteor," floating battery, is still having her plates removed. When the iron 
plates and planking are taken off, the outside of the vessel presents a remarkable aspect, 
owing to the black and soddened state of her timbers, &c., an inspection of which might go 
far towards elucidating the important question of the best mode of applying wood and 
iron in the future constructing of iron-cased vessels. 

The " Warrior," floating battery, is to be exposed to every conceivable trial which 
the Whitworth and Armstrong guns can furnish, and is to be taken to Shoeburyuess 
for that purpose. If the result of these trials is satisfactory, the entire navy of England 
will be adapted to meet the altered conditions of warfare suggested by these results ; if, 
on the contrary, the system of floating batteries should prove a failure, we shall not 
regret that the Admiralty have exercised their discretion in suspending all future contracts. 

Tee " Sentinel," iron screw steam-vessel, has just had her trial trip at Newcastle, 
which was considered to be satisfactory. She is intended for the Newcastle and London 
trade; her dimensions are— length, 152ft. ; beam, 24ft. ; depth, 15ft. ; tonnage O.M„140; 
register, 389 tons; capacity for cargo, about 500 tons; draught of water, laden 12ft.; 
nominal horse-power of engines, 100. She was built, with many excellent improvements, 
by Palmer Brothers, of Jarrow-on-the-Tyne, and Jier engines were fitted by Messrs. 
Hawthorne, of Newcastle. 

The Cost of Fuel to the Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company for the past 
year has amounted to the enormous sum of £850,000. 

A Prospectus has been issued of the East India and London Shipping Company, 
formed for the purpose of establishing a fast line of inexpensive vessels direct to India, 



the only port of call being Madras. The fleet secured for the service comprises the large and 
well-known auxiliary screw steamships formerly on the Australian route, Golden Fleece 
Jason, Queen of the South, Calcutta, Indiana, and Sydaspes, which are to be transferred 
to the company at about one-third of their original cost. These vessels will be employed 
as sailing clippers, steam being used only in case of calms and on nearing port; and the 
duration of the voyage will, it is hoped, not exceed 70 days out, and 65 days home. 

RAILWAYS. 

It is stated in the United States that India-rubber will soon be abandoned 
altogether m that country, as a material for railroad springs. It is found that unless a 
very large quantity be used, it does not have a sufficient range of action, and it becomes 
hard by use. Most of the rubber now made becomes soft in very hot weather and freezes 
in very cold. 

In the United States, 24,000 miles of railway have cost only £216,000,000 sterling, 
whilst, in England, 9000 miles have cost £300,000,000 sterling ! From this it would 
seem that law expenses and compensation are much more reasonable in the States. 

Cast-iron Tybes are on the wheels of every engine on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road ; and it is stated by the locomotive manager, that of more than 1600 tires in 
regular use under the 235 engines owned by the company, but two broke during the last 
winter, and these were defective castings. 

The Railway Calls for the year 1860 amounted to a total of £14 193 391. 

During the last 19 weeks of the past year the traffic on the 224J miles of the 
Brighton line has produced an increase of revenue of £25,000 over the average. 

There is now a continuous chain of railroads from Bangor to New Orleans in the 
United States, composed of eighteen independent roads, costing in the aggregate for 
2244 miles of road, about £10,000,000, or nearly one-tenth of the whole railway sys'tem 
in the United States. 

Four years ago there was not a mile of street railroad out of New York ■ now all 
the principal cities in the United States have them. In Philadelphia; alone there are 155 
miles of this description of railway." 

The London, Chatham, and Dover Railway from London to Canterbury was 
opened for traffic with metropolitan termini for the first time in the early part of the 
last month. The works have been carried out in a very good and efficient manner. 

In Winan's Locomotive Engines, the draw-bars are upwards of ten feet long, 
and three, or three and a-half, inches in diameter, the engines having no footboard • the 
draw-bar connects to the frame in front of the fire-box, and runs through the ash-pan, which 
is seven and a-half feet long. As hot coals drop upon the bar it is occasionally'heated 
red-hot and drawn in two. 

The "Quebec Indicator," referring most severely to the "extravagant, reckless" 
management of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, says: — On one section of the line 
a large bonus is paid to a steam -boat owner, to buy off competition ; on another section, 
the road is leased out to private parties, who are paid a large premium for keeping it 
open, although it is notorious they make the road pay a handsome profit. The London 
creditors of the Grand Trunk Railway may as well understand, so intimately are the 
affairs of the road bound up with ■ the corruption and malpractices of the Canadian 
governing system, that to repair the one will likely put an end to the other ; that the 
severance of the tie which binds the twain will be something akin to the granting of a 
new constitution to Canadians. 

A Rumour which has latterly been in circulation in the North of England, that the 
Midland and Lancashire, and Yorkshire Railway Companies were about to amalgamate, 
has received a contradiction " on the most positive authority." It is added that no 
proposal of such a nature has been made, or even discussed by the directors. The 
rumour has probably arisen from the fact that negotiations have been taking place 
for some alterations and improvements in the traffic arrangements between the two 
companies. 

j) PAt a Meeting of the Manchester City Council, it was stated that Mr. Train, finding so 
many difficulties thrown in his way, has come to the conclusion not to construct his rail- 
way in Manchester until Parliament has given him power to lay down lines, with such 
powers of reservation over them, which he considers he has a right to have. 

An Invention for warming street cars has lately been applied to the cars on the rail- 
roads of the United States. A furnace is attached underneath, on which are placed draft- 
doors, regulated by the motion of the car, so that there is certain to be a strong draft in 
either direction. Pipes extend from the drum of the furnace up through the floor of the 
car and along the whole length of the seats,from which sufficient heat radiates to warm 
the interior comfortably. These pipes are so adjusted as not to consume any of the space 
required for the convenience of the passengers. 

New Railway Works Throughout the Country. — From the notices in The London 
Gazette it will be found that not fewer than 262 railway bills — all new, or next to new — 
will be ready for the consideration of Parliament in the forthcoming session, if the pro- 
moters perform the necessary preliminary conditions. Many of the lot, doubtless, will 
not go beyond publication in the Gazette, or but a few steps further, but still a good 
balance will remain to give employment to committees, engineers, lawyers, &c. Two 
hundred and sixty bills are a formidable number, but it will be found that few are heavy 
enterprises. 

■j PA Prospectus has been issued of the Regent's Canal Railway, with a capital of 
£650,000, in £10 shares. The proposal is to enlarge the basin of the Regent's Canal at 
Limehouse, and to build a steamboat pier and a railway along the Canal from Limehouse 
to Maiden-lane. It will pass through Stepney, Mile-end, Hoxton, and Islington, and 
connect with the London and North-Western, the Great Northern, the Metropolitan, and 
the Blackwall railways at King's-cross and Camden-town. The railway will not interfere 
with the working of the Canal, and is expected to bring additional business to it. 
MILITARY ENGINEERING. 

In 1779, 68-pounder carronades, east by the Carron Company, having a bore equal to the 
S-inch howitzer, were introduced into the British Navy. 

In 1810, the large howitzers introduced by Napoleon I. at the siege of Cadiz, threw 
shells over that town into the harbour— a range of 6000 yards. 

Sebastopol is being restored. General Todleben, the distinguished Russian military 
engineer, is on the spot, and has been directing his skill towards the repair of the forti- 
fications damaged by the play of the French and British cannon. 
TELEGRAPHIC ENGINEERING. 

In the New French Opera House, about to be erected, the electric telegraph is 
intended to play a very prominent part. An instantaneous line of communication is to 
be established betwen the cabinet of the Minister of State and that of the director of the 
theatre ; a wire will also run from the box-office to the principal hotels, so that strangers 
will be able to engage places immediately on their arrival in Paris. 

The Electric and International Telegraph Company have successfully relaid 
their cable from Holyhead to Howth, and there is once again a second line of communica- 
tion between the two countries. There is not, however, as yet so thorough or complete 
or economical a system of telegraphing in Ireland as might be carried out, and as it is to 
be hoped will be soon done. 

The Steamer "Danube" has arrived at Malta, with nearly all the Red Sea Telegraph 
Company's staff of telegraph clerks, who are returning homewards. From this it would 
appear that the Red Sea Telesrraph Company intend abandoning the cable for the present. 
Measures are being taken for~the immediate completion of the Corfu and Otranto section 
of the Mediterranean Extension Telegraph line. 



20 



Notes and Novelties. 



("The Aetizan, 
L January 1, 1861. 



1142 


387,740 


131 ... 
197 ... 

59 ... 

99 ... 
.001 ... 


66,834 

66,793 

22,604 

27,808 

192,518 



Undbb the celebrated tariff now being arranged between this country and France, the 
duties on shipping will be as follows : — Ships and boats in wood, 25 francs per ton in 
1860, and 20 francs in 1864; iron ditto, 70 francs in 1860, and 60 francs in 1864; hulls of 
ships in wood, 15 francs in 1860, and 10 francs in 1864; hulls in iron, 50 francs in 1860, 
and 40 francs in 1864. 

Feom a statistical return, published in Paris, it appears that 700 people are killed, 
and 5000 wounded every year in the streets of Paris by the carriages and other vehicles. 
According to the calculation (made by M. Poursageaud), the carriages in Paris kill and 
wound more people than all the railways in Europe, and more than the 4,000,000 of 
carriages in all the rest of France. The number of victims is 400 in Paris to one in the 
provinces ! 

The Night Signal Lamps of Mr. Ward having been much improved, and had their 
weight reduced from 401bs. each to 81bs.,'have been lately tried again by order of the Board 
of Admiralty. They can now give 178 signals without the working lines, a convenience 
never before attained in the code of night signals. The committee united in con- 
gratulating the inventor on the success which he had finally accomplished, and ex- 
pressed their opinion that no alteration or improvement could by any possibility be 
further desired. 

The English Gold Coinage is 22 parts pure gold to 2 parts of alloy. One thousand 
pounds of American gold coin contain 900 pounds pure gold, 50 pounds of silver, and 60 
of copper. The English coin is the finer. 

The number, tonnage, and class of vessels in actual employment on the American 
lakes in 1858 and 1859 were as follows : — 

1858. 

Number. Tons. 

Paddle steamers 130 72,108 

Screw 182 65,271 

Barks ... 57 22,817 

Brigs 97 27,121 

Schooners 974 200,323 

1442 
1859. 

Paddle steamers 

Screws 

Barks 

Brigs 

Schooners 

1487 376,557 

It is understood that the increase in the past year has been very great. 

The Labgest Raft that ever came down the Mississippi, arrived the other day at 
Dubuque. It contained 1,100,000ft. of lumber, and 950,000 shingles and lath. 

In Caloeic Engines and improvements Captain Ericsson is still progressing, as he 
has lately obtained another patent, of a very voluminous character, for several new im- 
provements in hot-air engines. 

At Ottawa, III., U.S., a large structure, known as the Aqueduct Mills, is to be moved 
across the canal at that place, and taken to a place about one mile distant. 

The Tunnel Woeks at Mont Cenis are said to be suspended ; some say from want 
of funds ; others, from unexpected difficulties in the execution. 

The Aie Engine, although much younger than the steam engine, has had an immense 
amount of attention paid to it, no less a number than between 200 and 300 patents having 
been taken out for improvements in it in this country, and 35 in the United States. 

Fob Boileb Lagging on the Mine Hill and Schuylkill Haven Railroad they use a 
composition of plaster of Paris, asbestos, and soapstone, mixed in gum shellac. This mix- 
ture is applied in a thin layer over and around the boiler, which is afterwards covered 
with binders' board, varnished on the outside. 

Wateb Tube Gbate Bars are coming into extensive use in the United States 
for coal-burning engines; those on the Beading Railroad answer perfectly. They are 
ten in number for afire-box 42 in. wide, and screwed into the inside sheets. In every 
third or fourth interval is placed a round solid grate bar, which can be immediately 
withdrawn for cleaning the fire. The tubes are say 2J inches in diameter, No 10 iron, and 
open in the front and back water spaces. 

On the Peaieies of the U.S, the commerce is carried on by means of " prairie 
schooners." These are waggons four times as large as common road waggons, the bed of 
each being fourteen feet long, four feet wide, and six feet between the bottom of the bed 
and the bows, and the entire waggon weighs 2000 lbs. when empty, and carries 
from 5500 to 6000 lbs. To these monster road ships are usually hitched ten or twelve 
head of cattle, or as many mules ; and upon an average twenty or twenty-five waggons go 
together in one train, employing twenty-eight or thirty men. 

Fob Peeventing Incrustation in Steam Boilehs, a M. Boulard, of Paris, proposes 
to employ what may be called an inner wire gauze boiler. He states that the deleterious 
matter is deposited on the gauze, and may then be easily removed. The gauze is kept 
off the sides of the boiler by brackets, and in order to facilitate the placing of the pro- 
tecting gauze in position, he proposes to make it in pieces, which may be passed through 
the man-hole, and then connected together. 

Some Extraordinary Timbee has lately been purchased at Liverpool. It consisted 
of two New Zealand pine logs from Kauri, where immense forests of probably centuries 
growth have been discovered. The logs were of the following dimensions,— the first 50£ feet 
long, 26s inches square, containing 246} feet of timber. The other 26 feet long, 28 inches 
square, containing 142 feet. Some of the logs obtained were from 70 to 80 feet in length. 
The timber is of a fine hard texture, and remarkably free from knots. Trees may be seen 
in the forests of 90 feet in clear length, and more than 26 inches square. 

Atmosphebic Post.— There is a great question at this moment of adopting in Paris a 
new system for transporting letters and despatches by means of long tubes, from which 
the air is exhausted at one end. This process was tried, and patented in 1854 by Mr. 
Latimer Clark, Engineer of the Electric Telegraph Company of Lothbury. It was tried 
on a large scale in 1857 between Moorgate-street and the General Post Office ; the results 
we?e so good, that this mode of carriage will doubtless soon be generally adopted. It is, 
however, very afflicting to see our French neighbours profit, as they frequently do, by an 
Englishman's invention, before the latter can persuade his own country to adopt it. 

Fob kib Intebnational Exhibition of 1862 the guarantee list includes 662 persons, 
and the sum guaranteed now amounts to £366,800. The Commissioners for the Exhibi- 
tion of 1851 have granted a site for the building on their estate at South Kensington. 

The Novelty Ieon Woeks at New York lately completed one of the largest and 
heaviest pieces of wrought-iron ever made in that country. It consists of a wrought-" 
iron eaatre shaft and four cranks (two air-pumps and two-main engine), for the 
steamer Golden Gate, of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company's line. The cranks 
weighed in the rough, as they came from the forge, individually 9956 lbs. ; the air-pump 
cranxs are cut from a solid block of metal, weighing, each block, 14,336 lbs.; the pin of 
these c ak3 (a nice little fffair to handle), 6614 lbs. ; the two shafts amount in the agere- 
a. :o to '6,4 -3ibs. These pieces are all bored out and turned to fit their several places 
leg.; 3>.e amount necessary for shrinkage; they are then expanded by heat, and inserted 
in their proper positions ; the contraction of the metal to its original size, and the addition 
of two keys in each shaft, secure the whole fabric beyond the possibility of detachment 
whatever strain it may be submitted to. The job, as finished,'is a perfect specimen of 



workmanship, being without flaw or botch in the various stages of its construction. The 
forging was also done in New York, and is a handsome piece of smithing. 

In Manufactubing Stebl from cast-iron, anew process has been patented inNew York. 
Cast-iron, in the form of thin bars or plates, is packed in,an iron box, or other suitable 
receptacle, with sufficent carbonate of soda to completely cover the bars when the salt is 
in a melted state. The box, with its contents, is subjected to a bright red heat for several 
hours, the time varying with the thickness of the bars. The soda salt acts both as a 
purifier of the iron and as a decarbonizing agent. The carbon of the cast-iron is 
gradually e liminated, through its affinity for the oxygen of the soda, and passes off as 
carbonic oxide. Sodium is set free and volatilised, and may be collected beneath the sur- 
face of liquids, which contain no oxygen in their composition (melted paraffin is a suitable 
liquid for this purpose). It is more convenient, however, to allow the sodium to become 
re-oxydised by admitting just air enough to effect the purpose through a small opening 
in the top of the containing vessel. Soda is thus reproduced for future use. The process 
of decarbonisation is arrested at such a stage of the operation that there will be left in 
the iron just the amount of carbon requisite for good steel. The impurities of the cast- 
iron — silicon, sulphur, and phosphorus — are also eliminated, and consequently, the sili- 
cate of soda and the sulphide and the phosphide of soda are in the residuum after the 
completion of the process. The condition of the iron and the progress of the operation 
may be determined at any time by withdrawing a bar and testing it. The carbonate of 
potash may be substituted for that of soda in this process. If they make use of a com- 
bination of the carbonates of potash and soda, in the proportion of their equivalents, 
the mixture will retain its fluidity at a lower temperature than soda alone ; and, there- 
fore, would be sometimes preferable. The oxides of iron and zinc may be used with good 
effect in combination with the carbonate described. The hydrates of potash and 
soda may be used instead of the carbonates, but neither so conveniently nor 
economically. After the carbonates have become very impure by continued use 
they may be purified by pulverising, mixing with saw-dust, and exposed to a red 
heat. The resulting material is dissolved in water and re-chrystalised. The bars con- 
verted into steel by this process may be worked directly under the hammer and rolls, or 
it may be melted, cast into ingots, and hammered. This process presents these essential 
advantages : it ensures the manufacture of an uniform article ; it removes silicon, 
sulphur, and phosphorus — impurities that are only partially removed in the prepara- 
tion of the best bar-iron for the ordinary steel process, and it diminishes materially 
the cost of manufacture of both the common and the superior kinds of steel. 

At Woolwich Dockyard orders have been received from the Admiralty to cease work- 
ing on the job and task system after the 1st of February next ; and that all persons holding 
acting appointments as measurers and writers are to return to their former situations. 
Vacancies in the factory for clerks to be filled up by writers. The exertion money of one 
shilling per week allowed to labourers is also to cease — thus reducing the wages of these 
men to twelve shillings per week. 

The "Engine-Dbivebs' and Fibembn's Shobt-houbs' Movement" is still being 
agitated. A few days ago, at a meeting held at Leeds, there were about 100 men present. 
The chair was taken by one of the London and North Western men, who described 
at some length the objects of the movement, which were either by an arrangement 
with the directors of the various lines of railway, or by a legislative enactment, to fix 
the number of working hours per day at the uniform rate of ten, instead of, as at 
present, indefinitely ranging from fourteen to sixteen, and, at times, eighteen hours. 
The meeting was addressed by a deputation from Manchester, who described the 
steps which had already been taken towards effecting the object which the as- 
sociation had in view. Several members of Parliament and other persons of influence 
had expressed themselves as favourable to the movement. Amongst the rest, the 
Earl of Shaftesbury had said that he was willing to aid them by every means 
in his power. Lord Shaftesbury, however, advised them to exhaust every other means 
in their power before applying to Parliament. This they had endeavoured to do. 
They had addressed respectful memorials to locomotive superintendents, and, failing to 
get any redress by that course, they also memorialised the directors. Some advantage 
had been gained by the latter course, as the president said the locomotive superintendents 
of the Lancashire line had received orders to carry out the ten hours' system as soon 
as possible, and with this view several new locomotives had been ordered to'be made. On 
other lines, however, especially the Great Northern, the directors said it was impossible 
to carry out the system. Resolutions in favour of an application to Parliament were 
adopted. 

A Lighthouse is to be placed on the shore, near Gavo Island, New South Wales, and 
the cost is estimated at about £20,000. 

The Steam Break for locomotives was patented by Richard Roberts, the well-known 
engineer, in April, 1832. The late Mr. Robert Stephenson also patented the steam break 
for locomotives, in October, 1833. 

Hydeogen Gas was used for illuminating in 1133. Clayton's demonstration of gat- 
lighting by coal gas was before the public in K3& Dr. Watson produced and burned 
coal gas in 1767. Murdoch lighted his house at Redruth, in Cornwall, with gas in 1792, 
and made an extensive gas apparatus at the Soho Works in 1798, the works being illu- 
minated at the declaration of peace in 1802. Pall Mall was lighted with gas, made under 
Winsor's patent, in 1804. 

The Numbeb op Wbecks reported during the month of October was 276. Li the 
month of January there were 229; in February, 154; in March, 166; in April, 133 ; in 
May, 124; in June, 146; in July, 60; in August, 96; and in September, 103,— making 
total during the present year of 1487. 

The "Cobbespondencia" op Madrid gives the following as the naval force of Spain, 
as fixed for the coming year .—A sailing ship of 81 guns, a frigate of 42, 2 corvettes 
carrying together 60 guns, 2 brigs with 32 guns between them, and two transports of 
2743 tons. Screw Steamers.— Three frigates, mounting in all 115 guns, and with 
machinery of the force of 1460 horse-power ; 4 schooners, with ten guns and 310 horse- 
power; and 6 transports of 7300 tons and 1310 horse-power. Six paddle-steamers, carry- 
ing together 40 guns, and moved by machinery of 1930 horse-power. In addition, the 
Coastguard Service of the Peninsula includes 2 screw-steamers, with 4 guns, and of 761 
horse-power ; 2 despatch boats, with 4 guns ; 2 luggers, with a gun each ; 25 feluccas, 
and 73 other craft. The total force of Spain, then, colonies not included, may be taken 
at 25 armed vessels, carrying 393 guns, 10 transports, together of 10,000 tons burden, and 
97 auxiliaries. The number of men to be provided for the navy and naval stations is 
given as follows: — 1919 marines, 571 guards for the arsenals, and 7176 sailors — in 
all 12,661. 

Combustion Chambees in locomotives, as now used in the two forms patented by 
McConnell, were patented by Stubbs & Gryll in 1846. 

A Throttle Valve, or cock, in the exhaust pipe of a steam engine, for retarding or 
stopping its motion, was patented by W. H. James in 1821. 

STEAM SHIPPING. 

The 'Rkadamahthus," paddle-wheel steam vessel, has commenced taking in the boilers 
and machinery intended for the screw steamship Black Prince, now building at Greenock. 
The engines will be of 1250 horse-power, and it is expected their transport will occupy 
the services of the Mhadamanihm throughout the winter, and extend over seven or eight 
voyages. 

The Scbbw Steamship " Hows," 121 guns, was tried at Plymouth, on the 4th nit 
Her engines are of 1000 horse-power, working up to 4050 horse ; they are trunk engines, 
and are worked by eight boilers, the four forward of 600 horse-power, and the four aft 
of 400 horse-power, together, 1000. The diameter of the screw is 22ft, and the pitch 28ft. 



s>L /cjco 



LIBRARY 



The Artizan,"1 
January 1, 1861. J 



Notes and Novelties, 



U. S, PATENT OFF 






21 



LAUNCHES OF STEAMERS. 

The "Ahalia," screw steam frigate, built for the Greek Government, was launched on 
the 16th ult., in a highly successful manner, at the premises of Mr. Henry J. Pitcher, 
Northfleet Dockyard. The Amalia is intended to carry thirty-six guns, and is of 1000 
tons burthen. She is to be fitted with her screw machinery and completed forthwith, in 
order to be forwarded to her destination. After the launch, which took place about half- 
past two o'clock, a numerous party, at the invitation of Mr. Pitcher, adjourned to the 
mould-loit, which had been fitted up in a very attractive manner, and where a dejeuner 
was provided. 

The "Rapid," Screw Sloop, 11 guns'and 150 horse-power, was launched atDeptfordin 
the early part of last month. Her armament will consist of one 68-pounder, 32-cwt. 
pivot gun, and ten 30 cwt. 32-pounder guns. 

The "Amalia," a large iron screw steamer, built by Messrs. J. & G. Thomson for the 
Liverpool, Constantinople, and Syria trade, was recently launched from their shipyard at 
Govan. The Amaliais about 2000 tons burthen, with engines of 300 horse-power; this is 
the sixth vessel built by Messrs. Thomson for the same trade. The progress and extent 
of the Mediterranean steam trade will be appreciated when it is stated that not many 
years ago only two small steamers were employed in this trade, and that now upwards of 
fifty large screw steamers sail from Liverpool for the various ports in Italy, Greece, 
Syria, &c. 

The " Rio Jekojie," a screw steamer of 580 tons, has been launched from the building 
yard of Messrs. Scott & Co., at Carts-dyke ; her dimensions are — 200ft. long, 25%ft. broad, 
and 25jft. deep, within the hold ; the same size and model as the Bocciocchi, which was 
launched about two months ago, and for the same owners, at Marseilles. 

The " Palikari," an iron screw steamship, was launched, a few days since, from the 
yard of Messrs. Richardson & Duck, at Stockton-on-Tees. She is intended for the London 
and Mediterranean trade, and is the largest vessel ever built on the Tees, her dimensions 
being— length over all, 250ft. ; breadth, 31ft. 6in. ; tonnage O.M., 1200 ; burthen, 1500 
tons ; nominal horse-power, 180 ; effective, 600. The engines are by Richardson & Sons, 
of Hartlepool. 

GAS SUPPLY. 

The Louth Gas Company have declared a dividend of 10 per cent. The 6 per cent, 
guaranteed on the additional capital raised a few years since has also been paid. The 
same dividend was paid last year. 

In Lighting Steamers with Gas, the Birkenhead Commissioners are trying the ex- 
periment. They are usinz gas to light the cabins of their river steamers, a quantity 
being carried on board each steamer daily. 

A Report on the recent explosion in St. Mary's Church, Oxford, by Mr. Siemens, C.E., 
•f London, attributes it to gas accumulated under the flooring, where a workman had 
thrown down a burning match. The gas main had been broken whilst laying pipes for 
the hot water apparatus. 

On the 7th ult. a remarkable explosion of gas took place in a small house, No. 1, 
Elizabeth-place, Wandsworth, which blew up the walls, and has necessitated the entire 
re-building of the house. It is stated that, through defective pipes, the gas had accumu- 
lated between the lowest floor in the front of the house. A woman and some children 
were in the back room, where the floor remained uninjured, and they contrived to escape. 
The furniture in the house was blown to pieces. It is remarkable that the persons in the 
adjoining house, who were slightly injured, did not hear the explosion, although the 
whole neighbourhood were alarmed by it. 

In Purifying Coal Gas it is proposed to apply sewage containing sulphuret of iron ; 
pickle waste may be applied for the same purpose, and the residuum may be treated to 
produce salts of iron, which may be again used for the purification of gas. 

The Gas and Coke Company, Swindon-lane, have.reduced the price of gas to 6s. 6d. 
per 100O. 

For the Town op Pewsey, "Wilts, a gas and'coke company is being formed. 

The Shipley Gas Consumers are agitating for a reduction in the price of gas, to 
which the gas company object, that, taking an average of years, their dividends have not 
exceeded 5\ per cent. Meantime, not only are the street lamps unlighted at night, but a 
third part of the shopkeepers do not use gas. 

Glycerine in Gas Meters. — Now that the cold weather seems to have set in, it will 
perhaps be useful to name here a very ingenious application of glycerine. It is known 
that the water in the gas meters, being subject to freeze, often causes a great deal of 
trouble in private dwellings and shops. Last winter, during three days of very hard 
frost, we saw most of the shops on the Boulevard des Italiens, at Paris, taken by surprise, 
and remain for some time without light in the evening, on account of the water freezing 
in the gas meters. This was remedied to a certain degree by mixing spirits of wine or 
brandy with the water. But that is expensive ; and in summer another drawback is met 
with : the water evaporates very rapidly during the hot days, and is obliged to be con- 
stantly replaced. Now, M. Fabian has proposed glycerine to be used instead of water in 
gas meters. It does not evapor ite, like water, with the summer heat, nor has it been 
known to freeze in winter, however intense the cold. The commercial glycerine, which 
marks on Baume"s aerometer from 15 to 17 degrees, and which contains 40 to 45 per cent, 
of pure anhydrous glycerine, may be cooled down to 20 and 25 degrees (Centigrade) below 
zero without becoming solid. It appears that this substance was formerly proposed and 
its use patented in Paris by M. Barreswil, who had experimented with it successfully 
during the hard frost of last winter, when the thermometer actually marked 26° below 
zero (Centigrade). 

Indique-fuites. — This name has been given to an ingenious apparatus invented by 
M. Cantagrel, and destined to show when there exists an escape in gas-pipes. It is essen- 
tially composed of a pear-shaped bladder of caoutchouc, called la poire, and of a sort of 
small recipient called I'eprouvette ; these two objects are connected ty a tube having in its 
centre a tap, which establishes or shuts off the communication between the poire and the 
eprouvette, and also between the gas-pipes and the apparatus. When the poire is com- 
pressed by the hand, the transmitted pressure causes the eprouvette to swell as long as 
the pressure is maintained, and if there be no escape in the tubes, the eprouvette remains 
in this state the whole time. If, however, the least escape of gas is taking place, the 
eprouvette soon returns to its primitive volume ; and the time that it takes to do this will 
give an idea of the extent of the damage. If it takes about 5 minutes, the holes by 
which the gas is escaping are of sufficient importance to require immediate attention. 

MINES, METALLURGY, &c. 

A return of the Russian gold mines for 1858 and 1859 gives the following results : — 
1859, 38,556 lbs., value £1,927,800 ; 1858, 41,514 lbs., value £2,075,700. 

The Mineral Wealth of Spain is enormous, and comparatively undeveloped. 
From a recent survey, it is estimated that the coal region covers 120 square leagues, 
containing 2,300,000,000 tons of coals of a quality but little inferior to our own. In 
France the consumption of coal amounts to 60,000,000 of tons annually. 

It is stated as a singular geological circumstance that it is not very uncommon in the 
prairies of the United States to find, in the grass, smooth round copper boulders, weighing 
from one cwt. each, upwards, solid pieces of pure virgin copper. How they came there it 
is impossible even to conjecture, for though large stray stone boulders are met with here 
and there, there is, of course, nothing like rock in the whole district, either above or below 
the soil. 

Is 1859 there were 216 collieries at work in Scotland, from which 5,700,000 tons of coal 
were raised. The number of deaths from accidents, including ^explosions, was 8'2 per 
million of tona of coal raised. 



The Total Value of the earthy minerals of the United Kingdom raised per year 
amounts to £7,954,075. The total value of metals, metalliferous minerals and coals, 
produced per annum amounts to £31,266,932. Thus our annual mineral produce has 
the enormous value of £39,221,007. 

The following shows the annual |outpull of coal, and the ^numbcrlof deaths resulting 
from its raising : — 

Tons of coal raised. Number of deaths. 

185? — 64,307,459 956 

I s56 66,645,450 1027 

18'W 65,394,707 1122 

1858 65,008,649 931 

1859 ... 65,500,000 905 

326,856,265 4941 

From this it appears that upon the average during" the five years, and including the 
whole of the collieries in Great Britain, one life has been lost for every 66,150 tons of coal 
raised, whilst during 1859 upwards of 72,000 tons were raised for each death— the im- 
provement being nearly 10 per cent. ; or, in other words, during the five years the' average 
number of lives lost for each million tons of coal raised was 15 - 11, whilst during 
1859 the loss of life has been less than 14 for each million tons raised— the improvement 
being equal to 6 per cent. 

The Total Produce of building and other stones is estimated at 15 764,200 tons ; 
7,500,000 were raised in England ; 3,500,000 tons were raised in Wales; 4,750,000 tons in 
Scotland; and 14,200 tons in Jersey ; and 800,000 tons in Ireland. 

The Great Bulk of the tin and copper ores raised in the world are smelted or refined 
in this country, affording an immense trade to the shipping and coal mining interests. 

Sulphide op Potassium is now believed to be the residuum of gunpowder which we 
see giving a reddish colour to mortars after shell practice. It has also been considered to 
be a proof that the powder has been adulterated with fulminating mercury to increase its 
strength. 
_ From the New Zealand Steel, obtained from a black sand, which, when smelted, 
yields 66 per cent, of pure steel, a poniard, made from some of the samples, was 
driven through two penny pieces, one over the other, without any injury to the edge. Somo 
half a dozen individuals in London have subscribed the capital required to work a grant 
of the district where the sand is found. 

Puzzolana is found in the greatest abundance at Puteoli, in Italy, now called 
Puzzuoli. It is of the lava genus, magnetic, and easily melts into a black slag. It sud- 
denly hardens when mixed with one-third of its weight of lime and water, forming a 
cement of great durability under water. Its constituents are said by Bergman to be 
55 to 60 parts of silicious earth, 20 of argillaceous, 5 or 6 of calcareous, and from 15 to 20 
of iron. The expense attending the importation of the volcanic puzzolana has led to the 
production of several efficient substitutes. 

Smelting Iron was practised in England during the Roman occupation. Roman 
coins have been found in many beds of cinders, the remains of ancient iron works. 
Remains of ancient furnaces have been found in Yorkshire, Staffordshire, and Lancashire, 
but the principal seats of manufacture appear to have been in Sussex and the Forest of 
Dean. The art of working in steel was much practised before the Norman conquest. The 
army of Harold was well supplied with defensive weapons both of steel and iron ; even the 
horses had covers of iron armour. Every chief officer maintained a smith at his own 
expense, whose duty it was to take charge of the armour of his master, and keep it in 
repair. 

Iron Ore abounds in the mountains surrounding Bilboa, and gives considerable 
employment to native industry, and is exported to a large extent to France. This branch 
of industry commenced in 1850, and was prospering materially, English vessels being em- 
ployed to convey cargoes of the ore to England. In 1852, however, the Spanish Govern- 
ment imposed an export duty on the article, and a differential duty on such of it as was 
carried in English bottoms, and at once stopped the trade with England. The ore in 
question is used in the iron manufactures of Biscay, and to a large extent in the iron 
foundries adjoining Bilboa. 

Iron Ore. — The discovery of a considerable field of iron ore at Hof, on the Bavarian- 
Saxon frontier, gave rise in 1854 to an association for carrying on extensive iron works 
there, which are to be worked with coals brought from Zurekaw. It is estimated that 
the yield of iron from the ore is 35 per cent. A railway direct from Zurekaw would, 
it is said, give complete success to the undertaking. 

Copper Ore is found in the Provinces of Biscay (Spain), and mines of it are now worked, 
the ore being shipped. to Swansea for smelting. 

Cannel Coal. — An American paper says, " This coal has been in our market for several 
years, but until recently it has not received much attention from consumers, and even 
now it is difficult to remove the early prejudices that were formed against it. The 
leading commendable qualities of this fuel are : — 1. It is clean, makes no soot, but little 
smoke, and no cinders. 2. It ignites freely, and burns pleasantly. The only objection 
to it is the presence of small particles of slate, which cause it to fly occasionally ;_ this 
objection is gradually being overcome, for as the mines are penetrated the slate disap - 
pears. For cooking purposes it is almost equal to wood, and, of course, a great deal 
cheaper. It would be a grand feature if Cannel coal could be supplied in sufficient qmm,* 
tities to insure its general use for household purposes." 

On Mixtures op Cast-iron and Nickel. — The 15th vol. of the Memoirs of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Manchester contains a long paper by Mr. W. Fairbaim, 
upon the ett'ect of nickel upon the properties of iron. Meteoric iron contains often 
about 2\ per cent, of nickel, and it is well known that this iron possesses peculiar pro- 
perties. In order to determine whether it would be possible to obtain an artificial com- 
pound of this nature, and to ascertain the effect produced by mixing a certain proportion 
of nickel with cast-iron, some experiments were made. They consisted in the extraction 
of the nickel from the ore found in the mines of the Duke of Argyle, near Inverary, 
purifying it by repeated meltings, and mixing it with east-iron in such proportion as to 
form a compound containing about % per cent, of nickel. The mixtures were fused, in 
crucibles, and run into ingots or bars, which were then tested in regard to their 
mechanical powers of resistance to transverse strain. Meteoric iron is remarkable for 
its ductility ; but the ingots prepared^s above differ widely from it in this respect. To 
sum up the results of these investigations, it is evident that an admixture of nickel in 
the proportion of 2'50 per cent, does not increase, but diminish the tenacity of cast-iron. 
Mixtures of the two metals used in this proportion are decidedly inferior to the pure 
metal in the power of resistance to a transverse strain, and to impact. Besides this, 
another object was aimed at in these experiments, namely, to produce a metal of increased 
tenacity suitable for the casting of cannon, and heavy ordnance. During the last two 
years innumerable experiments have been made for this purpose with more or less success ; 
but the ultimate result appears to be, that 'for the construction of heavy artillery there is 
no metal so well calculated to resist the explosion of gunpowder as a perfectly homo-, 
geneous mass of the best and purest cast-iron, free from sulphur and phosphorus. 

A Colliery Explosion of a terrific and fatal character occurred on the 2nd ult., at 
the Black Vein Pit, at Risca, near Newport, South Wales : 135 men and boys, and 28 horses 
have been destroyed by this accident. 

Colliery on Fire.— For the purposes of ventilation, a fire-lamp was placed two 
weeks ago in one of the levels of the Arthur Pit of the Elgin Colliery, near Dumferline. The- 
position of the lamp being close to the coal, during the night the coal took fire, and in 
spite of every effort to extinguish it, the fire has not yet been brought under. It is. 



22 



Notes and Novelties. 



("The AsTizAif, 
L January 1, 1861 



intended, however, to raise the water in the level over the burning coal. In attempting 
to extinguish the fiery mass, much danger has been encountered, but fortunately no 
accident has hitherto occurred. The number of men thrown idle by the fire is considerable, 
but the whole have been employed, either atsome other pit in the colliery, or in trying to 
extinguish the fire. 

RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. 

The Trent Valley Fatal AccmENT on the London and North Western Railway at 
Atherstone will, it is estimated, with its compensations, losses, and the expenses in- 
cidental to the inquiry, cost the North Western Company upwards of £20,000. 

A Fatal Railway Accident occurred on the North Eastern Railway, between Pelaw 
Main and Usworth, on the evening of the 8th ult. A gentleman had got out of a train 
at the former station, and was walking along' the line towards his residence, when he was 
struck by the engine, and so severely injured that he died shortly afterwards. 

Another of those many accidents arising from carelessness took place on the 15th ult., 
at the Commercial Dock Junction on the North Kent Railway, by which many passengers 
were severely shaken and some injured. The express due at London Bridge at 8.45 over- 
took an engine on the up line, and thus a collision. It is said by the South Eastern 
directors that their system of telegraphs and signals are perfect. Witness the Lewisham 
accident, the Grove Ferry accident, and the above. 

On the night of the 16th ult., about ten o'clock, a fatal accident occurred to a man, at 
present unknown, on the Eastern Counties Railway, near the North Woolwich Station. 
It appears that the deceased was on the line of rails at the time that a down train was 
about to enter the station, when he was knocked down, and the entire train passed over 
his body, which was literally crushed to atoms. From some papers found in his possession, 
it is believed that the deceased came from Lambeth. 

On the Midland Railway, an accident of an alarming character occurred on the 
16th ultimo. Two passenger trains came into collision at Swinton, where the Sheffield 
and Doncaster Branch joins the main line, and the engine of one train was hurled down 
the embankment. The coupling chains connecting the carriages with the engine fortu- 
nately snapped ; the driver and stoker saved themselves by jumping off; and there was, 
singular to relate, no loss of life, although many persons were very severely shaken and 
bruised, and the plant and engines were a good deal destroyed. The collision occurred 
thus : at the junction of the Doncaster Branch with the main line, there is only one 
signal post, the signals being used by the trains on the two lines. About 100 yards on 
the Doncaster Branch, is fixed what is called the back signal, used in case of necessity 
for the Doncaster trains. The Leeds and Doncaster trains chanced to whistle in token of 
their approach almost at the same moment ; and the pointsman lowered the main signal 
as an indication to the Leeds train to proceed, but did not lower the back signal for the 
Doncaster train. The driver of the Don caster train, however, seeing the main signal 
lowered immediately he whistled, supposed that it was intended as an intimation to him 
to proceed, though the back signal still remained at danger ; he accordingly continued at 
the speed usual at that point, until the Leeds train came within sight, when he instantly 
reversed his engine. It, was, however, too late to prevent the collision ; the Doncaster 
engine, in striking the end of the parapet of the bridge, moved the whole length of the 
masonry from its position ; and it is probably owing to its coming in contact with the 
parapet, which instantly arrested it, that the carriages were not dragged clown the 
embankment. 

Another Mishap to the Scotch Mail has occurred on the London 'and North- 
Western line, somewhat similar to the Atherstone disaster. Early on the morning of 
the 12th ultimo it came into collision with a goods and cattle train, which was being 
shunted at Rugby Station, and so great was the force of the concussion, that both trains 
were thrown oft' the line. Several of the cattle trucks were completely shattered, and 
many of their live freight killed. Fortunately, however, it was unlike the Atherstone 
disaster, as there was no loss of human life on this occasion; nor does it appear that any 
one sustained any serious personal injury. 

CASUALTIES TO STEAMERS. 

The " Tasmanian," Royal Mail steamship, on the 3rd of December, having left South- 
ampton, with mails and passengers for the West Indies, went on shore the same evening 
in Totterill Bay, just inside the Needles. She was got off the same evening, but a hawser 
having become entangled round her screw-shaft, which it was impossible to remove even 
by the assistance of divers, she was taken back to Southampton to be docked, and her 
mails and passengers transferred to the Oneida, which sailed on the 5th. 

The "Shannon," Royal Mail steamship, with the outward mails of October 17th, did 
not reach St. Thomas's until November 9th, twenty-three days out, in consequence of 
having broken her port paddle-shaft outside the hull, and cracked her starboard one. 
The accident occurred on the 23rd, when she had been six days at sea. 

The "Empire," screw steamer, 400 tons, of London, from Greenock to Bordeaux, was 
totally wrecked on the 26th of November off the Seilly Islands ; crew saved. 

The " Cleopatra," African Royal Mail steamship, having broken her screw-shaft, has 
been obliged to come home under sail. 

The " Satellite," Cunard steam tender, on the 23rd of November last, came into 

collision with the ferry steamer Lord Morpeth, both vessels receiving considerable damage. 

The " Olympus," screw steamer, whilst leaving the Liverpool Docks on the 10th ult. , to 

proceed to Constantinople, came into contact with the Liirline, from St. John's, N.B.,;and 

received such damage to her port quarter as to render it necessary to detain her for 

epairs, 

BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 
A Boiler at Dann, Brother's, Coach Factory, New Haven, Connecticut, exploded on 
the 1st November, killing a boy and demolishing the whole building. 

The Steam-boat "H. M. Hill," when near Baton Rouge, on the Mississippi, on the 
2nd November exploded her boilers, by which thirty-nine persons L were killed and 
twenty wounded. 

The Tow-boat " Baltic " exploded her boilers in 'Mobile Bay, on the 3rd November, 
by which several persons (exact number unknown) were killed and wounded. 

The Boiler of a small steam pleasure-boat exploded at Antwerp at the end of October 
last. One lad was instantly killed, and another severely injured. The boat was blown to 
atoms, and the accident was attributed to want of water in the boiler. 

In the Explosion of the "Tonning's" boilers, the jury, after patiently hearing the 
evidence found, " That the several deceased were killed by the explosion of the boilers on 
board the steamer Tanning, but there is not sufficient evidence to show the cause of such 
explosion. 

Association pob the Prevention oe Steam Boiler Explosions. — At the last 
monthly meeting of the executive committee, held at Manchester, Mr. H. W. Harman, 
chief inspector, presented his report, from which the following are the extracts : — 
During the month we have made 200 visits, examined 586 boilers, and 426 engines ; of 
these, 3 visits have been special; 5 boilers specially, 11 internally, and 31 thoroughly 
examined : 11 cylinders have been indicated at ordinary visits. The principal defects met 
with are as under : — Fracture, 8 (1 dangerous) ; corrosion, 4 ; safety valves out of order, 
20 ; water-gauges out of order, 15 ; pressure-gauges out of order, 12 ; feed apparatus out 
of order, 2 ; blow-off cocks out of order, 7 ; fusible plugs out of order, 4 ; furnaces out of 
shape, 7 (2 dangerous) ; blistered plates, 4; total 83 (3 dangerous). Boilers without glass 
water-gauges, 3 ; ^boilers without pressure-gauges, 5 ; boilers without blow-off cocks, 16 ; 
boilers without back pressure- valves, 26. Other defects might be enumerated ; but as 
they are not of an important character, they need not be further alluded to. 

One op the Boilers at Hallenbeagle mine burst on the night of the 10th ult., and 
the engine-man, Samuel Moyle, was very severely scalded. 



A Drying Cylinder in a paper manufactory at La Combe, in France, blew up with a 
terrific explosion, on the 26th of October. Two of the workmen only were slightly 
scalded and bruised. The cylinder weighed nearly two tons, and some months will elapse 
before the works can be carried on. 

BRIDGES. 

In the Year 1205 the expense of building two arches of London Bridge was £25 ! 

The Wire used in the Niagara Suspension Bridge was tested by being strained over 
an opening of 400 feet until the deflection was reduced to 9 inches. This is equivalent 
to straining the same wire over a space of four miles until the deflection was equal to 
1 in 30. 

A Railway Bridge op Iron, of six spans of 260ft. each, is to be built at Warsaw, 
on the Vistula, in Poland: to be completed in 1862. 

DOCKS, HARBOURS, CANALS, &c. 

The Illinois and Michigan Canal, which connects Lake Michigan with the Illinois 
River, is 60ft. wide and 6ft. deep, with locks 105ft. long and 17ft. wide. At one time, there 
were a half-a-dozen steam propellers running on this canal, but they have all been laid 
aside. No difficulty was experienced from the washing of the banks, but the machinery 
and fuel occupied so much room as to leave too little for freight, and when the propellers 
were used for towing, the boats were too apt to be blown ashore by side winds. 

An Immense Quantity of fine plumbago, or black lead ore, has lately been discovered 
in the Huron Mountain District, Lake Superior. 

It is stated that the Grand Junction Canal Company have brought into use steam 
power for canal navigation, which, if successful, will materially reduce the cost of con- 
veyance. The peculiar feature in the steam-boats employed between London and Bir- 
mingham or Manchester is a form of screw propeller, invented by Mr. Burch, of Maccles- 
field. This "waggle-tail" propeller is said to have the advantage of keeping all the dis- 
turbance of the water immediately behind the stern of the boat, instead of spreading it 
right and left, thus securing the canal banks from being damaged by the wash, and 
economising the motive power. On a recent trial trip the Pioneer, an ordinary fly-boat, 
75ft. long by 7ft. extreme breadth, 25 tons burthen, and drawing 24ft. of water, with 
an engine of 6 horse-power, was the boat employed towing another fly-boat, which was 
laden with a general cargo to go to Wolverhampton. The two boats were able to go 
through the locks at once, floating side by side, and thus saving much delay. It is stated 
that the Pioneer when tried at Manchester proved able to draw six loaded barges at once, 
with a total burden of no less than 300 tons. Four miles an hour, allowing for the locks 
and other hindrances, it is estimated, will be the average rate of steam performance, 
instead of two miles an hour, the usual speed obtained by horse towing. The steamboat 
has stowage^room for two and a half tons of coal, which will carry her from London to 
Birmingham and half-way back. This water locomotive is estimated to be nearly 30 per 
cent, cheaper than railway carriage. 

A Deep-water Pier has been projected at Bombay, at which vessels may load 
and unload. The capital required is £800,000. This undertaking is one of considerable 
importance to the shipping interest. 

SEWERAGE WORKS. 

The Flow op Sewage- water at Croydon varies, with the state of the weather, 
from 600 to 1400 gallons per minute ; the whole amount discharged being from 800,000, 
to 1,400,000 gallons during the twenty-four hours ; a part of this, discharged durmg..the 
night, being clear water. 

At Rugby it has been discovered that half the expenditure, to apply the sewage to 
half the area of land, would have been wiser and more profitable. The population is 
about 7000 ; the area over which the power of irrigation has been extended is some 
400 statute acres. The proprietor, by years of experience, finds that 200 acres would be 
sufficient. The Croydon scheme would irrigate 7000 acres, at one person to each acre ; or 
take adults, and say 2000 acres — that is, ten times the area experience warrants. 

An Additional Loan of £10,000 is about to be raised for the heavy sewerage works 
at West Ham. 

At the Metropolitan Board op Works Meeting, held on the 6th ult., the follow- 
ing report was presented as to the progress of the main drainage works : — " During th» 
past month little progress has been made in the main drainage works on the north side 
of the Thames. Works to the value of about £2500 have been executed in the Northern 
High-level Sewer ; but they are for the present at a standstill, for reasons already under 
consideration of the board. The Northern Outfall Sewer cannot be commenced until we 
have obtained possession of the land, which at present we have been unable to do. The 
tunnelling under Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens for the Ranelagh Storm Overflow 
progresses satisfactorily, the work, approximating to the value of £4300, having been 
completed, and another length of 1072 ft. of under-pinning of the Old Ranelagh Sewer 
has been finished at a cost of £2300. The Southern Outfall Sewer works progress satis- 
factorily. The pumping engines for the Erith Marshes and the tunnel under Woolwich 
have turned out remarkably good, and the work is going on well. The value of the 
works completed is £967,000. Little progress has been made in the Low-level Sewer, 
under the Surrey Consumers' Gas Company's yard, owing to the defective construction 
of a rotary engine erected by Mr. Aird, who is confident he has now surmounted ths 
difficulty, and entertains no doubt as to its ultimate efficiency. The East Outlet works 
progress slowly, but satisfactorily, and may now be valued at about £8000. The Southern 
High-level Sewer contract does not progress so rapidly as we could desire, nor are the 
bricks supplied so good as we could wish, and as we expect to obtain, although there is 
reason to believe the contractors desire to give satisfaction. The work completed in this 
contract is rather more than three miles, and its value is about £54,000." 

The Cost op the Sewerage Works on the south side of the Thames will amount to 
upwards of half a million of money, of which about £120,000 worth in value is now com- 
pleted. They will comprise more than a million of cubic yards of earthwork, about 
200,000 cubic yards of brickwork, and an equal quantity of concrete. Upwards of 
70,000,000 of bricks, 2,000,000 bushels of lime, and 1,000,000 bushels of cement will be 
used, besides timber, iron-work, masonry, stone-ware, and other materials. More than 
3,000 men are employed on the works south of the Thames at the present time. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

The Stockton and Darlington Water Company have expended nearly £235,000 in 
water supply for their] several towns. Their head is equivalent to 501bs. pressure per 
square inch. 

The Artesian Well at Columbus, Ohio, has now reached a depth of 2575ft. A 
few days since, a Walferdin's thermometer, placed in a glass tube filled with water, and 
this enclosed in a strong iron case also filled with water, was lowered to a' depth of 
2475ft., where it remained for twenty-five hours. It was then sunk to the bottom of the 
well, where it remained for forty minutes. When drawn up, it was found to have 
registered 88 degrees, Fah. Assuming this to be the temperature at the bottom of the 
well, and also assuming as correct the statement that the temperature is uniformly 53 
degrees at a depth of 70ft., we have an increase of 1 degree, Fah., for every 71ft. 

At Saginaw, Michigan, a well 669ft. has been sunk, passing through the coal measures, 
and reaching to the top of the Devonian. Its water is half saturated with salt, and has the 
temperature at the surface of 54 degrees, Fah. At Grand Rapids, Michigan, on the 
Grand River, there is a salt-well 661ft. deep ; but, as it begins 445ft. lower down than that 
at Saginaw, the whole section presented by the two is over 1100ft. 

Messrs. Colman, starch manufactures and millers, of Carron, near Norwich, have 
been for some time engaged hi sinking an Artesian well on their premises. The depth 
at present attained is about 1000ft. 



The Arttzan,"] 
January 1, 1861. J 



Notes and Novelties. — List of New Patents. 



23 



APPLIED CHEMISTRY. 

Dissolution of Oxygenated Watek in Ether. — Oxygenated water, or peroxide of 
hydrogen, has often been used to cleanse old pictures, to restore old blackened engravings, 
Ac. It is very probable that in some cases a dissolution of peroxide of hydrogen in ether 
would act even better than the peroxide itself. M. Schoenbein has lately shown that this 
eurious liquid can be dissolved in ether in the following manner : — A given weight (say 
1 gramme) of bioxide of barium is decomposed by enough hydrochloric acid to saturate the 
baryta, and the mixture is shaken with about forty parts (forty grammes) of ether. 
After the whole has been allowed to rest, the ether forms a thick stratum of liquid above 
the chloride of baryum formed, and may be easily decanted off. The etherial solution 
possesses all the properties of oxygenated water. If it be shaken with water, the latter 
takes up the whole of the peroxide of hydrogen, leaving nothing but pure ether, which 
swims at the surface of the liquid. 

On the Juices op Ficus elastica (India-rubber Plant) and the Isocandka 
Gotta (Gutta-percha). — A long and interesting paper upon this subject is being pub- 
lished in The Chemical News, by Dr. A. Adriani. The author has analysed the fresh juice 
of the India-rubber plant, and finds that it contains 82*30 per cent, of water, 9*57 of 
caoutchouc, 1'58 of resin, with some other organic substances and mineral salts not well 
determined, making up 100 parts. This analysis differs from Faraday's ; in which 31*70 
per cent, of caoutchouc was found ; hut Faraday did not experiment on the fresh juice ; 
but upon that brought over to Europe. The author has also determined by experiment, 
the elastic force of gutta-pereha. Our space will only allow us to call the attention of 
those whom it may concern to this long dissertation. 

On the Analysis op Manures. — M. Girardin has lately published ^in the Comptes 
Sendus of the Academy of Sciences, of Paris, a long paper upon thefcomposition [of the 
manure known as engraisjlamand, and which consists principally of night-soil. Some of 
the samples gave very satisfactory results as to the amount of nitrogen and phosphate of 
lime which they contained. Others, on the contrary, were so diluted with water as to 
become almost valueless, though sold at the same prices as the former. Great losses are 
constantly befalling the farmer who purchases these substances without a knowledge of 
their chemical composition ; whilst considerable gain awaits him on purchasing upon 
analysis. M. Girardin observes, that liquid manures should be tested with an serometer 
before their price is fixed; as they are richer in organic matter, phosphates, and nitrogen 
as their density increases. The same skilful agricultural chemist has proved that in the 
manures termed vidanges, or engrais jlamand, by the French, the quantity of nitrogen 
differs from 9 to 1 per eent. 

On the Application op Gas-tae, Bitumen, and Oils in the Manufacture op Porce- 
lain, Earthenware, &c. — In the ceramic arts great difficulties present themselves when 
there happens to be a want of adhesiveness or cohesion in the different pastes employed 
for making hardwares. Thus, it is impossible to manufacture these like the better kinds 
of porcelain, termedfaience by the French; nor can we preserve the form of plates, dishes, 
&c, during the baking, from want of a proper degree of cohesion existing in the paste. 
The same inconvenience exists in the manufacture of porcelain buttons, &c, with dry 
pastes. In order to preserve the form of the buttons when they leave the model, it has 
been found necessary to add something to their composition ; and in most cases linseed 
oil has been preferred. From numerous and prolonged researches on this subject, M. 
Brocchi has proved that linseed oil, and all the other matters generally employed to give 
adhesiveness to porcelain pastes, can be advantageously replaced by tar, or by some of the 
light oils obtained from it, as oil of naphtha, schist oil, oil of resin, and bitumen. The 
quantity of these substances which it is necessary to use in order to produce the desired 
effect varies according to the degree of cohesion manifested in the paste itself. It is 
generally sufficient to add 6 per cent, to the button paste, and 4 per cent, to the plastic 
pastes used to manufacture hardware. 

Manufacture of Oxygen Gas. — A paper has been read upon this subject before the 
Paris Academy by M. H. Deville. The author has succeeded in producing large quantities 
of oxygen gas from sulphuric acid, sulphate of zinc, and other salts which contain alarge 
per centage of oxygen, by submitting them to heat in contact with the metal platinum. 
Sulphate of zinc, which is obtained in such large quantities by the use of the galvanic 
pile, is a substance not much employed at the present time. All its elements may, how- 
ever, be utilised in the following manner : — By calcining it alone in an earthen vessel, it 
is transformed into a light, white oxide, which, when the sulphate is pure, can be used in 
painting ; into sulphurous acid, which is collected in a concentrated solution ; or as a 
sulphite which is now applied to numerous purposes ; or, lastly, into pure oxygen. Sul- 
phuric acid is decomposed at a red heat into sulphurous acid, water, and oxygen, in a very 
simple apparatus, consisting of a small retort holding five litres, filled with thin leaves of 
platinum (which in larger vessels may be replaced by pieces of brick), or, better still, a 
worm of platinum filled with sponge of this metal, and made red-hot. Into this vessel 
is introduced, by a S tube in communication with a reservoir at a constant level, a stream 
of sulphuric acid. The gases which escape pass first through a refrigerator, which 



separates the water from them, and then into a washer, which absorbs the sulphurous 
acid, leaves the pure oxygen. Sulphate of zinc and many other salts may be made to yield 
their oxygen inasimilar manner; and M. Deville has proved that, even 'if the sulphurous 
acid produced in the above operation be entirely lost, the method described is the cheapest 
process known for procuring oxygen gas, which may one day bo very much more exten- 
sively used than it is at present. 

Preparation of Peroxide op Lead.— This oxide, employed in the manufacture of 
matches, is now in great demand. In its preparation Mr. Boettger recommends that 
acetate of lead should be boiled with an excess of solution of chloride of lime. Peroxide 
of lead, chloride of calcium, and acetate of lime are the result ; the precipitate is washed 
until the chloride is removed. The same oxide may be obtained also by passing a 
current of chlorine gas through water, holding minium in suspension ; or better still, by 
fluxing the minium with a combination of nitrate and clilorate of potash; but this 
process may give rise to explosions which are dangerous. 

On a New Green Colour. — According to the Repertoire de Chimie, Dr. Phipson has 
discovered a new green colour, produced when oxalate of iron is partially decomposed by 
ferrocyanide of potassium. The oxalate of protoxide of iron is a brilliant yellow powder, 
which the author has analysed and found to contain one atom of ferrous oxide, 3 atoms 
of oxalic acid, and 4 atoms of water. It is precipitated after some time, when an excess of 
oxalic acid is added to a solution of sulphate of iron. The oxalate of peroxide of iron, 
which Dr. Phipson has lately analysed also, forms beautiful green crystals, containing 1 
atom of peroxide of iron, 5 atoms of oxalic acid, and 15 atoms of water. Light has a 
peculiar action upon this green salt, whether in crystals or in solution : under the 
influence of the solar rays, the crystals are blackened, and, when dissolved, leave a residue 
of yellow oxalate of protoxide ; the solution also deposits the yellow oxalate when exposed 
to the sun, and becomes colourless in the course of a few days ; from these properties, it 
is probable the salt in question will be some day employed in photography. 

Electro-zincing by MM. Person and Sire. — The following process has been 
adopted by the authors : — In 100 parts of water dissolve 10 parts of alum and 1 of oxide 
of zine; this zinc-bath should be kept at a temperature of 15° (Centigrade). The pieces 
of metal which are required to be coated with zinc being previously well cleaned, are 
arranged so as to form the negative pole of a battery, and for the positive pole one or 
more pieces of zine are introduced, according to the shape of the article to be covered 
with this metal, and having as near as possible the same amount of surface. Contact 
with the battery being established by the current from one pair of plates, the dimensions 
of which should vary according to the surface to be coated, the precipitation of zine 
proceeds as easily as that of copper in the ordinary eleetrotypic process, the deposit 
taking place indifferently on any metal — on platinum as well as on copper or iron. 
When copper, coated with zinc, is heated, there is produced a coating of brass. This 
transformation is likely to receive many applications ; the elevation of temperature of 
the zinced iron augments the adhesion of the surface of zinc. MIL Person and Sire 
state that the thickness of the layer which is deposited increases in proportion to the 
time occupied in the deposition ; that the reduced zine has all the properties of the purest 
metal, and that it completely prevents the oxidation of the metal which it coats. 

On Albumen used for Dyeing, &c. — The use of albumen of eggs in dyeing entails 
such a heavy expense that it has become a great desideratum to replace this substance by 
others less costly. M. Leuehet has found a substitute in the albumen of blood, and in 
the roe of fishes. To extract the albumen from blood, the latter is collected, immediately 
the animal is killed, in a flat-bottomed vessel furnished with taps at different heights in 
its sides, care being taken to disturb the blood as little as possible. After the expiration 
of 10 or 15 hours, the serum is separated from the clot by decantation, and exposed to 
the air for 6 or 10 hours. A deposit is formed, which also is separated by decantation ; 
the liquid is next placed in a room heated to 104°; a solution of sugar is then added to 
that portion of the serum which is coloured red, exposed to the air a sufficient time, then 
decanted ; it is then mixed with a concentrated portion of fish glue (isinglass), gently 
stirred, and left to clarify for a day or two. At the expiration of this time, all the 
colouring matter is separated, and the clear liquid may be decanted and concentrated. 
The albumen of blood, thus prepared, has all the properties of that obtained from eggs. 
The preparation of albumen from the roe of fish can be effected : lstly, from the dry roe, 
as found in commerce ; 2udly, from the roe of the fish as soon as it is caught ; and 3rdly, 
from salted roes, or from the roes of salted fish. When dried roes are employed, they 
are coarsely ground, and the mass dissolved in water ; the water is then decanted, and 
the residue dried at 140° Fahr. It is better to operate upon fresh roes, as thereby the 
expense of drying, salting, and carriage is saved. The roes are first treated with water, 
and pressed, and after decanting and evaporating the water, the mass is dried in a stove. 
The same process is followed with salted roes, except that they are first washed to remove 
the salt. The small quantity of fatty matter that the roes contain is in no way injurious 
in the application to dyeing, but, on the contrary, gives more brilliancy to the colouring 
material. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTIONS 2698. 
ALLOWED. 

Dated August 28, 1860. 
2075. F. C. Calvert, Manchester — Saving certain products 2714. 
given off or emitted during the manufacture of coke. 2718. 
Dated October 17, 1860. 
2524. W. Ramsell, 218, Evelyn-street, Deptford— Manufac- 
ture of boiler plates. 2730. 
Dated October 27, 1860. 2732. 
2624. E. Booth and Major Booth, Manchester — Apparatus 
for finishing cotton, silk, and other fabrics. 
Dated October 29, 1860. 
2648. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Railway break appa- 
ratus. 2734. P 
Dated October, 31, 1860. 
2661. T. G. Chislin, 24, Southampton-row, Russell-square- 
Adapting certain) articles of vegetable production 
called Eiklonia-bueeinalis, Proteaceas, Juncus 
Serratus, Juncus Trista, and Amaryllidese, to further 2746. 
new purposes of manufacture. 

Dated November 1, 1860. 
2*70. M. A. J. Dahmen, Peekham— Protecting ships and 2750. 
other vessels. 

Dated November 2, 1860. 
2679. J. C. Delarothiere, 4, South-street, Finsbury— Stock- 2760. 
ing-frames. 2762. 

Dated November 3, 1860. 
2691. J. H. M. V. Hinsbergh, Breda, Holland— Cleaning and 

preparing pork's wool (!), so as to give it the elas- 2764. 
ticity of horse-hair. 
2694. J. Armour, Perceton Fire Clay Works, Kilmarnock, 2766. 
North Britain — Dies employed in the manufacture 
of sewerage pipes and hollow bodies of clay. 
2696. W. White and J. Parlby, Great Marylebone-street— 2768. 
Colouring surfaces in relief. 



LIST OP NEW PATENTS. 

R. B. Pilliner, 4, Hatfield-street, Stamford-street, 
Blackfriars-road — Machinery for compressing black 
lead. 

Dated November 6, 1860. 

W. Green, New Bond-street— Fire-arms. 

T. W. Rammell, 6, Victoria-street, Westminster- 
Centrifugal discs revolving in air, water, and other 
fluids. 

G. Wilson, York — Stoppered bottle. 

E. Salisbury, Preston — Mixture or solution to be ap 
plied to pickers, picking-bands, straps, sole leather, 
and such like materials, in order to harden them 
and render them more lasting. 

Dated November 7, 1860. 
W. Rennel, Plumstead, Kent — Apparatus for 
treating green, semi-green, or lmdried vegetables 
or plants, in order to reduce their fibrous portions 
to a pulp. 

Dated November 8, 1860. 

J. Cutts, Liverpool — Apparatus for ascertaining or in- 
dicating the number of persons that may pass 
through or over any particular place. 

W. F. Henson, New Cavendish-street, Portland-place 
— Fabrics made of alpaca or mohair. 
Dated November 9, 1860. 

J. W. Wallis, Fenchurch-street— Book indexes. 

D. B. Lewis, Cheltenham — Apparatus for propelling 
steam vessels. 

| Dated November 10, 1860. 
W. C. Forster, Gibson-street, Lambeth — Manufac 

turing soluble silicate of potash. 
T. B. Daft, 2, Queen-square, Westminster, and W. 
tl _ Pole, 3, Storey's-gate, Westminster — Fish-joints of 

railways. 

E. B.1 Wilson, Parliament-street — Manufacture of 
railway wheels, tyres, axles, and points of crossings. 



Dated November 12, 1860. 

2770. F. Walton, Haughton Dale, Denton, near Manchester 
— Insulating telegraphic conductors. 

2772. V. V. Williams, 13, Crosby-road, Walworth-road— 
Constructing stands for cameras, telescopes, sur- 
veying and other instruments. 

Dated November 13, 1860. 

2774. D. Thomson, Grosvenor-road, Pimlieo — Rotatory 
pumps. 

2776. M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Pans- 
Motive mechanism of cabinet organs. 

2778. M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Pans- 
Construction of organ pipes. 

2780. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Feathering paddle- 
wheel. 

2782. T. Hughes, Wolverhampton— Spittoons. 
Dated November 14, 1860. 

2788. R. W. Waithman, Bentham, Yorkshire, and J. Waith- 
man, Manchester— Manufacture of cords, twines, 
and similar articles. 

2790. F. E. Sharp, 3, Gloucester-terrace, Blackheath— 
' Portable rifle battery. ' 

2792. J. S. Crossland, Johnson Brook, near Hyde— Steam 
engines. 

2794. R. H. Gratrix, Salford— Obtaining colouring matters 
for dyeing and printing. 

2796. J. A. Bruce, Leymington, Warwickshire, and G. H. 
Cottam, St. Paneras Iron Works, Old St. Pancras- 
road— Hay racks. 
Dated November 15, 1860; 

2798. J.| Schofield, Oldham, Lancashire, 'and M. Schofield, 
same place— -Apparatus for doubling yards of cotton 
or other fibrous materials. 

2799. J. Matthews, Burton-upon-Trent— Brewing. 



u 



List of New Patents. 



[The Aetizan, 
January 1, 1880. 



2300. J. Crooke, Manchester — Method or means for packing 
merchandise by means of the hydraulic press. 

2801. P. Unwin, J. Urrwin, and J. U. Askham, 124, Rocking 

ham-street, Sheffield — A saloon barrel pistol knife. 

2802. A. Henry, Edinburgh— Rifled fire-arms. 

2803. G. Bagshaw, Preston — Arrangement of the flues of 

steam boilers for consuming smoke. 
2801. W. H. Ralston, Keele, Staffordshire— Manufacture of 
soda ash. 

2805. G. R. B. Amott, Queen-street, Ross — An improved 

plough. 

2806. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Sewing machines. 

2807. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Manufacture of 

steel and wrought and cast iron. 

2808. B. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Sword bayonets 

and other swords. 

2809. J. Ridley, Stagshaw, Northumberland— Method of 

effecting the combustion of fuel. 
Bated November, 16, 1860. 
2811. C. Stevens, 1b, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square — 
Sheet-iron tiles. 

2813. C. W. Williams, Liverpool — Steam boilers for in 

creasing the evaporative effect thereof. 

2814. H. G. Drewe, Chelsea— Propelling vessels. 

2815. J. Stoukley, Newcastle-on-Tyne— Apparatus for grind 

ing, smoothening, and polishing plate-glass. 

2816. J. B. Mourguet, 6, Rue Boucher, Paris — Fire-arms 

and ordnance. 

2817. E. B. Wilson, Parliament-street— Manufacture of rail- 

way wheels. 

2818. R. Bodmer, 2, Thavies-inn, Holborn — Apparatus for 

folding, and for folding and stitching sheets of 
paper and other material. 

2819. B. Fleet, East-street, Walworth — Apparatus for 

cutting and rounding wood. 

2821. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Joining or con- 

necting together pipes and tubes. 

2822. W. H. Woodhouse, Parliament-street — Instrument for 

measuring distances. 

2823. W. L. Thomas, Southsea, Hants, and H. P. de Bathe, 

Colonel Scots Fusilier Guards — Construction of 
plates or shields for the purpose of resisting shot 
and other projectiles. 
2821. M. L. J. Lavater, Guildford-street, York-road, Lam- 
beth — Portable or syphon filters. 

2825. M. A. J. Dahmen, Park-road, New Peckham— Treat- 

ing vegetable fibrous substances in the manufacture 
of paper. 

2826. G. Glover, 8, Queen-square — Apparatus used in 

measuring gas. 

2827. A. Morrison, Nottingham — Locks. 

Dated November 17, 1860. 

4829. B. Blackburn, York-buildings, Adelphi, and H. Carr, 

Victoria-street, Westminster — Axle boxes. 

2830. T. M. Jones, Finchley-eommon — Apparatus for con- 

taining, igniting, and holding wax taper and other 
matches. 

2832. H. MacFarlane, Glasgow — Cameras such as are used 

by photographers. 

2833. B. ;Barrett, St. Giles-road, Norwich— Treatment of 

natural and artificial stone. 

2831. J. Hogg, Edinburgh, J. Hogg, jun., and J. Hogg, 

of London — Ornamenting the edges of cloth-bound 

books. 

Dated November 19,1860. 
2337. 0. Vandenburg, New York— Projectiles to be used in 

guns and ordnance. 
2839. W. Butlin, Northampton— Apparatus for stamping 

and ramming. 

Dated November 20, 1860. 

2340. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Apparatus for sup- 
plying air to the furnaces of steam vessels by means 
of the paddle wheels. 

2841. T. T. Maeneill, Mount-pleasant, Dundalk, Ireland- 
Obtaining adhesion on railways for ascending 
inclines. 

2312. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Stoppers for bot- 
. ties, jars, and other like articles, parts of which are 
applicable as fastenings. 

2813. J. Hamilton, jun., Liverpool— Tubular wrought-iron 
telegraph posts. 

2815. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Construction of 

spring hinges. 

2816. H. D. Poehin, Oakfield House, Salford— Material for 

building purposes. 

Dated November 21, 1860. 

2817. J. Marland, Ivy Cottage, Hunslett, Leeds— Warping 

and sizeing yarn and thread. 

2848. G. H. Cail, Southampton— Manufacture of manure. 

2849. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Manufacture 

of boots and shoes. 
2851. H. Dearden, Rochdale — Apparatus for punching 
washers, for giving the necessary drag or friction to 
the spindles and bobbins of spinning machiner >> ' 

2352. J. Crossley, Todmorden — Apparatus for moulding 

iron or other metals. 

2353. W. Cooke, Charing-cross— Ventilating. 
2854. J. Howden, Glasgow — Steam engines and boilers. 

2355. W. Cope, W. G. Warde, and E. Cope, New Basford, 

near Nottingham — Lace machinery. 
2857. C. Myring, Walsall — Manufacture of covered harness 
furniture, buckles, slides, and other similar articles. 

2356. L. Heinemann, Broad-street Buildings — Means by 

which persons in charge of railway trains may ob- 
tain information for increased safety in travelling. 



Dated November 22, 1860. 

2859. J. Henry, Buchanan-street, Glasgow — Printing warps 
and apparatus for the same. 

2860. T. H. Keble, Margate, Kent— Fire-arms. 

2861. W. H. Ralston, Keele, N«wcastle-under-Lyne — Manu- 
facture of hydrate of soda. 

2862. R. Jobson, Dudley— Moulding articles of earthenware 
or porcelain. 

2863. W. F. Lovick, Thorpe, near Norwich— Bridle-bit, 

2865. D. Auld, Glasgow — Regulating the pressure and flow 
of fluids. 

Dated November 23, 1860. 

2866. J. Venables, Burslem, Staffordshire — Modes of orna- 
menting the surfaces of earthenware. 

2867. G. E. Derring, Lockleys, near Welwyn, Herts — Per- 
manent ways of railways. 

2868. J. F. Carosin, 4, South-street, Finsbury— Treating 
eane-trash. 

2869. E. Monkhouse, 6, Caledonian-terrace, Cooks-ground— 
Manufacture of circular and polygonal heel-plates 
for boots, shoes, and clogs. 

2871. E. Keirby, Gatehead Mill, Greetland, near Halifax- 
Covering insulating and preserving telegraphic 
wires and cables. 

2873. J. Anderson, 92, Farringdon-street — Preparing pota- 
toes for boiling or cooking. 

2875. C. Humfrey and C. Humfrey the younger, both of 
Wareham, Dorsetshire— Distilling coal and peat. 

2376. G. Bartholomew, Linlithgow, iNorth Britain— Boots, 
clogs, and goloshes. 

2377. E. Izod 3nd R. Beech, 13a, Grocer's Hall-court, 
Poultry — Manufacture of stay cloth. 

2878. T. Gamble and E. Ellis, both of Nottingham— Ma- 
chinery for producing looped fabrics. 

2379. T. Hale, 21, Barnsbury-row, Park-road, Islington, and 
A. Wall, Canton-street, East India-road — Arrange- 
ment of furnaces and manufacture of clays and 
bricks. 

2831. A. A. Dalglish, Glasgow — Engraving or producing 
printed surfaces. 

Dated November 24, 1860. 

2882. W. R. Bowditch, St. Andrew's, Wakeiield, York- 
Purification of coal gas and coal oils. 

2883. R. Harrison, Bacup, and G. Taylor, Lancashire — Appa 
ratus for preparing cotton and other fibrous sub- 
stances for spinning. 

2881. C. R. N. Palmer, Southampton, Hants — A new por- 
table and improved fixed signal apparatus. 

2885. S.Walker, jun., Edgbaston,Warwickshire — Machinery 
to be used in the manufacture of twisted and other 
ornamental metallic tubes. 
J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Sewing ma- 
chines. 

2887. T. Benton, Sheffield— Manufacture of bells. 

2889. J. Fowler, jun., R. Burton, and D. Greig, Leeds — 
Apparatus for raising,lowering,and hauling weights. 

2891. W. Leigh, Goulden-terrace, Richmond-road, Dalston— 
Indicator for railway carriages. 

Dated November 26, 1860. 

2893. W. Pearson, W. Spurr, and T. Smith, Bristol— Looms 
for weaving woollens. 

2895. G. F. Train, Liverpool — Steam carriages. 

2896. T. Moy, Clifford's-inn — Direct action steam engines 
and pumps. 

2397. W. R. Shirtcliffe, Spring-lane, Sheffield— Warm baths, 

2398. J. Birkett, Pemberton Village, near Wigan — Musical 
instruments. 

2899. S. Roberts, Hull— Harrows. 

2900. G. Mackenzie, Paisley, Renfrew, North Britain, and 
' J. Hamilton, Glasgow — Bobbins, or holders for 

textile materials. 

2901. R. Oxland, Plymouth — Manufacture of gunpowder. 

2902. P. Hugon, Paris — Mode of firing or igniting ex- 
plosive gaseous compounds in motive-power engines. 

2903. C. H. Jacquet, Lyons — Calendar clock. 
2901. I. Sharp, and W. Bulmer, Middlesborough — Appa- 
ratus for the manufacture of bricks. 

2905. F. Seiler, Paris — Apparatus for preventing the clangers 
of shipwreck at sea or in rivers. 

2906. G. Ennis, Jersey — Construction of oyster dredger. 

2907. J. S. Manton and T. Islip, Birmingham — Compositions 
useful for many purposes in connection with the 
arts and manufactures. 

Dated November 27, 1860. 

2909. R. Robertson, Glasgow — Apparatus for preparing 
asphalte. 

2910. V. Wanostrocht, Parkstone, near Poole — Manufacture 
of mineral tar. 

2911. J. Fowler, Waterford, Ireland — Boots, shoes, gaiters, 
leggings, and overshoes. 

2912. J. Smethurst, Guide Bridge, Lancashire — Slide valves 
of steam engines. 

2913. F. S. Beatty and T. Alexander, Dublin— Production 
of photographic proofs. 

2914. T. Pape, Nottingham— Circular frames for manufac- 
turing glove and other fabrics. 

Dated November 28, 1860. 

2915. J. B. Lecomte-Alliot— Machine for waxing and rubbing 
apartments. 

2917. J. Sidebottom, Harewood, near Mottram — Reeds. 

2918. R. Thomas, Bath-street, Taberanacle-square — Ve- 
netian blinds for windows. 

2919. D. Mardell, York-terrace, York-square, Commercial- 
road East — Steam engines. 

2921. H. Grafton, 80, Chancery-lane— Machinery for culti- 
vating land. 



2922. J. Reeves, Brooklyn, New York— Construction of 
ships. 

2923. H. Gillett, Regent-street— Ornamentation of the 
edges of the leaves of photographic albums. 

2924. N. Ager, 77, Upper Ebury-street, Pimlico, S.W.— 
Apparatus for raising building materials. 

2925. T. Holmes, Anlaby-road, Hull— Preparing and 
tanning hides and skins. 

2926. S. Thomson, Motherwell, Lanark— Manufacture of 
iron. 

2927. J. Jeyes, 17, Cheyne-walk, Chelsea— Manufacture of 
boots and shoes. 

Dated November 29, 1860. 

2929. H. Gilbee, 4, South-street, Finsbury— Welding. 

2930. H. Hirsch, Bridge-road, Lambeth — Screw propellers. 

2931. W. Darley, Bishop Bridge, Market Rasen— Portable 
steam engines. 

2932; R. Offord, jun., 79, Wells-street, Oxford-street— 
Adaptation of india rubber and compounds thereof 
to wheels. 

2933. W. M. Storm, New York, U.S.— Construction of 
breech-loading fire-arms. 

2934. J. A. Jaques, and J. A. Fanshawe, Tottenham, and 
G. Jaques, Bromley — Apparatus for cooling liquids. 

2936. T. Cole, and D. Gardner, Coventry— Looms for 
weaving ribbons and other fabrics. 
Dated November 30, 1860. 

2939. E. C. Perry, Sedgley, Staffordshie— Preventing acci- 
dents in or at mine shafts. 

2940. G. Parsons, Martock — Construction of wheels. 

2941. E. T. Hughes, 123, Chancery-lane— Manufacture of 
metal tubes. 

2943. J. Pelegrin, Bordeaux, France — Inodorous basins and 
descent pipes of glass. 

2944. R. C. Newbery, 5, President-street West, Goswell- 
road — Manufacture of collars and wristbands. 

Dated December 1, 1860. 
2946. H. Greaves, 22, Abingdon-street— Construction of 
railways. 

2948. C. Farmer, and W. Farmer, Birmingham — Machinery 
for the manufacture of the hooks used principally 
as dress fastenings. 

2949. W. S. Losh, Wreary Syke — A new method of preparing 
sulphurous acid in solution. 

2950. W. L. Tizard, Mark-lane — Fastening threaded nuts 
and bolts. 

29.51. R. Marsden, 22, Anson-street, Park, Sheffield, and W. 

Lambert, 9, Castle Hill, Sheffield — Horses' shoes. 
2953. J. Austin, Milisle Mills, Donaghadee, Down, Ireland 

— Apparatus for ploughing or cultivating land. 

2955. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Looms. 

2956. A. Leonbardt, Manchester — Preparation of indigo for 
dyeing and printing. 

Dated December 3, 1860. 

2957. W. P. Piggott, 16, Argyll-street, Regent-street— Manu- 
facturing submarine telegraph cables. 

2959. W. Pilkington, Windle Hall, within Windle, Lanca- 
shire — Furnaces for melting glass. 

2961. T. Richardson, Newcastle-upon-Tyne— Manufacture 
of paper. 

2963. E. T. Hughes, 123, Chancery-lane— Treating and de- 
composing fatty matters. 

2965. B. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Valves for closets 
and other receptacles. 

2967. G. MacFarlane, Draycott-street, W. E. Newton, 66, 
Chancery-lane, and R. Carte, Charing-cross — Wind' 
musical instruments. 

Dated December 4, 1860. 

2969. W. R. Jeune, 4, Flower-terrace, Camberwell-road, Bow 
— Manufacture of kamptulicon or covering for 
floors. 

2971. E. H. Higginbotham, and A. Beech, Macclesfield, 
Cheshire — Apparatus for the prevention of ex- 
plosions of steam boilers, arising through defi- 
ciency of water or over-pressure of steam. 

2973. W. T. Walter, Long-acre, and C. Henry, Batholomew- 
place, Hertford-road, Kingsland — Process for obtain- 
ing ornamental and other devices or effects on 
metal, glass, stone, and earthenware. 

2975. F.Michaux, Anzin.Nord, France — Anew sort of safety 
lamp for mines. 

2977. G. F. Stidolph, J. Stidolph, Ipswich, and T. Simpson, 
R. Morley, Woodbridge — Construction of crates 
and other packing cases. 

2979. J. B. Payne, Chard, Somersetshire — Machinery for the 
manufacture of fishing and other nets. 
Dated December 5, 1868. 

2981. G. W. Hart, 9, Stanley-terrace, Southsea— Embrasures 
of fortifications. 

2983. C. W. Lancaster, New Bond-street— Sights for rifles 
and other flre-arms. 

2985. E. Morewood, Enfield — Coating metals. 

2987. G. C. Lingham and J. Nicklin, Newhall-street, 
Birmingham — Improvements in belt-fastenings. 

3039. A. Verwey, 3, Croydon-grove, Croydon— Proportions ol 
ingredients and mode of manufacture of a chemica 
compound for softening water. 



INVENTIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS 
FILED. 



3. S. A. Varley, 7, York-place, and C. F. Varley, 4, 
Fortess-terrace, Kentish Town — Regulation of heat. 
2942. C. Stevens, 1b, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square — 
Smoke consuming furnaces. 



THE ARTIZAN.FEBT I <-7 1861 




TOOLED of tide S.S? SAKI ©AISUJS ahd ©QJAYA 

By Mess?? Randolph, Elder & C? Engineers , Glasoow. 





Fig. I . Elevation 



iii. 



TnfJtM\ ^»\» \ 4 4- 



Fie. 4. Plan at C. D. 

f 2? 



Fie. 2. Section 



THE AETIZAN. 

No. 218.— Yol. 19.— FEBRUARY 1, 1861. 



PURIFICATION OF COAL GAS. 

Onwards, ever onwards '. This may indeed be correctly regarded as the 
prevailing sentiment of the time in which we live ; it is the one idea to 
which all our efforts seem to be attuned ; and the practical progress of the 
world is in accordance with this desire to be constantly achieving fresh 
victories over the materials and powers of nature, in rendering these daily 
more subservient to our necessities and conveniences. In the domain of 
science, the multitude of discoveries, and new practical applications of 
known principles, which spring up about us unceasingly, is confusing in their 
number and variety ; aud it is a strange thing to speculate upon the 
enormous tension of human intellect through which is elaborated the 
thousands of projects intended to help the world forward a little faster 
than its wont. Projects, bold in their conception, ingenious in their 
design, laborious in their execution, but often destined, alas ! too often, to 
melt away like the waxen wings of Icarus, when subjected to the fiery 
test of practical experience, consigning their authors to misery and de- 
struction. It is wonderful to note how, in this 19th century, discoveries 
crowd upon each other, changing the phases of manufactures, the 
second often having the effect of rendering the first obsolete almost 
before it has emerged from babyhood, and being compelled, in its turn, to 
yield the palm to the ever-encroaching novelties which rapidly succeed'to it. 

In another part of the present number of our Journal will be found an 
abstract of a Paper recently read before the Royal Society, containing an 
account of the method proposed by the Rev. W. R. Bowditch, of Wakefield, 
for the removal of bisulphide of carbon and other sulphur compounds from 
coal gas. This is a remarkable discovery, and at the present time as 
appropriate as remarkable ; it is, moreover, a curious instance of the ever- 
changing character of the relationship between the actual state of 
applied science, and what may, at any moment, be fructifying in the teeming- 
brains of the thousands of active labourers in the field of invention. 

It is probably known to most of our readers that, after common gas has 
"been brought to the highest state of purity that can be attained by the 
means employed at the present time in gas manufactories, there still 
remains in the gas (purified, so to say,) a certain proportion of sulphur in 
a peculiar state of combination, in a condition indeed, in which it is prac- 
tically inattackable by means known before the date of Mr. Bowditch's 
invention. It has been a usual thing among chemists to say that the 
sulphur thus left in the gas exists in the form of bisulphide of carbon; but, 
in all probability, there are other sulphur compounds besides bisulphide of 
carbon present in coal gas as it is sent from the gas works. Be that as it 
may, the important fact is that purified gas (so called) contains sulphur, 
which, as the gas burns, is oxidised into sulphurous acid gas, and so passes 
away into the atmosphere with the other products of combustion. It has 
been a problem, and a most important one too, to gas-makers to devise 
some method of removing these last portions of sulphur. A few months 
since a Gas Bill passed into law, regulating, among other things, the quality 
of the gas supplied to the public by the various gas companies of the 
metropolis. Under this law it is provided that the quantity of sulphur 
may amount to, but must not exceed 20 grains in 100 cubic feet of gas. 
At first sight, it seems strange that the law shoidd recognise the principle 
of allowing the sale of an article admitted to be impure, and to con- 
tain a noxious impurity ; but it is obvious that there is no help 
for the difficulty. The choice is simply between gas with this residual 



sulphur, or no gas at all; for the scientific authorities agreed, at 
the time of the passing of the Bill, that there were no known means 
of practically removing from gas sulphur in the state in which it exists 
after the gas has been properly purified in the usual manner. The 
only remedy was prevention. The bisulphide of carbon is known to be 
greatly increased in quantity when the coals are distilled at a very high 
temperature. The obvious course, therefore, was to distill at a lower ; but 
the range of heats in gas-making is limited, and, commercially speaking, 
gas cannot be manufactured at a low temperature ; besides, there are some 
coals which yield abundance of the bisulphide at the lowest temperature 
at which gas can be made, and although, therefore, by careful manufacturing, 
the quantity of this injurious substance may be diminished, its formation 
cannot be avoided ; and after all, the only effectual way of dealing with 
such an enemy is to attack and subdue him without compromise, as Mr. 
Bowditch's invention seems likely to do. 

The application of coal gas to illumination is unquestionably one of the 
greatest discoveries of modern times. When indeed, we consider that an 
ample and economical supply of artificial light is one of the prime neces- 
sities of civilised life, we shall perhaps be inclined to class gas-lighting as 
only next in importance to the various means of obtaining food and fueL 
There has however* always existed a strong prejudice against the introduc- 
tion of gas into private houses. It will be admitted that a good deal of 
this objection consists in mere prejudice, and those best acquainted with 
the subject, know that properly manufactured and purified coal gas can be 
used under all ordinary circumstances with just as much advantage, and 
superior economy, over any other source of light in private dwellings as 
in other localities. The prejudice against its use does however exist, and 
the gas companies, in combatting this prejudice, labour under the disadvan- 
tage of being obliged to acknowledge that, in spite of all their efforts to 
make the gas pure and innoxious, there does continue to exist in it, at the 
time of its being burned, sulphur, which is converted into sulphurous gas 
in the act of combustion. That this is an evil which has has been greatly 
exaggerated, every candid person who is competent to judge will at once 
admit; the" statements which have occasionally been put before the public, 
from an interested point of view, have given rise to a feeling in connec- 
tion with this matter which is not only erroneous, but which is at vari- 
ance with the facts of the case. Nevertheless, a strong prejudice exists 
in the public mind against the use of gas in private rooms ; and nothing 
has so much tended to foster, and indeed, to firmly establish this, as the 
fact that coal gas, as sent to the consumer, does beyond question contain 
a considerable quantity of sulphur, which produces a noxious product 
when burned. 

The time seems however to have arrived when the gas companies may be 
placed in a situation to effectually battle with and overcome an opposition 
which has kept closed against them a field of profit, compared with which that 
at present open, is comparatively small. It only remains for the companies 
themselves to meet this question in a fair and liberal spirit, and to work 
cordially in endeavouring to apply the invention of Mr. Bowditch in a 
practical manner. Under the late Act of Parliament already alluded to, 
the gas companies are permitted to supply gas containing at the maximum 
20 grains of sulphur per 100 cubic feet of gas ; but this state of things 
was allowed only as a matter of necessity. It would have been absurd 
to pass a law requiring gas to be perfectly purified from sulphur in the 
face of evidence that such purification was at the time impossible. 

4 



26 



Strength of Boilers. 



[The Artizan, 
L Feb. 1, 1861. 



The case is now however altogether different. Mr. Bowditch points 
out the method, and puhlic opinion — and if that be not sufficiently strong, 
the law — must be invoked requiring the gas companies t6 avail themselves 
of this invention, which there is every reason to believe is of a practical 
character, and not the mere dream of a sanguine inventor. 

The details of this process will be found in Mr. Bowditch's Paper j and it 
must be at once confessed that it would be difficult to conceive one which 
a priori would appear more easily adaptable to practical purposes. In this 
opinion we are strengthened by the authority of the eminent chemists, 
Dr. Frankland, Mr. Brande, Dr. Iietheby, Mr. Keates, and Mr. Warrington, 
all of whom have reported favourably of the invention, and of its adapt- 
ability to the purification of gas on the large scale. Should however difficul- 
ties occur in applying the invention in its present form, there can be no doubt 
that the first step has been taken towards the removal of a great obstacle to 
the more extended employment of gas. The path has been indicated, arid 
— by means of Mr. Bowditch or some other of the active intelli- 
gences which his discovery will set to work — the time cannot be distant 
when gas will be delivered to the consumer as free from the residual sul- 
phur as it can already he made from sulphuretted hydrogen, ammonia, or 
any other noxious constituent. 



ON THE STRENGTH OF BOILERS. 
By J. Mc. F. Gray. 

Fairbairn's experiments on the strength of boiler plates, of internal flues, 
of flat surfaces, and of rivetted joints have afforded the engineer precise 
data on which to base his rules for boiler construction. These experiments 
are described in " Useful Information for Engineers." In making notes 
from that work for my private use, I have chosen simple co-efficients for 
bursting strains, taken away the logarithmic character* of the formula for 
collapsing of flues, and based a general law on the experiments on flat 
surfaces. The following rules, therefore, yield the same results as the various 
tables of the above work, and they have been framed so that they could be 
easily remembered, and the most of them calculated mentally. The law 
for the strength of flat surfaces is similar to that for the collapsing of tubes ; 
and although it has not been pointed out as a law by Mr. Fairbairn, yet it 
is to his experiments we are indebted for its practical demonstration. As 
this law is here published for the first time, and may surprise some, I will 
be more explicit with it than with the others, to show that it is theoreti- 
cally correct, and that it is also in every respect confirmed by these 
experiments. 

Taking the tensile strength of wrought iron plates at 23 tons per square 
inch, and the value of a riveted joint at 056 of the solid plate, or 28,750 
pounds per square inch, Mr. Fairbairn ascribes a tensile strength of 34,000 
pounds per square inch to the shell of a cylindrical boiler, as these boilers 
have the joints arranged to break band with each other. In the following 
rules for cylindrical shells I have adopted 34,000 as the standard of maxi- 
mum strength. At the beginning of each rule the degree of approximation 
to this standard which is attained by using the co-efficients in the rule is 
indicated by a fractional quantity, in which the numerator is the ultimate 
strain per inch, and is as near as possible to 34,000. The denominator is 
the factor of safety for which the rule is constructed. Mr. Fairbairn gives 
six as the factor of safety for new boilers of good construction ; this factor is 
to be taken as a limit to the pressure which a new boiler will bear with safety, 
and not as a rule for the regular working pressure of the boiler. To allow 
for deterioration, the bursting pressure of a boiler when new should be at 
least eight times the pressure at which it is intended that the boiler should 
be used-. It is his opinion that " every description of boiler used in manu- 
factories or on board of steamers should be constructed to a bursting pres- 
sure of 400 to 500 lbs. on the square inch ; and locomotive engine boilers 
which are subjected to a much severer duty, to a bursting pressure of 700 
to 800 lbs. 

At page 43 there is a table for thickness of the plates of a cylindrical 
boiler in decimal parts of an inch for a bursting pressure of 450 lbs. to the 
square inch, strain 34,000 lbs. per square inch : on examining the figures 
it appears to be calculated to a strain of 32,400 — or, otherwise, that the 
pressure is not 450 but 472. The first of the following rules gives a result 
corresponding to that table. 

CYLINDRICAL SHELLS — INTERNAL PRESSURE. 
(Diameter in feet, thickness in inches, pressv/re in pounds per square inch.) 
1. / 32400 \ r p he thigkjjggg f t ne shell in inches for a bursting pressure 
of 450^bs. pe r square inch is the diameter in feet divided by 12. 



• 33600 - 



2. ( ^g"" ) The working pressure is 700 times the thickness divided 
by the diameter. 

3. (—% — ) The thickness of plates required for a cylindrical boiler is 

equal to the (product of the diameter by the working pressure) divided 
by 700. 

— — J The greatest diameter of shell with a given thickness of 

plates and a given working pressure is 700 times the [thickness divided by 
that pressure. 

5. ( — g — ) For the working pressure of cylindrical boilers constructed 
of f plates, divide the number 263 by the diameter of the boiler in feet. 

6. ( — - — J For the working pressure of cylindrical boilers constructed 
of ^-inch plates, divide the number 354 by the diameter in feet. 

COLLAPSIN& OP INTERNAL ELITES. 

The experiments conducted by Mr. Fairbairn under the sanction of the 
Royal Society enabled him to establish a formula of strength for internal 
round flues. That formula is 



P = 806,300 



K^19 

LD ' 



Where P is the bursting pressure, K the thickness of the plate in inches, 
L the length of the flue, and D its diameter, both in feet. 

This formula cannot be used but with the aid of logarithms, because of 
the index 2-19. Instead of this I have constructed the following rules. 

7. The collapsing pressure of an internal cylindrical flue is 66 times the 
square of (one less than the number of thirty-seconds of an inch in the 
thickness of the plate), divided by the (product of the length by the dia- 
meter), both in feet. 

8. The square root of the (product of the collapsing pressure, by the 
length, by the diameter, divided by 66) increased by 1, is the thickness of 
the plate in thirty-seconds of an inch. 

The degree of approximation attained by this rule is, it is one-five- 
hundredth part of an inch below the thickness in the table for a flue 10 feet 
long, 1 foot diameter ; and it is one-fiftieth of an inch above the thickness 
for a flue 30 feet long, 4 feet diameter, the collapsing pressure being 
450 lbs. per square inch in both. The two rules agree when the plates 
are % of an inch thick, also when the plates are xa of an inch thick ; be- 
tween these, this rule gives thinner plates, the greatest difference being 
when the plates are about f of an inch thick ; this rule gives the thickness 
3^u of an inch less than is found by the logarithmic formula. For all other 
thicknesses this rule errs in excess of strength, and may thus be used for all 
plates from T 3 u of an inch to §• of an inch thick. 

STRENGTH OF FLAT STAYED SURFACES, 

Such as the sides of the fire-box of a locomotive boiler, the stays being 
screwed into the plate without nuts. 

From an examination of the sketch of the boxes experimented on by 
Mr. Fairbairn, showing the bulging of the plates, it appears that before the 
box burst, by one of the stays being drawn through the plate, the bulging 
of the plate was continued close up to that stay without contrary flexiwe, 
forming a conical surface around the stay. The plate gives way first at the 
insertion of the stay ; at the inner edge of the hole the plate will be in a 
state of extension, and at the outer edge in a state of compression ; 
and the ultimate angular deflection of the surface of the plate around 
the stay will be the same for equal thickness of plate whatever 
he the distance between the stays. The ultimate angular deflection 
at the stay being thus a constant, the ultimate linear deflection midway 
between the stays will be simply as the distance of the stays. If the con- 
ditions of the strains were such that the box would burst by the plate's 
rending at the middle of the bulgings, or midway between the stays, the 
ultimate pressure would be. such that the total load on a square contained 
by four stays would be the same, whatever the distance of the stays might 
be. The ultimate linear deflection would then be as the square of the 
distance of the stays, as in beams of equal depth. In a beam the deflection 
is proportional to the load. If equal loads would produce deflections pro- 
portional to the square of the distance, loads which are inversely as the 
distance of the stays would produce deflections proportional to the distance 
simply. But the stay is drawn through the plate when the linear deflec- 
tions are as the distance simply, therefore the ultimate load upon each 
square will be inversely as the distance between the stays. 

The pressure per square inch is the total load per square between four 
stays, divided by the square of the distance between the stays ; therefore 
the ultimate pressure per square inch will be inversely as the cube of the 
distance between the stays, for equal thickness of plates. For a different 
thickness of plates the pressure will be proportional to the square of the 
thickness of the plate. 

It may appear from the tables of the progressive swelling of the sides of 



The Aetizas,"] 
Feb. 1, 1861. J 



Strength of Boilers. 



27 



the boxes that the bulging did not follow this law. I apprehend that the 
bulging noted in the table with the first experiment is the swelling of the 
iron plate, not of the copper one. It was the copper plate that failed, and 
the sketch appears to agree with my reasoning on the subject. 

Havino- now arrived at the form of the law, these experiments will 
afford us co-efficients, and will enable us to confirm the above principles. 

As in the rule for the strength of internal flues I have taken the thick- 
ness in thirty -seconds of an inch, I will do the same here. 

9. The bursting pressure of stayed flat-iron plates is 720 times the 
(square of the thickness in thirty-seconds of an inch) divided by the (cube 
of the distance of the stays in inches). 

10. The distance from centre to centre of the stays is equal to the cube 
root of { (720 times the square of the thickness in thirty-seconds of an 
inch) divided by the bursting pressure j . 

11. The thickness of the plates in thirty-seconds of an inch is equal to 
the square root of {the product of the (cube of the distance of the stays) 
multiplied by the bursting pressure, divided by 720 }. 

12. For working pressures use 90 instead of 720. For copper plates use 
400 for bursting pressure and 50 for working pressure. 

These rules agree thoroughly with the experiments, and, as a corrobora- 
tion of the principle, we can examine the ratio between the co-efficient 
for iron and that for copper. These co-efficients are to each other as 100 
to 55^. The tensile strength of iron and copper stays were, by an experi- 
ment in the same appendix, found to be as 28,760 to 16,265, or as 100 
to 56^. It may, however, be fairly objected that relative tensile strength 
is no criterion of these co-efficients. At page 129 of the above work the 



strength of wrought iron plates and of copper plates is given both for 
tension and compression, and the sum of the tension and compression in 
iron is to their sum in copper as 35 is to 19 or as 100 to 54£. 

This rule does not apply when the plates are stiffened by angle irons or 
washer plates, but it shows the necessity of these when the stays are not 
as close as this rule would demand. 

BOUND STATS. 

The tensile strength of wrought iron is taken at 23 tons, or 51,520 lbs. 
per square inch. The strain upon the section of each stay ought not to 
exceed one-eighth of this in fresh water boilers, that is, 6440 lbs. In 
boilers using salt water the factor of safety should be at least ten, or, the 
strain per square inch should not exceed 5152 lbs. In the following rules 
the CO' efficient 5000 for fresh water gives a strain equal to 6361 lbs. per 
square inch. The co-efficient 4000, to be used for salt water, gives a 
strain equal to 5089 lbs. per square inch. 

Note. — When the boiler is for salt water, use 4000 instead of 5000 in 
the following rules : — 

13. The working pressure per square inch is 5000 times the (square of 
the diameter of the stay) divided by the (square of the distance of the 
stays). 

14. For every given pressure there is a constant ratio between the dis- 
tance of the stays and their diameters. That ratio is the square root of 
(5000 divided by the working pressure per square inch). 

15. If the ratio ot distance to diameter be given, the pressure is found 
by dividing the number 5000 by the square of that ratio. 



TABLE OF FORMULAE FOR STRENGTH OF BOILERS. 



D = Diameter in feet. 

L = Length in feet. 1 

T = Thickness in inches. 

t = Thickness in thirty-seconds. 

d = Diameter of stays in inches, at smallest part. 



B =• Bursting pressure in pounds per square inch. 

C = Collapsing pressure ditto 

P -= Working pressure ditto 

S = Distance between stays in inches. 

R = Distance between stays in diam. of the stay. 



Cylindrical Boilers 

Ditto ditto 

Ditto ditto 

Ditto ditto 

Internal Flues, from xa m - ^°\ 
fin. plates •> 



Stayed Flat Surfaces,"" 
such as the sides of the 
fire-box of a locomotive 
boiler, the stays being 
screwed into the plates 
without nuts 



Iron 



Copper- 



Round Iron Stays, with fresh water. 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 



ditto ditto ... 


50928 
8 




50928 
10 


ditto 


50928 
10 



Straia 
per inch. 

32-HM) 
1 

33600 



34000 
8 

34000 



31520 



28622 
1 

28622 
8 

50928 



B = 450 
p = 700 T 

P = 



D 

263 



P = 



C = 



B = 



D 

354 
D 

66 (t - 1)3 
LD 

720 t\ 
S3 



B 



90 t- 
S3 

400 t- 

Ss 

50*2 



p _ ov z- 

p = 



S3 

5O00^ 2 



P = 



S2 

5000 



R= 

p = 4000 rf2 

P = 



S 2 
4000 



R? 



T = 



T = £-inch. 



1 + 



t = 



d~B. 



D= 12 T 

700 T 



D=- 



D = 



263 
P 

354 



= 66 (t - 1)2 
CL 




28 



Speed of Armoured Ships. 



[The Artizan, 
Feb. 1, 1861. 



The following table gives these ratios, which are the distances between 
the stays expressed in diameters of the stay. Thus at 50 lbs. pressure in a 
fresh water boiler, the distance between the centres of two stays is ten 
times the diameter of a stay. 

T>„i.-„ Pressure, fresh water, Pressure, salt water, 



-vauo. 


lbs. per sq. in. 


lbs. per sq. in. 


4 


312 


250 


5 


200 


160 


6 


139 


111 


7 


102 


81 


8 


78 


62 


9 


61 


49 


10 


50 


40 


11 


41 


33 


12 


35 


30 


13 


30 


24 


14. 


25£ 


20 


15 


22 


17 


18 


15* 


12i 



16. The diameter of the stay is equal to the distance between the stays 
divided by the square root of (5000 divided by the working pressure). 

17. The distance between the stays is equal to the diameter of the stay 
multiplied by the square root of (5000 divided by the working pressure). 

In the rule for flat surfaces I have assumed that the strength would vary 
as the square of the thickness of the plate. The experiments referred to 
do not enable us to test the truth of this, because the plates were of the 
same thickness in both experiments. In the collapsing of flues the strength 
increases in a higher ratio than that of the square of the thickness ; but 
again, in experiments on the resistance of wrought-iron plates to pressure 
by a blunt instrument at right angles to the surface, it was found that the 
strengths were simply as the thickness. If this holds good in the case of 
flat surfaces submitted to steam pressure, the formula; would be : 

B = o9 , for iron plates 



B = 



for copper plates. 



And here again we have co-efficients which are proportional to the tensile 
strength of iron and of copper, so that these data do not determine 
whether the strength is as the thickness, or as the square of the thickness 
of the plates. For f inch iron plates or for $ inch copper plates, either 
rule will give the same result. 



THE SPEED OP ARMOURED SHIPS. 

By Charles Atheeton, Chief Engikeer or H.M. Dockyard, 
Woolwich. 

The properties of armoured ships as respects the desirableness of high 
speed having engaged public attention, and popular impressions with re- 
ference to the conditions under which progressively increasing rates of 
speed are to be obtained being extremely indefinite and generally erro- 
neous, I beg to offer a few remarks, in the hope of elucidating this subject, 
for which purpose the data of construction and equipment of the Warrior, 
as published in the Times of the 29th ultimo, afford an eligible oppor- 
tunity. Assuming these data to be authentic, it appears that the load 
displacement of the Warrior will be 9000 tons ; that the engines, of 
1250 nominal horse-power, will weigh 950 Jtons ; that the stowage for coal, 
950 tons, is enough for rather more than 6 days' consumption, say 65 days, 
being at the rate of 152 tons per day, or 126 - 66 cwts. per hour, and that 
the speed of the ship is expected to be at the rate of fourteen knots per 
hour. 

These data assign to the Warrior prospectively a very high scale of 

dynamic duty with reference to the consumption of fuel, for when judged 

V 3 D~ 
of by the formula * = C (10 being the consumption of coal per hour 

expressed in cwts.), the co-efficient C becomes C = 9333, which is, I believe, 
higher than has hitherto been realised by the continued sea-service of any 
ship, and is identical with that on which Coal Table No. 3, " Steamship 
Capability," p. 96, has been calculated, demanding a combination of excel- 
lence in hull and engine construction of which it is to be hoped the War- 
rior will be an example. 

It also appears that the weight of armament of the Warrior, which, 
combined with the endurance of the ship at full speed, may be regarded 
as the measure of the effectiveness of the ship for aggression will be 1500 
tons ; consequently, the weight of the hull of this armoured ship of 9000 
tons load displacement, after deducting weight of engines, coals, and 
armament, will be 5600 tons, or 62 per cent, of load displacement of the 
ship, being from 15 to 20 per cent, heavier than ships of the some load 
displacement of ordinary build, and this it is which, in combining high 
speed with long endurance under steam, causes the necessity of unusual 
magnitude in the construction of armoured ships. 

Seeing, now, that various steamships attain the speed of 18 knots per 



hour — for example, the Holyhead and Dublin mail packets — and that high 
speed has been much insisted upon as essential to the efficiency of 
armoured ships, my object now is to demonstrate the conditions of con- 
struction as respects size and power which would be required in order that 
an armoured ship of the Warrior type might attain the speed of 18 knots 
per hour and carry an armament of 1500 tons weight, and coal enough 
to steam at the reduced speed of 14 knots per hour continuously for 6J 
days, thus possessing the same aggressive power, and the same steaming 
endurance at 14 knots per hour as the Warrior, but in addition command- 
ing the speed of 18 knots per hour, when so required, so long as her coals 
will last. 

To increase the speed from 14 to 18 knots per honr may appear, at first 
sight, to be a simple matter — merely demanding that the engine power 
should be increased in the same proportion — but the fact is, that the engine 
power, and consequently the weight of the engine, would be required to be 
increased in the proportion of the cubes of the speeds, thus demanding an 
increased size of ship, as measured by load displacement, to carry the in- 
creased weight, and this increased ship again demanding still further 
increased power to attain the required speed ; thus the problem becomes 
complicated, but the following calculation, chiefly deduced from the tables 
before referred to ("Steamship Capability," page 96, second edition,) 
shows that, in order to realise the before-mentioned conditions, the load 
displacement of our armoured ship requires to be increased from 9,000 to 
as much as 15,000 tons. For example : assuming 15,000 tons to be the 
required displacement, the weight of the hull at 62 per cent, will be 9,300 
tons ; the engine-power required to propel this ship of the Warrior type, 
at the speed of 18 knots per hour, will, by received rules in steamship 
dynamics, be three times that required to propel the Warrior of 9000 
tons at 14 knots per hour ; and the weight being increased in the same 
proportion, we have 2850 tons as the weight of the engines ■ also, by 

V 3 D a 

the formula = 9333. the assumed co-efficient of the Warrior, the 

to 

weight of the coal (w) to propel this ship of 15,000 tons displacement at 
14 knots per hour will be 178"33 cwts. per hour, or 214 tons per day, at 
which rate the quantity required for 6j days' consumption will be 1338 
tons. Hence, we have weight of armoured hull 9300 tons ; weight of 
armament 1500 tons ; weight of engines for steaming at 18 knots per 
hour, 2850 tons ; coal for 6i days' steaming at 14 knots per hour, 1338 
tons ; making the total load displacement 14,988 (say 15,000) tons. The 
displacement of the Holyhead and Dublin Mail Packets, when steaming at 
the speed of 18 knots per hour, is understood to be about 2500 tons; but 
in this case the weight of hull probably does not exceed 40 per cent, of 
the load displacement ; the cargo consists merely of a few passengers and 
mail-bags, and the coal is only required to be sufficient for about six hours* 
consumption, which conditions are altogether different from those required 
in armoured ships of war. 

The comparative steaming endurance of the two ships now under con- 
sideration would be as follows : — 



" Waeeior," 
as constructed for 14 knots speed, 
with 9000 tons displacement. Coal, 
950 tons. 

At 10 knots, the consumption 
would be 55-6 tons per day, lasting 
17 days. 

At 12 knots, the consumption 
would be 96 tons per day, lasting 
10 days. 

At 14 knots, the consumption 
would be 152 tons per day, lasting 
6i days. 

Above 14 knots not attainable, 
the engine-power being limited to 
that speed. 



" Warrior," enlarged 
if constructed for 18 knots speed, 
with 15,000 tons displacement. 
Coal, 1338 tons. 

At 10 knots, the consumption 
would be 78 - 2 tons per day, lasting 
17 days. 

At 12 knots, the consumption 
would be 135 tons per day, lasting 
10 days. 

At 14 knots, the consumption 
would be 214 tons per day, lasting 
6j days. 

At 16 knots, the consumption 
would be 320 tons per day, lasting 
4 days. 

At 18 knots, the consumption 
would be 456 tons per day, lasting 
3 days. 

Thus we see that the steaming endurance of the two ships would be 
equal up to 14 knots per hour, but that, in order to attain the superior 
capability of steaming for three days, at the speed of 18 knots per hour, 
we require to increase the size of the armoured ship from 9000 to 15,000 
tons load displacement, and to treble the engine power, whereby the cost 
of the ship would be probably doubled — or two such ships as the Warrior, 
limited to 14 knots speed, would be built for the cost of one ship con- 
structed for 18 knots, though limited to the same amount of armament — 
1500 tons — and the same steaming endurance, viz., 65 days at the speed of 
14 knots per hour. The question therefore becomes, whether two ships of 
the capabilities of the Warrior, as now constructed for 14 knots speed, 
would, in their co-operation, be more or less effective than one ship con- 
structed for 18 knots speed, but carrying only the same armament— a 



The Artizan,! 
Feb. 1, 1861. J 



Troop Steamer for the Indus. — Plans and Sections of the "Guayaquil." 



29 



question most interesting to naval men — but in regard to which my object 
has been merely to open up the mechanic?l considerations of the case. 
Practically, there is no limit to magnitude and speed ; it is a mere ques- 
tion of money ; and, whether ships be built of wood or of iron, is, practi- 
cally, a mere question of appliances and tools. 



GOVERNMENT TROOP STEAMER FOR THE INDUS. 

On Wednesday, the 23rd of January, a satisfactory trial trip took place 
on the Thames of a very peculiarly constructed steamer, intended for the 
conveyance of troops upon the Lower Indus, and which still further carries 
out the " spoon-ended " principle of construction, described and fully 
illustrated in The Abtizan of July, 1860. A numerous company of persons 
interested in marine engineering were present on board, among whom may 
be mentioned Mr. Dinnen, the Admiralty Inspector of Machinery ; Mr. 
Luke, Admiralty Surveyor of Shipping ; Captain Robertson, of the Board 
of Trade ; Mr. Blake, of the firm of Messrs. James Watt and Co. ; Mr. 
Pearse, of the firm of Messrs. M. Pearse and Co. ; Mr. Atherton, Chief 
Engineer of H.M. Dockyard, Woolwich ; Mr. Henry S. Pitcher, of North- 
fleet Dockyard, and many others. This vessel is one of a series of various 
dimensions, recommended by a commission appointed by Government in 
1857 to investigate the subject of river navigation, and to report on the 
best class of vessels for service on the rivers of India. The commission con- 
sisted of the late Colonel Crawford, of the Indian Engineers ; Captain 
Balfour, of the Indian Navy ; and Mr. T. B. Winter, Consulting Marine 
Engineer. The rivers of India are usually broad, although their best 
channels are at various places comparatively narrow. In general, these 
rivers are tortuous, shallow, very rapid in flood seasons, and abound in 
shifting sand-banks. The form of boat recommended by the above com- 
mission as best adapted to meet these circumstances is popularly known 
as " spoon-ended," dispensing entirely with any approach to an angular 
form at either end of the vessel, in order to counteract, as far as possible, 
the difficulties to steering caused by the cross currents of the rivers, and 
also to reduce the labour of hauling the vessel off a sandbank, should she 
at any time run aground. For ordinary purposes tug-vessels, with barges 
attached thereto, were recommended, but for the all-important service of 
the speedy conveyance of troops, the necessity for which was so apparent 
during the late Indian rebellion, vessels of the class about to be described 
were advised. Mr. T. B. Winter, the engineer member of the commis- 
sion, was subsequently instructed by Government to prepare the plans and 
specifications of the various vessels above referred to, and was then in- 
trusted with the charge of superintending their construction in this 
country. The vessels are sent out to India in pieces and completed there ; 
but one tug, and now this larger steamer, have been finished for previous 
trial in this country. 

The hull of the present troop steamer has been built by Messrs. M. 
Pearse and Co., of Stockton-on-Tees, where the vessel was " cottered " 
together, and afterwards was brought up in pieces to the Victoria (London) 
Docks, where she has been rivetted and finished. The engines are by 
Messrs. James Watt and Co., of London and Birmingham. The dimensions 
of the steamer are : — Length over all, 377ft. ; beam, 46ft. ; breadth over 
paddle-boxes, 74ft.; depth, 5ft.; ditto, at paddle shafts, 12ft; ditto, to 
top of arched girders, 18ft. ; working draught of water, 2ft. ; displace- 
ment at 2ft. draught, 739 tons ; tonnage (old measurement), 3911 tons. 
Accommodation is provided on board for about 800 troops and their officers. 
The engines are 220 nominal horse-power, having horizontal cylinders of 
55in. diameter and 6ft. stroke. The diameter of the paddle-wheels is 26ft., 
and the breadth of the floats, or paddle-boards, 12ft. There is a separate 
pair of small oscillating engines, intended to assist in maintaining a 
vacuum for the main engines when the navigation becomes intricate. 
These engines likewise work crabs for hauling the vessel off sand-banks. 
The hull of the troop steamer is constructed entirely of puddled steel, 
made by the Weardale Company, near Durham, and the average tensile 
strength of which is 42 tons per sectional square inch, or double that of 
boat-plate iron. The vessel is built throughout of excessively light 
scantlings ; and, although she is of necessity less rigid than a ship in- 
tended for sea service, she is rendered strong by means of the class of 
framework adopted. She is strengthened longitudinally by four arched 
girders — two at the sides, rising to the height of 12ft., to carry the paddle- 
wheels, &c, and extending about 130ft. in length on deck. The other 
two, or main girders, run fore and aft, about 10ft. from the sides of the 
vessel ; these are 18ft. high in the centre, and extend nearly the whole 
length of the ship. In walking fore and aft on the maindeck you pass 
underneath the paddle-shafts. Athwartships, the vessel is strengthened 
through the engine and boiler space by twelve overhead beams or girders, 
extending the whole breadth of the vessel and carrying the stays by 
which the sponsons are suspended. Beyond the space occupied by the 
engines and boilers, she is framed again athwartships by trusses under 
the maindeck, repeated every three feet, and which resemble in principle 
the framework of an iron roof. 



She is steered at each end by means of " blades," which, instead of being 
worked from side to side in the ordinary manner of rudders, are caused to 
rise or lower into the water at the proper angle. When out of action these 
blades are completely within boxes or wells formed for their reception. Both 
sets are actuated simultaneously by steering wheels, placed towards the 
head of the vessel, and provision is made to work one set only should an 
accident occur to the other. The principle of this ingenious arrangement 
is patentedby the inventor, Mr. A. Chaplin, of Glasgow. There are two 
tiers of cabins placed one above the other; and these, as on board American 
river steamers, are houses rising above the vessel's maindeck. They are 
entirely surrounded with Venetian panels for the admission or exclusion 
of air. The tops of the upper tier of cabins form the chief promenade- 
deck. The saloon and state rooms for the officers are at the fore end of 
the vessel. No attempt at ornamental work has been made ; everything 
being as plain as possible. The bsrths for the troops are composed of 
frames of galvanized iron covered with perforated sheet zinc, for the free 
circulation of air. In each main troop room there is an officer's cabin 
partitioned off, and the accommodation for the troops is divided into five 
compartments, so as to permit of separation in case of sickness. Fresh 
air, drawn from the paddleboxes, in order that it may absorb moisture, is 
supplied to the cabins (by fans worked with the steam power) in sufficient 
quantity to change the whole amount in each troop room every half-hour. 
These fans are independent of the engines, and can be worked while the 
ship is lying to for the night, as all navigation on the Indus ceases at dark. 
The engineers' cabins are placed on the extensive sponsons, where are also 
bath-rooms and other accommodations, poultry -houses, sheep-pens, &c. The 
whole vessel is covered with an awning of the strongest sailcloth, the area 
of which may be estimated by the fact of its weighing three tons. The 
extensive framework for supporting this awning has received especial at- 
tention, and while every care has been taken to reduce weight by making 
all the stanchions and stays tubular, they are, nevertheless, very substantial. 
The handrails all round the main and promenade decks are also tubular, and 
advantage has been taken of this form to make it serve as a speaking tube 
from the pilot to the engine-room. The engineering difficulty in the con- 
struction of this vessel was, to adopt such a class of framework that, while 
still possessing great strength, the quantity or weight of metal used in 
building her should be so small as to ensure the excessively limited draught 
of two feet. In principle, the general arrangement, and also many of the 
plans for stiffening and strengthening this vessel resemble the American 
river steamers, very many of which nearly approach it in the dimensions 
of length and beam, and one of which is believed to be about 30ft. longer 
and 4ft. wider. Some vessels on the Rhone are 100ft. longer than this 
troop steamer, but not so wide. The draughtof water, however, both of 
the larger American and Rhone boats is seldom so little as 4ft., or double 
that of Mr. Winter's design. The cabins of the American boats fre- 
quently rise from 40 to 50ft. above the maindeck, whereas those of the 
Indus troop-steamer do not exceed 15ft. ; so that, although the hold on 
the water clue to the 2ft. draught is less than that of the American boats 
which have so long and successfully navigated the Hudson and the Mis- 
sissippi, the troop steamer has proportionately less top hamper. The ves- 
sel was tried up and down on the measured miles in Long-reach and 
Gravesend-reach, the average speed attained being 10 - 26 knots = ll - 80 
statute miles per hour, the engines running on an average twenty -five revo- 
lutions per minute ; the indicated horse power was calculated as very nearly 
1250; when working without condensation (for which express provision is 
made) they ran from 15 to 17 revolutions per minute, and the ship made 
9£ statute miles per hour. Her steering qualities are very good, and the 
ease and rapidity with which she is turned round is remarkable ; notwith- 
standing her great length she was found to turn completely round in a 
circle, the diameter of which was less than one-and-a-half times her length, 
in three minutes and forty-four seconds. The prevalent opinion of the 
many competent authorities acquainted with the requirements of the 
Indian service was, that this troop steamer for the navigation of the Indus 
would effectively fulfil the purpose for which she is intended. We trust, 
however, that the swell of the Indian rivers will not injure or affect the 
stability of the structure of this vessel. 



PLANS AND SECTION OF THE PACIFIC STEAM NAVIGATION 
COMPANY'S SCREW STEAMSHIP " GUAYAQUIL." 
{Illustrated by Copper-plate Engraving, No. 184.) 
Having been frequently requested for detailed particulars of the above 
vessel, as fitted by Messrs. Randolph, Elder, and Co. with their improved 
engines, boilers, and machinery, we presented our readers in our last issue 
with the above plate— the reference to which, and other useful informa- 
tion in connection with the performance of the Guayaquil, we now append ; 
this vessel and the San Carlos being sister ships. An article upon the 
latter vessel will be found in The Artizan vol. for 1860, pp. 68, 69 ; and 
a highly-finished copper-plate engraving, No. 187, illustrative of Mr. 
Elder's patent cylindrical spiral boiler, as fitted on board these screw steam- 



30 



The Cylindrical Spiral Boiler. — On Coal Gas. 



("The Aetizait, 

L Feb. 1, 1861. 



ships, will be found in our present number. Our readers, will, doubtless, 
be thoroughly familiar with this latter subject from the report of Mr. 
Elder's very able paper upon the cylindrical spiral boiler, read before the 
British Association at the Oxford meeting last year, which we gave in 
extenso in our British Association Supplementary Number, July 15th, I860; 
and in the tables, which will be found in the same number, appended to 
the report of the Steamship Committee, will be found arranged in a very 
convenient manner for reference ; — full, and very detailed particulars, as 
to dimensions, performances, &c, of the several vessels of the Pacific 
Steam Navigation Company's fleet, which have been fitted with Messrs. 
Randolph, Elder and Co.'s improved engines, boilers, and machinery. In 
addition to which we have, in various numbers of The Aetizan, pub- 
lished of late, presented our readers with a very valuable series of plates 
illustrative of the engines, boilers, and machinery of these vessels, as also 
various engravings of the vessels themselves. 

On reference to plate 184 of the Guayaquil — Fig. 1 is the longitu- 
dinal sectional elevation ; fig. 2, upper deck plan, and fig. 3, lower deck 
plan thereof. In fig. 2, A is the binnacle; B, capstan; C, captain's room 
and office ; D, skylights ; E, mast ; P, steam winch ; G, main hatch ; H, 
engine skylight ; I, range ; J, scullery ; K, galley ; M, baker ; N, second 
officer's cabin; O, chief engineer's cabin; P, chief officer's cabin; Q, 
mast; R, steam winch; S, cargo hatch; T, skylight; U, stock; W, 
butcher's cabin ; X, boatswain's stores ; Z, skylight. In fig. 3 ; — A, 
main hatch ; B, ladies' cabin ; C, W. C. ; D, pantry ; E, bar ; P, bath ; 
G, napery ; H, luggage ; I, second and third engineers' cabin ; J, car- 
penter and boatswains cabin; K, officers' cabin; L, chief steward's cabin; 
M, purser's cabin ; N, mails ; 0, napery ; P, state-room ; Q, pantry ; 
R, state-room ; S, cargo hatch ; T, tables ; U, tables ; V, sideboard ; W, 
stores. 

The Guayaquil and the San Carlos are both iron-built vessels. The 
chief dimensions, as given in the table before referred to, are as under, 
viz.: — Length between perpendiculars, 195ft.; breadth, 30ft.; area of 
greatest section on actual sea performance (Dec. 31st, 1859, to Feb. 21st, 
1860), 310 sq. ft.; draft of water, forward, 13ft., aft, 14ft. lin.; dis- 
placement, 935 tons. She is fitted with inverted direct-acting screw engines 
upon Messrs. Randolph, Elder, and Co.'s patent double cylinder expansion 
principle. There are two large or low pressure cylinders 53in. diameter, 
and two small or high pressure cylinders, 31in. diameter. The length of 
stroke is 4ft ; the total weight of engines, 70 tons. She is fitted with one 
of Mr. John Elder's patent spiral flued boilers of the same general dimen- 
sions as the San Carlos, illustrated (by plate 187), and described in the 
present number. 

We may add that from reports recently received, the sea-performance of 
this vessel in the Pacific is highly satisfactory. 



THE CYLINDRICAL SPIRAL BOILER. 

By Me. John Eldeb. 

(Illustrated by Copper-plate Engraving Wo. 187). 

We present our readers this month with a copper-plate engraving of 
Mr. John Elder's patent cylindrical spiral boiler, as fitted on board the 
screw steamships San Carlos and Guayaqttil. 

We repeat here the advantages which this kind of boiler appears to 
possess over the ordinary marine boiler — viz. :— 

1. A form of boiler capable of carrying higher pressure, and presenting 
more heating surface, and of a more effective description from a given 
weight of material. 

2. A boiler capable of being easier cleaned and repaired in both water 
and fire spaces. 

3. A boiler capable of producing, without any extra apparatus, super- 
heated steam to any practical temperature. 

4. A less average specific gravity of water whilst working at sea with 
the usual amount of feed and blow-off, and a more perfect combustion 
chamber, and better formation of flue surface. 

5. The pressures being altogether internal, the boiler is not liable to 
collapse — a danger of late so ably demonstrated by Mr. Pairbairn ; and as 
the diameters of the various cylinders are reduced to the minimum size for 
permitting the workmen to pass through, clean, and repair them, the boiler 
when formed of ordinary thickness possesses enormous strength without 

stays. 

6. The expense of the boiler per square foot of heating surface is about 
the same as the ordinary boiler, and is capable of carrying five times the 
pressure. 

Por any further description of this boiler we refer our readers to The 
Aetizan (Supplement), July 16, 1860. 

In our plate, No. 187, Fig. 1 is a vertical elevation of the cylindrical 
spiral boiler, as fitted on board the Pacific Royal Mail Company's 
Steamships San Carlos and Guayaquil, by Messrs. Randolph, Elder, and 
Co., the exterior casing which surrounds the circumferential vertical 



tubes (and which are shown in Figs. 2 and 4) being in this view removed. 
Fig. 2 is a vertical section of the same. Fig. 3 is a section across the line 
A B. Fig. 4 is a section across the line C D. 

The principal dimensions and particulars of this boiler are the fol- 
lowing : — 



Diameter of boiler 

Height of ditto 

Weight of boiler, empty 

Total weight of boiler, with water 

Content of steam room ... 

Ditto of water room 

Number of furnaces 

Content of furnace and combustion chamber... 

Grate surface 

Heating surface 

Distance from fire-bars to spiral 

Ditto from fire-bars to bottom of ashpit 

Actual air space through fire-bars 

Diameter of chimney 

Load on safety valve 

Average consumption of fuel per hour 



... 12ft. 

... 24ft. 

... 30 tons 

... 55 „ 

... 1000 cubic ft. 

... 1200 „ 

... 1 

... 600 cubic ft. 

... 74 square ft. 

... 2200 „ 
from 2ft. to 7ft. 
from 2ft. to 1ft. 6in. 

... 20 sq. ft. 

... 5 ft. 4in. 

521bs. per sq. in. 

... 11201bs. 



THE ROYAL SOCIETY. 



ON COAL-GAS. 

Br the Rev. W. R. Bowbitcji. Communicated by Peofessoe William 

Thomson. 

A distinguished Fellow of the Royal Society discovered coal-gas, when Rector 
of Crofton, about two miles from my present parish, and nearly all our 
knowledge of this complex substance is derived from the labours of chemists who 
have been, or are, Fellows of the Society. I feel assured, therefore, that an 
attempt to extend the knowledge of the reaction of coal-gas with various sub- 
stances will be favourably received, and that the application to practice of the 
facts made known, will not render a memoir less acceptable to the Society 
which rewarded alike the abstract researches of Leverrier and the practical ones 
of Arnott. 

Six years ago I introduced the use of clay into gas-works, for the purpose of 
improving the purification of coal-gas, and now, — after so long an experience, 
the purification of many hundreds of millions of feet of gas, and the use of many 
thousand tons of the refuse as manure, — I venture, for the first time, to submit 
the ground upon which my process is based. 

Coal-gas may conveniently be considered under the heads of carbon compounds 
required for the production of heat and light, which generate water and carbonic 
acid by their combustion ; and sulphur and nitrogen compounds which are not 
necessary for heat and light, and ought to be removed from gas on account of 
the injurious nature of the substances produced by their combustion. 

The former of these classes will be treated of incidentally ; the latter class forms 
the principal subject of this paper. When speaking of gas, I always refer to 
that which has undergone the ordinary condensation of gas-works, wherefore no 
mention is made of the complex compounds removed by condensation. 

When coal is distilled, its nitrogen is evolved in some forms of combination 
which are generally familiar, while others are almost unsuspected. Under 
certain conditions of distillation, much nitrogen leaves the retorts and passes the 
condenser as ammonia or some of its salts. These are all removed from gas by 
clay, so that no trace of ammonia can be discovered after gas has passed through 
purifiei's charged with an adequate quantity of clay, and with lime or some 
equivalent substance to move sulphide of hydrogen. Clay is thus entitled to 
be classed with acids and some metallic salts as a purifier of gas, for these, of 
course, remove ammonia and its salts. But between clay and acids there is an 
important difference, in regard to the action which takes place upon the most 
valuable light-giving constituents of the gas ; acids remove a large quantity of 
these, clay does not. We have experimental proof that clay does not remove 
the valuable hydrocarbon vapours from gas, in the fact that strong spirit of wine 
digested upon foul clay for days, does not thereby become much more luminous 
than it was before being so treated. The very slight light-giving power which it 
has obtained is due to tar ; for if the spirit be evaporated, and the tar so obtained 
be redissolved in fresh spirit, the same kind of flame will be obtained as before ; 
whereas the addition of a small portion of coal-oil to spirit gives a flame of 
considerable illuminating power. To this I may add, that long and extensive 
experience shows that the employment of clay in the purifying process improves 
the light-giving power of gas, by removing substances which are not otherwise 
removed, and which, if allowed to be burnt with the gas, lessens its illuminating . 
power. These light-damaging compounds are produced during the later portion 
of the distillatory process, as I have proved by experiment. The same retort 
was charged twice with the same weight of the same coal. The gas produced by 
one chai'ge was purified by lime only, that produced by the other charge was 
purified by lime and clay. The illuminating power of the gas passing at each 
half-hour's end was determined, and it was found that the purification made no 
difference for the first three or four half -hours. About the middle of the charge, 
that purified by my process had slightly the advantage, and at the close the 
difference in favour of that purified by the addition of clay has been found as 
much as ten or twelve per cent. Thus it is shown that the compounds removed 
by clay from gas produced during the early stages of distillation — however 
objectionable on other accounts — do not lessen the light-giving power of gas, 
whereas those remot ed during the later periods of distillation reduce the light- 
giving powers considerably. 



The Artizan,"] 
Feb. 1, 1861. J 



The Royal Society — On Coal Gas. 



31 



If conjecture be allowable, I would venture an opinion that cyanogen compounds 
and other nitrogenised substances with which foul clay abounds, are those which 
lessen light. My own investigations lead directly to this inference, and, I think, 
explain an old table by Dr. Henry in this sense. In the " Philosophical 
Transactions" for 1808, he shows that the gas produced from 1121bs. of Cannel 
coal contained, after purification, the following quantities of nitrogen : — 



Hours from 
commencement 
of distillation. 



^ an hour 
1 hour... 
3 „ ... 
5 „ ... 
7 „ .- 
9 „ ... 

ioi „ ... 

12 „ ... 



100 measures of 
purified gas contain 
measures of nitrogen. 



20 

4| 

5 
15 
15 
15 
20 
20 



Due chiefly to atmospheric air. 
Probably the time when ammonia was 
principally produced. 

Probably vapour of water was present 
in very small quantity, and cyanogen 
and related compounds were produced 
in increasing quantity. 



Without assuming the absolute accuracy of these figures, we may regard 
them as valuable indicators, pointing, I think, in the direction I have ventured 
to conjecture. 

A beautiful reaction furnishes experimental proof of the damage done to gas 
by acids. Clean deal sawdust is well moistened with pure sulphuric acid, 
diluted with five or six volumes of water, so that the sawdust may not be 
discoloured, and gas is passed through it in a slow stream. With rich gases, 
which give the light of from twenty to twenty-five sperm candles for a consump- 
tion of five feet an hour, the sawdust instantly changes to a most beautiful pink 
colour, and the tint gradually deepens until the whole becomes of a dark 
mahogany. With poor gases, which give the light of from ten to twelve candles, 
this colouration is exceedingly faint at first, and deepens very slowly. The dif- 
ferences of colouration are so considerable and constant, that I have no doubt of 
the possibility of thus determining the value of gas as an illuminant. By using a 
standard acid, the same kind of sawdust, a uniform volume of gas, and the same 
sized U-tubes, notation of time and depth of colour would give a close approxi- 
mation to the illuminating value of the gas. At all events, the sources of error 
are not greater than those of photometry in the hands of all but the most ex- 
perienced, and the process is quite as close an approximation to truth as an ulti- 
mately analysis of gas, containing, as it does, impurities which render skill and 
precaution useless. A comparison of the analysis of coal-gas given in Bunsen's 
Gasometry, with the substances now known to exist in gas, will convince tis that 
at present we cannot attach any value to such analyses. 

To determine the substances in gas which produce this colouration, some 
of its chief illuminating constituents were prepared and passed separately 
through the acid sawdust. 

defiant gas made in the usual manner, and carefully purified, reddens the 
acid sawdust. Either vapour does not affect it, and therefore need not be 
removed from the gas for this experiment. 

Propylene, produced by passing the vapour of fusel-oil through a red-hot 
combustion-tube filled with cast-iron nails, but kept at so low a temperature 
that a small portion of oil passed over without decomposition, reddened the acid 
sawdust. 

Commercial benzole, with the exception of one specimen, reddened the acid 
sawdust. 

I have not yet had leisure to prepare and test acet3 r lene. 

The coloration of fir- wood, moistened by hydrochloric acid, has been mentioned 
by Williams as characteristic of pyrrole. 

To show that the colour was produced by illuminating matter abstracted, some 
sawdust was treated with acid strong enough to char it slightly ;* and gas, 
which instantly reddened the clean sawdust and dilute acid, was passed first 
through the black and then through the clean acid sawdust. No colour was 
produced in the latter, though the flow of gas continued for an hour. 

Hydrochloric may be substituted for sulphuric acid so far as that gas colours 
sawdust moistened with it, but it is liable to a considerable disadvantage. If 
gas contain ammonia, the vapour of the acid unites with it in the tube before the 
gas comes into contact with the sawdust, and the result is a deposit of chloride of 
ammonium on the surface of the sawdust where the colour commences, which 
renders the observation less precise and easy. Olefiant gas likewise does not 
redden this acid sawdust, and therefore cannot be estimated by it. 

Nitrogenised compounds in coal-gas present the greatest difficulty in the way of 
efficient purification, and the almost impossibility of obtaining them in a state 
fit for examination, renders their investigation laborious and unsatisfactory. 
Much nitrogen is contained in gas as cyanogen, which can be separated from 
the clay used in purification. Probably not much less exists as sulphocyanogen, 
which can be separated from the foul clay with ease, and the presence of 
further quantities in combination with sulphuretted hydrocarbons and tar can be 
demonstrated. The bodies formed by this combination of elements are, I believe, 
unknown at present. 

By placing clay in a purifier through which crude' gas passes from the 
condenser of a gas-works, and treating the saturated clay with spirit, a solution 
is obtained, of a brown colour, which has no effect upon litmus, turmeric, or lead- 
paper, which decolourises a solution of iodine, and from which nitrate of silver 
throws down a white or brownish white precipitate, and acetate of lead 
a white precipitate. The aqueous solution possesses the same properties, and, 
like the solution in spirit, is always neutral; Litmus paper, immersed in either 

♦This acid was of the same strength as that used in some gas-works. 



of the solutions and exposed to the air, becomes quickly, strongly, and per- 
manently reddened. Soluble sulphides have been tested for repeatedly with 
nitroprusside of sodium, as well as with acetate of' lead, but have never been 
found ; yet a sulphur compound exists in solution which possesses the power of 
forming a sulphide witli metallic mercury. The spirit solution, digested on 
mercury, with occasional shaking, produces the black sulphide of mercury, while 
the aqueous solution, similarly treated, produces the red sulphide. Insoluble 
sulphides, however, exist in foul clay, and evolve sulphide of hydrogen on the 
addition of an acid. These insoluble sulphides are oxidized rapidly by exposure 
of the clay to atmospheric action. 

A solution of clay in spirit was treated with an excess of powdered acetate of 
lead, and the white precipitate filtered off. The brown filtrate was supersaturated 
with ammonia and filtered. The clear brown filtrate, diluted with twelve times 
its bulk of water, became milky, and with much difficulty was obtained clear by 
filtration. Part of the spirit was then distilled off, to ascertain whether it would 
bring over a volatile sulphur compound, but the spirit was quite free from 
sulphur. The remaining fluid was then acidified with nitric acid, which caused 
effervescence and a strong smell of hydrocyanic acid. Nitrate of silver was 
added as long as it continued to produce a precipitate ; the precipitate, dried and 
heated, gave off cyanogen, which burnt with its characteristic flame. The clear 
filtrate, slowly evaporated to dryness, left a pale yellow crystalline mass, which 
did not change 'colour by several days' exposure to light. Part of this, burnt in 
a porcelain crucible, gave off nitrous fumes, and left a considerable residue 
blackened by oxide of silver. Water was added to this residue, and the oxide of 
silver filtered off, and an abundant precipitate of sulphate of, baryta obtained, 
with a salt of baryta. The remainder of the yellow salt was redissolved in water, 
with a view to separate a granular portion which was mixed with the more 
perfectly crystalline salt, but an accident unfortunately spoilt the remainder, and 
rendered airy further progress impossible. 

Sulphocyanide of ammonium may be obtained in considerable quantity from 
an alcoholic solution of foul clay. Upon one occasion I obtained nearly an ounce 
in a fair state of purity, from less than a quart bottle of foul ctay ; and so 
tenaciously does clay retain this compound, that from some clay which had been 
exposed to the full action of the weather in a field for two years, I obtained a 
considerable colouration with perchloride of iron. Sulphocyanide of ammonium 
may be obtained' from gas which has been purified by oxide of iron, by passing 
the gas through spirit of wine and evaporating. 

When common yellow brick-clay is used in the purification of coal-gas, the 
solutions from it always contain salts of iron, but they never become of a blood- 
red colour until a mineral acid is added. When, however, the solutions are 
evaporated, and the delinquescent residue is exposed to the air, most, and 
sometimes all of the iron is peroxidized and yields the well-known reaction. 

The nitrogen in tar may be shown from the spirit-solution off foul clay. The 
spirit, evaporated to dryness and allowed to stand, deposits tar and a mixture of 
deliquescent crystalline salts. They were allowed to deliquesce, the fluid was 
removed, and the residual tar well washed with water. Subsequently it was 
dissolved in hot spirit, precipitated by water, and well washed. When nothing 
more was removed by washing, the tar was heated, and evolved sulphide of 
hydrogen and ammonia. Contrary to every other compound in gas with which 
I have experimented, this tar gave off sulphide of hydrogen before ammonia. In 
other instances I have found the nitrogen compound evolved at a lower tem- 
perature than the sulphur one. 

Mineral matter derived from the clay is found in all solutions ; but as my 
object in this paper is to speak only of substances in gas, I purposely omit those 
united with them derived from the clay. For the same reason I make no mention 
of the value of the foul clay as a manure. 

Sulphur compounds in gas purified so as not to affect basic acetate of lead, 

and their removal, 
A recent Royal Commission on lighting picture galleries, has stated the large 
quantity of sulphur found in some Loudon gas, and has intimated a doubt about 
the possibility of its removal. Dr. Letheby concludes, from seven years' exami- 
nation of gas in London, that though quite free from sulphide of hydrogen,, it 
contains, on an average, 200 grams of sulphur in 1000 cubic feet ; and Dr. 
Frankland, in the new edition of Ure's Dictionary of Arts, part iv. pp. 730, 731, 
writes, " It is probable that volatile organic compounds of sulphur are produced 
by the action of this element with carbon and hydrogen simultaneously, although 
we have as yet no positive evidence of their presence in illuminating gas.^ .... 
When once generated with coal-gas, all attempts to remove these constituents 
have hitherto proved ineffectual, and there seems little ground for hope that any 
practicable process will be devised for their abstraction." I have now the honour 
to submitevidence of the existence of these sulphurised compounds, and also a prac- 
tical process for their removal. My attention was specially drawn to this subject by 
a conversation with the manager of a London gas-works. He informed me tha,t 
Ire not unfrequently filled Ins gas-holders with gas which would not affect, 
acetate of lead, and" that after the gas had been stored a few hours, it became so 
foul as to blacken lead-paper the instant it was applied. He sought an explana- 
tion of this phenomenon ; and as the water of his gas-holder tanks was clean, and 
there were no accidental sources of sulphide of hydrogen, I concluded that an 
organic compound containing sulphur and hydrogen had been broken up, and 
that the sulphide of hydrogen was thus produced. I leamt also, by other obser- 
vations, that gas which went to the gas-holders free from ammonia, sometimes 
became ammoniacal if kept, and joining this tact with the former one, inferred 
that the compound which thus broke up contained nitrogen as well as sulphur 
and hydrogen. Subsequently I observed that the saturated clay taken from the 
purifiers of gas-works, contained a quantity of foul naphthalin. This led me to 
procure a quantity of (so called) naphthalin which had been taken from the 
main of a London gas-works, and which therefore must have been deposited by 
purified gas. Some portions of this naphthalin were white, but others were 
slightly darkened by the presence of carbonaceous matter, and the whole was in 
fine poicder aggregated together by the process of deposition. The tendency to 



32 



TJie Royal Society — On Coal Gas. 



"The Ateizajt, 
_ Feb. 1, 1861. 



form exceedingly small crystals seems a constant characteristic of naphthalin 
which has heen deposited in gas-pipes, for by no amount of care and trouble 
have I been able to obtain it in large crystals, though the solutions from which 
it has crystallized have been months in evaporating. With naphthalin from tar, 
on the contrary, I have obtained, from an ethereal solution, crystals an eighth of 
an inch thick, nearly half an inch broad, and more than half an inch in 
length. The supposed naphthalin from gas-pipes dissolves wholly in ether and 
hot alcohol, and crystallizes from the spirit on cooling as pure naphthalin does. 
The solutions are neutral to test-papers. Boiled with an alcoholic solution of 
potash it evolves no ammonia, and with hydrochloric acid no sulphide of hy- 
drogen. Heated alone, it evolves first ammonia, and then sulphide of ammonium, 
mixed, I think, with a trace of bisulphide of carbon, and then distils. Several 
samples began to give off their ammonia at 388° Fahr., and sulphide of hydrogen 
at 422° Fahr., leading to the hope that here was a compound of definite composi- 
tion which would admit of correct analysis and perhaps of formulation ; but 
some more of the naphthalin, produced, like the other, from Newcastle coal, but 
at another gas-works, possessed such different physical properties as to convince 
me that very much more must be known of this substance before any reliable 
analyses can be published. The latter sample gave a neutral solution in spirit, 
like the other, but of a considerably browner colour. When heated alone it gave 
off ammonia with ebullition at 218° Fahr., and then became tranquil. When 
the temperature reached 375° Fahr., it began to evolve sulphide ot hydrogen, 
which continued to increase in quantity up to 390° Fahr., when it nearly ceased, 
and quite ceased at 410° Fahr. The proportion of tar in this sample was much 
greater than I have seen it in any other. Subsequently I obtained some more 
naphthalin which had been deposited in the pipes of another London gas-works, 
and this, like the former, contained both nitrogen and sulphur, which were 
evolved upon distillation as sulphide of hydrogen and ammonia. 

Having thus obtained one sulphurized hydrocarbon, and determined the tem- 
perature at which its sulphur and nitrogen could be obtained as easily removeable 
compounds, I was prepared to advance towards a better purification of gas with 
great probability of success. Another well-confirmed observation helped to 
guide me. Gas freed from every trace of sulphide of hydrogen always blackens 
lead-paper strongly when passed through clay ; and if it be subsequently passed 
through lime, it affects' turmeric though quite free from ammonia when taken for 
experiment. This process may be repeated through a series of ten or twelve 
puirfiers containing clay and lime placed alternately, the test-papers being less 
affected at each purifier, until at length they are not discoloured at all. This 
experiment has been made upon gas produced in various parts of England and 
Scotland from many kinds of coal, and I think the number of instances sufficient 
to justify the conclusion that all gas, as sold, contains the compound from which 
clay liberates sulphide of hydrogen. I have not yet been able to separate the 
compound upon which clay thus acts. I have, however, ascertained that the 
clay which has liberated sulphide of hydrogen from gas which did not affect test- 
papers when taken for experiment contains tar, which may be dissolved out by 
alcohol, and may be obtained alone by evaporating the solvent. 

Although collateral matter has been carefully excluded from this paper, I 
cannot refrain from remarking that the property of clay here mentioned is in 
fact the announcement of a new property of soils, and one which will help to 
account for the formation of many natural metallic sulphides. I hope soon to 
have some investigations of this subject read} - for publication. 

To ascertain whether this property of breaking up a sulphurized compound in 
purified gas ai2fd removing tar was possessed by clay alone, or shared by other 
substances used in purification, some purified gas was passed through a consider- 
able chemical excess of all the substances employed in purification, viz. lime, 
precipitated peroxide of iron, sulphate of iron, chloride of calcium, and dilute 
sulphuric acid, all but the lime being mixed with moist sawdust. Upon passing 
the gas next through a purifier filled with clay, it darkened lead-paper, and 
affected turmeric when it had passed a subsequent purifier filled with lime. This 
proves the power of clay to break up one or more sulphurized compounds which 
no other substance used in purification effects ; and if this sulphur were not 
liberated from the impure naphthalin compound already mentioned, it seemed 
certain that gas which had been previously purified by clay might be much im- 
proved, if not rendered pure, by a removal of the sulphur of the naphthalin. 
There is strong experimental evidence that the compound from which clay 
liberates sulphide of hydrogen is not the sulphurized napthalin one ; for if 
hydrogen be passed through a vessel containing this substance, then through 
clay, and subsequently over lead-paper, no trace of sulphide of hydrogen is found, 
though the gas passing smells strongly of impure naphthalin. This gas and 
vapour burn with a lightless flame. Subsequently some naphthalin was heated 
to ebullition, and a current of hydrogen sent through it and then burnt. The 
fiamewas lightless as before. I mention this fact to remove the popular error 
that naphthalin, as it exists in coal gas, is a good illuminant. Even Dr. Frank- 
land thus regards it ; and both in Clegg's book on coal-gas, and in the new 
edition of lire's Dictionary, states that the hydrocarbons in gas are valuable in 
proportion to the carbon they contain, and that nathphalin is the most valuable 
as containing the largest proportion of carbon. The above-mentioned experi- 
ments evince the contrary. On another occasion I determined the illuminating 
power of some gas, and then, without alteration of the quantity passing, sent 
the gas through a U-tube containing naphthalin from the London gas mains. The 
character of the flame was changed from white to red, but the photometer indi- 
cated no difference in the light given. Two other persons conversant with 
photometry were present at this experiment and agreed in the result, though up 
to that time they had held the prevailing opinion as to the value of naphthalin 
in gas without testing the statements made upon the subject. 

Another sulphur compound is said always to be present in coal-gas and to be 
irremoveable, and which, like those I have hitherto spoken of, does not affect 
lead-paper, viz., bisulphide of carbon. To ascertain the presence of bisulphide 
of carbon, I pass gas through strong spirit of wine (methylated spirit answers 
perfectly) kept at about 160° Fahr. The gas and vapours pass out of the flask 



which contains the spirit up a long tube into an inverted flask, so that all which 
is condensed may run back into the spirit. It then passes into another flask 
for additional condensation, and thence forward to a gas-holder or burner. 
Bisulphide of carbon dissolved in spirit becomes precipitated as a white cloud 
which settles to the bottom of the vessel, when the spirit is copiously diluted 
with water. The white cloudy precipitate escapes slowly by single bubbles 
through the diluted spirit, and at length leaves a solution perfectly clear. The 
spirit through which gas has passed, and from which it has abstracted bisulphide 
of carbon, acts in precisely the same manner upon dilution, and no one who has 
seen the reaction once or twice can possibly mistake it. The study of other 
compounds led me to conclude, that if this substance exist as such, and not 
merely by its elements, in gas, it could be removed almost as easily as the naph- 
thalin compound could be purified, and that the same process could be made 
available to remove the sulphur of both. I thought that under certain condi- 
tions the affinity of hydrogen for sulphur would exceed that of carbon for 
sulphur, and therefore that I might obtain the sulphur of bisulphide of carbon 
as a sulphide of hydrogen, about the removal of which there is no difficulty. 
Experiment confirms the reasoning. When hydrogen mixed with vapour of 
bisulphide of carbon is passed through a tube filled with slaked lime or clay 
which has been dried at 400° or 500° Fahr., ai:.d is kept between 400° and 600° 
Fahr. during the passage of the gas and vapour, not a trace of bisulphide of 
carbon passes from the tube, but sulphide of hydrogen does pass. The lime is 
darkened by a deposit of carbon, and a sublimate of sulphur is found in the exit 
tube. A considerable excess of hydrogen should be used, or else a portion of the 
bisulphide of carbon vapour is carried over by the current and escapes decom- 
position. That this reaction is not the result of heat merely, but is a truly 
chemical one which the base under the influence of heat effects, and the remark- 
able fact that slaked lime when heated forms, but does not unite with, sulphide of 
hydrogen, receives illustration from the following experiments. 

Hydrogen and vapour of sulphide of carbon were passed through — 1st, cold 
slaked lime ; 2nd, cold clay ; 3rd, hot oxide of iron used at a gas-works in puri- 
fication ; 4th, hot broken bricks ; 5th, hot broken glass, without in any instance 
producing sulphide of hydrogen. On the contrary, when passed through (1) hot 
lime and (2) hot clay, sulphide of hydrogen was formed and passed over imme- 
diate!}', and continued to pass as long as the current was kept up. The lime, 
when cooled out of contact with the air, gave no sulphide of hydrogen upon 
being supersaturated with dilute sulphuric acid, but clay when thus treated gave 
off much. 

The hydrogen used was in all cases passed through lime and over lead-paper, 
to secure its being free from sulphide before use. On one occasion, when the 
clay had been imperfectly dried before heating, I observed much sulphurous acid 
instead of sulphid of hydrogen. I therefore passed hydrogen, bisulphide of carbon 
vapour, and steam over hot clay which had been properly dried. At first 
sulphide of hydrogen passed over alone, then mixed with sulphurous acid, which 
at length passed alone. Subsequently sulphide of hydrogen passed, and at length 
sulphurous acid ceased. As the one gas increased, the other diminished, and 
throughour the experiment sulphide of carbon vapour passed uudecomposed. It 
is shown by this experiment that hot clay in the presence of more water than 
forms a hydrate, acts very differently from the same clay when dry, and the whole 
subject deserves a full investigation. 

Action of Sulphide of Hydrogen xvpon clay and lime, cold and hot. 

Well- washed sulphide of hydrogen passed into cold slaked lime (obtained from 
Buxton) in a tube, colours the lime green as soon as it comes into contact with 
it, and the progress of the gas along the tube corresponds with the colouration. 
Lead-paper is not affected until the lime becomes coloured close up to the exit. 

The same gas, passed into a tube containing slaked lime kept about 600° Fahr. 
at the middle, but cool at both ends, acts differently. The cool lime at the inlet 
end becomes coloured ; the hot lime in the middle remains white, and the cool 
lime at the exit end becomes coloured, and lead-paper is stained as soon as these 
two cool portions are saturated, while the middle portion remains unchanged in 
colour. 

The same gas, passed into a tube containing hot lime only, causes no discoloura- 
tion, but instantly blackens lead-paper placed at the exit end ; and upon being con- 
ducted into a tube of cold lime, colours it as if it had just passed from the vessel 
in which it is produced. 

The same gas was passed into a tube containing lime which had been tho- 
roughly dried at 600° Fahr., and cooled out of contact with the air. No dis- 
colouration of the lime took place, but the gas passed unaffected by the lime, and 
blackened lead-paper. Water added to the lime gives it the power of decomposing 
the gas as if it had not been heated. The presence of more water than is neces- 
sary to form hydrate of lime (Ca O, H O), is thus shown to be required for the 
decomposition of sulphide of hydrogen by slaked lime. 

Sulphide of hydrogen passed into a tube of cold clay is taken up in consider- 
able quantity, and the clay becomes black from formation of sulphide of iron. The 
blackening begins at the inlet end, and progresses with the passage of the gas to- 
wards the exit end of the tube. 

The same gas, passed into clay, heated to 500° or 600° Fahr., gives the same re- 
actions ; but when the clay has been heated and well-dried, and cooled in the 
closed tube, it takes up a very small quantity of the gas. 

Coal-gas, quite free from sulphide of hydrogen, when passed through hot lime, 
blackens lead-paper, showing that masked and hitherto irremoveable compounds 
have been so altered as to be easily removeable. The lime does not take up 
sulphide of hydrogen, but becomes gradually, yet very slowly, darkened by tha 
deposition of tar and carbon from vapour of bisulphide of carbon. The reaction 
with previously dried slaked lime commences at 108° Fahr., aud continues 
through the whole range of temperature up to redness. At a red heat the sulphur 
of the bisulphuret of carbon and other sulphur compounds unites with the 
lime and forms sulphide of calcium. Practically very high temperatures are uae- 
less, as the hydrocarbons of gas begin to be decomposed about the melting -point of 



The Artizan,"] 
Feb. 1, 1861. J 



Surface Condensation of Steam. — Railway Curves. 



33 



lead, and deposit their carbon upon the hot lime. Fortunately, injurious tern 
peratures are not required. I have frequently freed gas from every trace of sulphur 
so that upon combustion no sulphurous acid was generated, by employing lime so 
heated as not to deposit any carbon, and removing the sulphuretted hydrogen 
evolved in the hot tube by ordinary hydrate of lime. 

The same gas passed through hot cla3 f gradually darkens the clay by forming 
sulphide of iron, and, when the blackness has reached the end of the tube con- 
taining the clay, lead-paper is blackened by the passing gas. The clay treated 
with an acid evolves sulphide of hydrogen. Carbonic acid is evolved in both cases. 
It is thus proved that bisulphide of carbon, in the presence of hydrogen passing 
over hot hydrate of lime, is decomposed, and that its sulphur becomes united to 
hydrogen. Coal-gas always contains a considerable quantity of hydrogen, so that, 
if it contain a vapour of bisulphide of carbon, the process I have the honour to 
describe will effect its removal. The same process will break up the impure naph- 
thalin compound and convert its sulphur into sulphide of hydrogen ; and the em- 
ployment of clay in the ordinary purifiers, before the gas passes through the hot 
ones, will so arrange the elements of certain other sulphur compounds as to enable 
the manufacturer to remove their sulphur as sulphide of hydrogen. Sulpho- 
■cyanide of ammonium is decomposed by the heated lime, and its sulphur is libera- 
ted as sulphide of hydrogen. The only requisite for complete success was that no 
injury should be done to the light-giving materials of gas while removing the 
impurities. I have passed the principal illuminating constituents of coal-gas 
through the hot lime and clay, and find that they are not injured. The tempera- 
ture which suffices for purification is not high enough for injury. The photo- 
meter shows that coal-gas is not injured. 

The quantity of tar in gas as supplied to consumers, and the evil of its presence 
as a source of sulphur, are not considered as, I think, they deserve to be. It is 
exceedingly rare to find gas free from tar, and I never j'et met with tar which did 
not contain both nitrogen and sulphur. Part of this tar is combined with am- 
monia in some manner, and may be obtained by passing gas through a bottle con- 
taining pebbles moistened with hydrochloric acid. Part is united to naphthalin, 
as I have already mentioned : part is united to benzole vapour, and part to other 
hydrocarbon vapours, such as paraffin, if two instances within my own knowledge 
be sufficient to justify a statement in reference to gas in general. In one instance I 
passed gas through a metal vessel filled with a number of wire-gauze diaphragms, 
and kept below 32° Pahr. Some cakes of solid paraffin were found floating upon 
the water which had been placed in the vessel before commencing the experiment, 
and a mixture of tarry oils which had deposited the paraffin. In another instance, 
an old gas-holder was about to be replaced by a new one, and on the water of the 
tank in which the old gas-holder had worked, there was found upwards of a 
thousand gallons of a dark-coloured fluid. All but two carboys was sold to a 
tar distiller. These two carboys were left exposed to the air without corks for 
some time, and when the manager of the gas-works went to get me some of the 
fluid for examination, he found that the whole contents had evaporated. I bad 
previously, however, obtained about half an ounce of the mixture. It contained 
paraffin, naphthalin, and the oils which accompan} r paraffin. Nearly a fifth of its 
weight of solid pitcli was obtained by distilling off the hydrocarbons. A quan- 
tity of sulphide of hydrogen and ammonia were evolved during the distillation, 
and some of the most stinking compounds I ever met with produced from coal. 
Prom these two instances it is clear that some, or perhaps all, of the volatile hy- 
drocarbons in gas possess the power of upholding tar with them in their vapours, 
and it is proved that this tar is no inconsiderable source of the sulphurous acid 
produced by the combustion of gas as at present purified. I have obtained tar 
containing sulphur from every specimen of commercial benzole I have examined ; 
and as this will evaporate at common temperatures without leaving a residue, we 
are justified in the presumption that tar thus united to benzole exists in gas. 

The best method of showing the tar in gas is to pass it through or over well- 
purified coal-oil, and subsequently through a good condensing arrangement. I 
have known colourless coal-oil become of a dark mahogan}- colour, and have 
separated sulphuretted hydrogen, ammonia, and solid pitch by distillation. 



ON THE SURFACE-CONDENSATION OP STEAM. 
By J. P. Joule, LL.D., P.E.S. 

(Abstract.) 
In the author's experiments steam was passed into a tube, to the outside of 
which a stream of water was applied, by passing it along the concentric space 
between the steam-tube and a wider tube in which the steam tube was placed. The 
steam-tube was connected at its lower end with a receiver to hold the condensed 
water. A mercury gauge indicated the pressure within the apparatus. The 
principal object of the author was to ascertain the conductivity of the tube under 
varied circumstances, by applying the formula suggested by Professor Thomson, 

C=-log— , 
a v 
where a is the area of the tube in square feet, w the quantity of water in pounds 
transmitted per hour, V and v the differences of temperature between the inside 
of the steam-tube, and the refrigerating water at its entrance and its exit. The 
following are some of the author's most important conclusions. 

1. The pressure in the vacuous space is sensibly the same in all parts. 

2. It is a matter of indifference in which direction the refrigerating water 
flows in reference to the direction of the steam and condensed water. 

3. The temperature of the vacuous space is sensibly equal in all its parts. 

4. The resistance to conductivity must be attributed almost entirely to the film 
of water in immediate contact with the inside and outside surfaces of the tube, 
and is little influenced by the kind of metal of which the tube is composed, or 
by its thickness up to the limits of that of ordinary tubes. 

5. The conductivity increases up to a limit as the rapidity of the stream of 
water is augmented. 

6. By the use of a spiral of wire to give a rotary motion of the water in 
the concentric space, the conductivity is increased for the same head of water. 



The author, in conclusion, gives an account of experiments with atmospheric 
air as the refrigerating agent; the conductivity is very small in this case, and 
will probably prevent air being employed for the condensation of steam except in 
very peculiar circumstances. 

ON THE JUNCTION OP KAILWAY CURVES AT TRANSITIONS 

OF CURVATURE.* 

By Mr. William Feot/de. 

Illustrated by Plate 185. 

It is usually admitted, and will be here assumed, that in laying the 

permanent way of such portions of a line as lie on a curve, the outer rail 

should be elevated above the inner, by a quantity proportioned directly 

to the curvature, or, what is the same thing, inversely to the radius of the 

curve. 

This elevation is termed the "cant;" and, if it be calculated in terms 
of the centrifugal force of the passing trains, on the assumption of some 
average velocity, V, and neglecting the other considerations which in a 
minor degree affect it, its value is given by the expression — 

V 2 
Cant = gauge of line x ~p- 

V being the number of feet traversed by the train in one second ; r the 
number of feet in the radius of the curve ; and the " guage " and the 
cant being expressed in feet. 

[It may be remarked in passing that as a practical rule for the use of 
the " plate layers, " the "cant" may be determined by stretching aline 
of given length, as a chord to part of the curve, and measuring the length 
of the offset at the middle point : the length of the chord depending on 
the guage of the line and the assumed average velocity of trains, would, 
with a 7 feet guage, be the space travelled by the train in l - 32 seconds ; 
with a 4/6 guage, the space travelled in P06 seconds.] 

It follows from this view that a sudden change in the radius on which 
a curve is laid, involves a sudden change or discontinuity in the cant ; 
though this conclusion, however obvious when stated, is apt to be disre- 
garded, from the circumstance that mere change of radius involves no 
break in the tangential direction of the curve, the appearance of which, 
therefore, fails to suggest the discontinuity of curvature which really 
exists. 

Thus, if there be a sudden transition from a curve on which a cant of 
six inches is due, to one on which a cant of only three inches is due, the 
outer rail, if laid accordingly, must suddenly drop three inches at the 
point where the change of radius occurs. And if, instead of a mere 
change of radius, a contrary flexure or reversal in the direction of the 
curve be introduced, and specially when this occurs, as it often does, where 
the curves are sharp, the discontinuity of cant becomes so much larger in 
amount that it cannot but be regarded as of serious importance. 

Practically, the difficulty is usually dealt with according to methods 
suggested by the " rule of thumb. " When a simple change of radius 
occurs, the maxim which governs the proceeding is " humour it in. " But 
when the direction of the curvature is reversed, the expedient of 
"putting in a bit of straight, " as a common tangent to both circles, is 
usually thrown into the bargain to " make things pleasant. " And thanks 
to the experienced eyes and skilful hands that are usually engaged in the 
operation, the result obtained is, for the most part, not unsatisfactory. 

It seems bettor, however, that the process should ;be governed by some 
definite and well-grounded rule ; such as will follow from and embody, as 
near as may be, the same mechanical conditions as those which determine 
the amount of cant on the arcs which have to be connected. And it is 
obvious that we shall accomplish this if we arrange that circular arcs of 
different radii shall not meet each other directly, but shall be connected 
by an intermediate length of curve, having a graduated change of curva- 
ture ; the gradations being so arranged that the curve shall have the same 
radius of curvature (or as it is termed osculate) with each circle, where it 
runs into them respectively, and in its intermediate part shall possess 
successively every intermediate degree of curvature. We can then at 
every point along the connecting curve adopt that amount of cant which 
is appropriate to the degree of curvature at the point. 

The simplest law of gradation, and that which earliest suggests itself as 
the one in accordance with which we should desire the cant to vary, is 
that it should vary uniformly along the connecting curve. That is to say, 
that the level of the outer rail should change by a uniform gradient (so to 
call it) from its elevation at one point to its elevation at another. And on 
reflection this arrangement seems to be very nearly such as to " minimise " 
the mechanical difficulty which the case involves. 

For this difficulty lie's principally in the circumstance, that while the 
outer rail is changing its level, the inner and the outer rails no longer lie 
in the same plane, or quasi plane, but are " winding " with reference to 



* In Plate 185, in our last number of The Abtizah", the names of the two authors were 
by mistake transposed ; for "By Prof. W. J. Macquorn Kankine," read, "By Mr. Wni. 
Froude," and vice versa. 



34 



Junction of Railway Curves. 



[The Autizak, 
L Feb. 1,1861. 



each other, so that an engine or carriage resting on them hecomes unequally 
supported cornerwise ; the leading and the trailing wheels on one diago- 
nal, having an excess of support, those on the other diagonal having a 
deficiency. Now, if we determine that the whole inequality of level — the 
whole difference of cant — is to be adjusted in a given length of line ; that 
is, that the connecting curve shall extend over that length, we shall find 
that the minimum degree of "wind" will be secured, if we make it uni- 
form throughout. For the degree of wind is in exact proportion to what 
was termed the gradient of the outer rail. And if this be so arranged as 
to be less steep and involve a less degree of wind in one part of the con- 
necting curve, it must be more steep and involve a greater degree of wind 
in some other part of it, since a given amount of change in all is to be 
effected. 

On this supposition then the problem resolves itself into that of finding 
and applying a curve, the curvature of which shall vary uniformly in terms 
of its length of arc. And the most complete solution of this problem will 
result in a curve which shall commence with an infinite radius of curva- 
ture, or a curvature == 0, and shall possess every subsequent point, a cur- 
vature directly, or a radius of curvature inversely proportioned to the 
length of arc which intervenes between that point and the commence- 
ment of the curve. Having discovered the curve, we shall have merely to 
assign to it such dimensions, and select such a portion of it, as will best 
suit the circumstances of the case to which we desire to apply it. 

A proper discussion of the conditions on which the problem rests, shows 
that the curve which satisfies them approximates very closely to the cubic 
parabola; or conversely, that the cubic parabola may be used so as to 
satisfy the conditions with a very close approximation. 

The mathematical part of the discussion is better suited to an appendix, 
and it will accordingly be given there. It may, however, be observed as 
illustrating mechanically the truth of the conclusion, that the conditions 
on which it is based are closely analogous to those which govern the 
flexure of a parallel-sided beam or plank, when it is rigidly fixed at one 
end and strained transversely at the other. For the curvature at each 
point in the beam will be directly as the stress, and this again will be 
directly as the leverage at the point ; that is to say, as the distance along 
the beam between this point and the point where the transverse strain is 
applied. And it is well known that the elastic curve thus produced is 
approximately the cubic parabola. 

In the application of the curve to the practical operations which are the 
subject of the present inquiry, the approximation is so close that the curve 
may be used unreservedly, and, on a full examination of its properties, the 
application turns out to be as singularly easy as its results are elegant ; 
whilst the properties themselves form instructive illustrations of the 
mathematical theory of curvilinear contact, and deserve to be studied on 
that account alone. But in this case also the mathematical part of the 
discussion will be more suitably given in the appendix, and it will be 
sufficient here to state the properties seriatim, and to point out the method 
in which it has been found easiest to apply them. 

(1). The cubic parabola is ordinarily described by the equation y = m x 3 , 
or, in general language, the interval between the curve and the base from 
which it takes its departure varies at the cube of the distance from the 
point at which the curve commences. Thus, for instance, if we take a 
series of these distances, in chains, and assign - 001 chain (or one-tenth of 
a link), as the ordinate or interval at the end of the first chain, the 
intervals at the end of the second, third, fourth chains, and so on, will be 
•8, 2*7, 6'4 links, and so on ; multiplying in each [case the primary unit 
(•1 link) by the cube of the number of chains. The term, m, in the 
equation, will in fact equal •001. It will be observed the curve forms two 
branches, having a contrary flexure in the origin of co-ordinates ; since 
negative values of x give also negative values y. 

(2). The radius of curvature, at any point in the curve within the 
compass which will be involved in the proposed practical application of 

the system> is given by the expressions = — - x — . Thus, for instance, 

in the curve of the dimensions just given, when m = "001, we should 
have for the radius of curvature at the end of the first chain, where 



x = 1, T 



= 166-67 chains ; half of that, or 88'33 chains at 



6 x -001 

the end of the second chain ; one third of it, or 55'55 at the end of the 
third chain, and so on. Pig. 1, Plate III., shows the curve, plotted on a 
scale of half an inch' to a chain, with the circles of curvature added at the 
ends of the third, sixth, and ninth chains. The curve is shown in a full line, 
the circles of curvature in dotted lines. 

(3). Por the purpose we have in view, it will be found convenient to 
determine the series of ordinates which measure the interval between the 
curve, and the circle of curvature which belongs to it at any point. 

Now, it follows from the mathematical theory of curvature and contact, 
that whatever be the curve we deal with, the interval between it and its 
circle of curvature varies approximately as the cube of the distance from 
the point of osculation, measured along the arc ; so that for a short dis- 
tance on either side of this point, either the curve or the circle may be 



regarded as a cubic parabola, when referred to the other as a base ; and 
this law is characteristic of what is called contact of the second order; 
just as it is characteristic of contact of the first order (the contact of a 
curve and a straight line), that the interval varies approximately as the 
square of the distance from the point of contact. 

The peculiarity which distinguishes this general relation, as it exists in 
the particular curve under consideration, is that at whatever point in the 
curve we place its proper circle of curvature, the series of cubically grow- 
ing ordinates which mark the interval between the curve and circle on 
either side of the point of osculation, is the same series as that which 
marks the interval between the curve and the base on which it is de- 
scribed, if we assign to these ordinates in the former case the same 
distances from the point of osculation, measured along the arc, as belong 
to them in the latter case, measured from the commencement of the curve. 

Thus, in fig. 2, let P" O P P' be the cubic parabola, and CPC'a circle 
of curvature osculating it at any point, P. 

Let a series of distances, 1, 2, 3, &c, be marked out along the line, O X, 
measured from O, and a series of equal distances along the curve, each way 
measured from P ; then it will be found that the intervals between the 
curve and its circle of curvature at any one of these points, will be the 
same as that between the curve and the line, X, at the corresponding 
point ; and this proposition is a general one, and is true for any position 
of P, so long as it is placed within the limits of the approximation ; it is 
equally true whether the ordinates are measured from a flat circle of cur- 
vature, osculating the curve near the origin, or from a circle of smaller 
radius osculating it at a proportionally greater distance. 

The rationale (so to call it) of the proposition depends on the condition, 
that in the curve to which it refers, the curvature varies uniformly. For 
this implies that equal increments of curvature accrue to the curve 
throughout, in equal lengths of arc. Now, just as the. absolute amount of 
curvature in a line at any point, is measured by the rate at which it 
departs from a rectilinear tangent, for short distances on either side of that 
point taken as the point of contact, so the variation in, or growth of its 
curvature at any point, is measured by the rate at which it departs from 
its circle of curvature on either side of that point taken as the point of 
osculation. If, therefore, the curvature grows uniformly, this rate of 
departure from the circle of curvature must be everywhere the same; and 
as the original tangential line, O X, is identical with the circle of curvature 
belonging to the vertex of the curve, where its radius is infinite, the rate 
of departure of the curve from this line will be identical with that of its 
departure from its circle of curvature at any other point; and since the 
series of ordinates marks the rate of departure, this series must be every- 
where the same. 

It should be remarked in reference to the range, within which this pro- 
position is approximately true, that the amount of error which it involves, 
depends on the difference between the length of arc up to any point and 
the length of the corresponding portion of the base, O X ; and the error 
will be sensible when the difference becomes considerable. But no such 
difference will arise within the range of curve which will be called into use 
by the practical application of it now proposed ; and, moreover, he range 
of safe approximation may be extended considerably farther, if the dis- 
tances to which the successive terms in the series of cubically growing 
ordinates are assigned, be measured not along the base line, but along the 
arc of the curve itself, an arrangement which it is always easy to make in 
dealing with a curve geometrically, though analytically it for the most 
part involves serious difficulties. But farther, a little consideration shows 
that, in dealing with the subject geometrically, it is easy, by help of the 
proposition under discussion, and relying only on such an extension of it 
as introduces no appreciable error, to lay down as far as we desire, a curve 
of uniformly varying curvature, and this with as close an approximation 
to the truth as we please. 

For if, at a point in the curve at which the error has not begun to be 
appreciable, we describe the circle of curvature, we may continue the 
curve for a second such length, using the circle as the base (instead of con- 
tinuing to work from the original base) ; we may then again describe a 
fresh circle of curvature and repeat the operation as often, and extend 
the curve length by length as far as we desire ; and this is exhibited in 
fig. 3, the curve being shown in a full line, the circles of curvature in 
dotted lines. 

It is not uninstructive to observe that, if we lay down a segment of 
such a curve on a narrow riband of paper, and draw a series of tangents 
to successive points in it, and then bend the riband in its own plane, so 
that every tangent shall become a circle of given curvature, the same 
throughout, our curve will simply have been converted into a segment 
of some other portion of its own continuation. For the curvature of that 
circle will have been simply added to, or deducted from, the curvature of 
each portion of the original segment ; and the law of uniform growth, 
which its curvature originally possessed, will not have been thus disturbed ; 
since the uniformity of a uniformly growing series is not affected by the 
addition of a given quantity (the same throughout) to each of its original 
terms. 



The Art izan,! 
Feb. 1, 1861. J 



Junction of Railway Curves. 



35 



(4). Referring back to fig. 2, it is plain that since OC = PH, the 
point where the circle of curvature is nearest to the line, X, is midway 
between the point at which the curve osculates its base at starting, and 
that at which it osculates the circle of curvature ; and, pari ratione, it is 
plain that the point at which any two consecutive circles of curvature are 
nearest to one another, is midway between the points at which they re- 
spectively osculate the curve, as is exemplified in fig. 3. 

(5). Again, since in fig. 2, the ordinates, It, 2, 3, &c, measured from the 
circle of curvature to the curve, are respectively equal to the ordinates 
similarly numbered, measured from the base, O X, to the curve, it follows 
that, at the middle point where the circle most nearly approaches the base, 
the curve will bisect this minimum interval ; because the two equal ordi- 
nates numbered, 5, meet in the curve at this point, and together span the 
interval; and, pari ratione, the curve will bisect the minimum interval 
between any two consecutive circles of curvature. 

(6). It follows from these propositions, that at the positions where the 
connecting curve commences and terminates, the interval between the two 
circles (or the circle and the tangent) which it connects, is four times the 
minimum interval between them, because the former is the concluding 
term in the series of cubical ordinates which define the connecting curve, 
while the latter is double of the middle term in the same series ; and 
since the series is cubical, the middle term must be one-eighth of the 
concluding term. Hence, in fig. 4, in the examples, a, u, and c, P Q, P' Q', 
each = 4 M N. 

We can thus at once determine the dimensions and position of the curve 
which will duly connect any two consecutive circles, which have been so 
placed as to admit of the connection, that is, such as run past each other 
at a moderate distance without intersecting, as shown in fig. 4 ; and the 
same method of proceeding will be found to apply alike, whether the case 
be that of a reversal of curvatures, as in the example marked, a; or of a 
circle running into a tangent, as in the example marked, b ; or, lastly, a 
change of curvature without reversal, as in the example marked, e. 

The points, P, and P', the beginning and the end of the connecting- 
curve, are determined by a trial measurement, showing the position where 
P Q, P' Q' = 4 M N. 

Having thus determined the position and length of the connecting 
curve, this length, P P', must be divided into a series of spaces (it is con- 
venient to make these spaces equal) ; and to the end of each of them 
must be allotted its appropriate term in a series of corresponding cubically- 
growing ordinates ; of which the concluding term is P Q, or quadruple 
the minimum interval, M N. Thus, if we divide P P' into ten equal 
spaces, P Q will stand for 1000, and the ordinates at the ends of spaces, 
1, 2, 3, &c, w'ill be respectively 1, 8, 27, &c. The ordinates may be set 
off indifferently from either circle as base, and the resulting curve will be 
in either case the same. 

The operation has been performed in example, /, of fig. 5 ; and the 
delicacy of the transition from curve to curve approves itself to the eye 
better than any mere " rule of thumb " sweep could do ; and the per- 
ception of this is heightened if, as in fig. 5, we exhibit in contrast, three 
methods of uniting two circles of given radius at a part of contrary 
ilexure; (1) uniting them by merely securing identity of tangential direc- 
tion at the point of junction, as at d ; (2) uniting them by the recognised 
formula of " putting in a bit of straight," as at e ; and (3) uniting them 
by a segment of cubic parabola, as at f. 

In describing the practical process by which the connecting curve is 
to be applied, it was stated that the circles to be connected must be so 
placed as to pas3 each other, by a moderate interval, without intersecting ; 
and it becomes proper to inquire by what rule the magnitude of the in- 
terval is to be governed. 

The answer to this question depends on the scale of the cant adopted, 
and on the " gradient of adjustment," as it may be termed (the gradient, 
namely, according to which the elevation of the outer rail is to be 
changed), which may be considered proper in reference to the mechanical 
difficulties which it involves. If these elements of the question are 
assumed or determined, the interval which must be allotted to the circles 
at the point of nearest approach, as well as the total length of the con- 
necting curve, are readily deducible. 

The deduction is given in a regular form in the appendix, and it will be 
sufficient briefly to notice its principle here. 

It was shown in the earlier part of the paper that if rails be laid on the 
line of a given cubic parabola (within the limits of approximation assumed 
in the discussion), the cant due to thecurvature will vary by a uniform 
gradient ; and the proposition may be extended throughout to such an 
extension of the curve as is exhibited in fig. 3. 

Now, in the equation, y = m x 3 , on which the curve is based, the term, 
m, fixes the gradient, in relation to the scale of cant ; for it shows by what 
length of arc a given curvature, and therefore a given cant, is arrived at. 
So that the value of in may be made such, that the curve expressed by the 
equation shall correspond with the proper gradient of adjustment and the 
proper scale of cant. 

In order, then, to determine the proper relative positions for the circles 



to be connected, we may, in the first place, determine the length, P P' 
(fig. 4), in terms of the amount of cant to be lost or gained in the transi- 
tion, and of the gradient of adjustment ; and then, taking the value of m, 
determined as above, we at once deduce P Q or P' Q' = m P P' 3 , and 

to P P' :{ 
M N = — ' The circles thus placed, in fact, occupy, with reference 

to each other, exactly those positions which belong to their counterpart 
circles of curvature, wherever these stand on the curve. 

The scale of cant depends on the assumed average velocity of the passing 
trains, aud this admits only of a rough determination. But if the very 
sharp curves which are adopted within the limits of stations be put out of 
the question, 60 feet per second (which is just above 40 miles per hour) 4s 
suggested as probably not far from the mark ; near enough, at all events, 
to form the basis of an illustrative calculation. 

The mechanical difficulty involved in the " gradient of adjustment " is 
the fact that, when an engine or carriage rests on the part of the line which 
is affected by it, the leading and trailing wheel on one diagonal are lifted, 
relatively to those on the other diagonal ; and if the frame of an engine 
were rigid, and the axles unprovided with springs, one of the wheels on 
the diagonal of least stress would be out of contact with the rail beneath 
it, by the amount of rise or fall due to the gradient, within the distance 
between the leading and trailing wheels. 

Practically, the result will appear in the shape of an excess of compression 
in the springs on one diagonal, and a defect of compression in those on the 
other— each being compared with the compression they would exhibit were 
the engine or carriage resting on a line, the rails of which he in the same 
plane ; and the question is, what degree of inequality may safely be per- 
mitted. 

It is believed that the average compression of the springs on which an 
engine rests is about 2 inches, as due to the weight of from 5 to 7 tons on 
each wheel ; and probably 20 feet may be taken as the extreme length 
of engine or carriage in this country. Now, if in this length we suppose 
the outer rail to rise or fall one inch, as due to alteration in cant, it follows 
that the springs on one diagonal will be compressed each half an inch more 
than those on the other diagonal, or a quarter of an inch more than when 
in the mean condition; and this will involve a variation in pressure 
amounting to about one-eighth part of the average load on each wheel. 
Such a rate of change will involve a " gradient of adjustment " of ^jo 
and probably this is sufficiently within the limits of safety ; yet, bearing 
in mind that this difference of stress comes in addition to that due to 
casual irregularities of packing, as well as that due to the oscillatory 
motion which, in a greater or less degree; every engine and carriage ex- 
periences, and under which the springs may be seen to work above one 
inch in many instances, it may be desirable to take the limit a little farther 
on the side of safety, and call G the gradient of adjustment ^i^. 

A tabular statement at the end of the appendix gives the requisite data 
for adapting the connecting curve generally to any scale of cant and 
gradient of adjustment, together with others reduced into simpler terms, 
on the basis of the scale now suggested ; and to illustrate the application 
of these here given ; showing in each case the reversal of a curve of 20 
chains radius, founded, however, in the one on data appropriate to the 
narraw gauge ; in the other to the broad ; but both adopting the proposed 
scale of cant and gradient of adjustment. 

The particulars are as follows, all dimensions being in chains. The 
letters of reference are those adopted in fig. 4. 

r = + 20. r = — 20. 
V = -91. 
G (gradient of adjustment), = 3-Lj 
Narrow. 
Gauge 

w 

It follows that — 

PP' 

PQorP'Q' 

MN , 

Cant on each circle -00575 -00895 

In reference to the general law which governs the value of these terms, 
as depending on the velocity assumed as the basis for calculating cant, on 
the gradient of adjustment, and on the gauge, it may be observed that 
P P', or the length of the connecting curve, varies directly as the square 
of the velocity and as the guag;e, and inversely as the gradient of adjust- 
ment; while *P Q or P' Q', and MN, which measure the interval between 
the circles, vary as the fourth power of the velocity and as the square of 
the gauge, and inversely as the square of the gradient of adjustment. 

It may be observed, in conclusion, that except in those localities in 
which an enlargement of the interval betwee the circles at M N can only 
be obtained by a detrimental sharpening of their general curvatures, there 
is no reason for adhering to that value of it which depends on the limiting 
value of the gradient of adjustment, provided it be not made less than 
that. The value of M N, determined by the steepest admissible gradient 



■068 



3-15 

•198 

•0495 



Broad. 
•106 



5-37 

■485 

•1212 



36 



Junction of 'Railway Curves. 



[The Aetizan, 
L Feb. 1, 1861. 



of adjustment, is, in fact, rather a limit not to be transgressed, than a 
measure to be alwfeys adopted ; and it will save the trouble of calculation 
if we take at pleasure such a value of it as we are sure will not be too 
small. A caution which is easily followed if it be borne in mind that the 
reversal of a curve of 20 chains radius requires only an interval of 5 links 
on the narrow gauge, and 12 links on tbe broad, with cant due to an 
assumed velocity of 40 miles per hour. 



APPENDIX. 

In the cubic parabola, whose equation is y 



m a; 3 , 



dy 
dx 



3 m x 2 



aml ^ 



6 m x d x. Hence the curve has two equal branches,- the one, 

in which positive values of a; give positive values of y; the other, in which 
negative values of x give negative values of y. Also, the curve passes 
through the origin of co-ordinates, running parallel to, or coincident with 



the axis of x at that point, since 



Ay _ 
d x 



0, and having its radius of curvature 



(22 



infinite, with a contrary flexure at the same point, since "j\ — ; 
changes its sign. 

Taking the ordinary expression for radius of curvature, r 



and 



d s 3 
d x . d 2 y 

it is plain that near the origin of co-ordinates, and with a tolerably ex- 
tended range of approximation, we may put d s = d x in applying it to our 

curve, and it follows that r = That is to say, the radius of curva- 

6 m x JJ 

ture varies inversely as the value of x for the point to which the radius 

belongs, through the range of the approximation ; and, from the form of 

the expression out of which the conclusion grows, it is plain that the 

approximation will be closer, and have a greater range, if we make the 

equation one between y and s, and say y = m s 3 . 

It is desired to determine the series of ordinates which express the 
interval between the curve and its circle of curvature, in relation to those 
which express the interval between the curve and the axis, O X. 

Let S' S, fig. 6, Plate 185, be the arc ot the cubic parabola, and 
B'QPE its circle of curvature for the point P, whose co-ordinates are 

x', y' (P Q, P T) ; whence, its radius of curvature, C B, r' = - -,. If x" 

be the value of x for the centre of curvature C, x" = x' — r> ^— and, as 

ds 

— , the reduction of which expres- 
d x 

sion gives x" = — , whence it follows that O Q = y' • 
2 
Let the equation of the circle of curvature be expressed in terms of 
a?i y lt and let h be the height, M N, of the vertex of the circle of curvature, 
above the axis of x. Then, in the first place, by the properties of the 

circle, y — h : ^- = ~ ; r', and putting for r' its value -„ and reducing 



before, putting d s = d x, x" = x' — r' 



the equation, it follows that h = ^-; and, in the next place, deducing the 

general relation of x\ y x by the properties of the circle, y\ - h + g ^ 

and putting K for h and —^ for r '> and reducing, we have yi = 

r 4 b m x 

mx ' S + 3 m xdx! - ^- \ ; then the inverval between the curve and the 

circle of curvature, at any point for which the value of x x is given, will be 
(y\ — y) where y = m x^ ; hence, 



-y) 



m x 

4 



+ 3 m x' 



My- 



m xi ■ 



which, reduced, gives (y\ — y) = m (*' - *\Y- ,-.,.'! , 

The interpretation of which equation is, that if we take distances along 
the arc of the parabola, each way from any point, P, as the basis of a series 
of ordinates, which connect it with its circle of curvature for P, or rather 
which express the interval between the curve and circle, this series of 
ordinates will be the same as that which expresses the interval between 
the curve and the axis of X, taken at the same distances, measured along 
X from O. Observing, however, that the proposition is only true within 
the limits of our approximation, and that the range of its truth is extended, 
if the equation be in all cases considered as existing between # and s rather 
than between y and x. 

It is desired, in reference to the application of the curve discussed mthe 
to determine the value of m in the equation, !f = »i 3 or«i s% 



which will make the curve such as to correspond with the proper gradient 

being 



of adjustment, G. Observe, then, that G = , _ „ > s' and s 



the lengths of arc measured from the origin of co-ordinates up to the 

respective points, at which the radii of curvature are r' and r", and the 

corresponding values of the cant are cant' and cant". 

V 2 
The general expression for cant is Cant = • gauge, expressing all 

32 t 

dimensions in feet ; but for our purpose it is more convenient to tak'e the 

chain as the unit of dimension, and, making the proper substitutions, the 

expression becomes Cant = — x qauqe ; and since r = „ , or 

32 »• 6 m s 

MhHk 

if these values be substituted in the expression for G, we have 



6 m r, 



G = 



i V 2 gauge 



32 



1 
12-37 



G 



\r' r" ) 
b m \ r r I 



which, converted and reduced, gives m 



V 2 gauge. 
If, as suggested in the paper, we put G — 
91 chains per sec, and observe that the narrow gauge (4 ft. 6 in.) = '068, 



and the broad gauge (7 ft.) 
as follows :- 



-, and V = (60 ft. per sec. =) 

uge(4ft. 6 in.) = "068, 
•106, the values of m come out respectively 



Narrow. 
m = 207' ' 



Broad. 

1 

322" 



By help of these values of m, we can determine what must be the values 
of M N, for any two circles, in order that the relative position may be such, 
that when the connecting curve is laid down according to the rules given 
in the paper, G (the gradient of adjustment) shall have the required value. 

The corresponding values of P P' (the length of the curve), and of P Q, 
P' Q' (the reciprocally -placed terminal ordinates), fig. 4, plate III., are 
determined simultaneously. 



Observe that P P' = s' — s", and 



And putting for m its value, |pp, 
and reducing the expression, ) 



6 m \ r r \> 

2 . 06 v 2 ^ f /JL _iA 

G \r' r" I 



Again P Q or P' Q' = m (P P') 3 ; and substituting for m and P P', and 



reducing, 



and 



MN 



P Q or P' Q' 

_ PQ or 



1 V 4 gauge 2 
f41 G^~ 



^ / r" ) ' 

r P'Q' 1^ V 4 gau ge 2 f\_ _ l\ 3 

4 - 5-64 G 2 y r' r" J ' 



The following tabular statement shows all the deductions above at ai 
glance, both in their general form, and as interpreted by the assumed 
values of V and G, and for the narrow and broad gauges : — 



PP' = 



PQorP'Q'= 



MN 



General Expressions. 



G 



12-37 V 2 gauge 



206 



V 2 gauge 
G" 



1 V 4 gauge 
r41 Gfi~ 



(i-4-V 



1 V 4 gauge 2 
F64 G 2 



\r' r") 



Assuming G = — — and V = 0'91 
300 



Narrow Gauge. 



1 

207 



34-5 



\r' r" ) 



(i-i) 



198 ( -=-, — 



49-5 



\r' r") 



Broad Gauge. 



1 

322 



53-7 



\r' r") 



485 



(/ r") 



121-2 



V* 1 ' T ") 



The Aexizan,"] 
Feb. 1, 1861. J 



Application of Transversals. 



37 



ON THE APPLICATION OP TRANSVERSALS TO ENGINEERING 

FIELD-WORK. 

By Professor W. J. Macquorn Rankine. 

The illustrious Carnot, eminent at once in war, politics, literature and 
science, published about the year 1806 a short essay on what he called 
the "Theory of Transversals ; " a branch of geometry at once simple in its 
principles, and useful in its applications, but little known or studied in 
Britain. 

A transversal, as defined by Carnot, is a line, either straight or curved, 
which cuts another system of straight or curved lines ; and the theory of 
transversals relates chiefly to the proportions amongst the parts into which 
the lines belonging to that system are cut by the transversal. He confines 
his attention in his essay to straight and circular transversals. 

The object of the present paper is to describe a few of the simplest 
applications of the theory of transversals to engineering field-work, by 
which the operations of ranging and measuring the inaccessible parts of 
straight lines and circular curves may be facilitated. 

Section 1. — Ranging and Measuring, with the Chain and Poles alone, 
of inaccessible Portions of a Straight Line. 

A long station-line in a chained survey, or a straight part of the centre- 
line of an intended railway, may have one or more places in its course 
through which, owing to the intervention of buildings, woods, precipices, 
water, swamps, or other obstacles, it may be difficult or impossible to 
chain along the line with accuracy; and in some cases also, it may be 
impossible to range the line directly across the obstacle. Those difficulties 
are most readily met by the use of angular instruments; but, in the 
absence of such instruments, the chain and poles alone may be used ; and 
that is the case supposed in the present paper. 

Three kinds of cases may be distinguished : — First, those in which the 
obstacle can be seen over from side to side, and chained round, but not 
chained across. Secondly, those in which it can neither be seen over nor 
chained across, but can be chained round ; and thirdly, those in which the 
obstacle can be seen over, but neither chained across nor chained round. 

In the simplest of these three cases, when it is possible to see over the 
obstacle and to chain round it, it is unnecessary to have recourse to the 
theory of transversals. The present paper, therefore, considers the two 
more difficult cases only. 

In those two cases also, there are well-known methods by ranging and 
measuring a straight line parallel and equal to the inaccessible line, by 
setting out triangles of certain figures, and in certain positions, and the 
like ; but, in all these methods, the surveyor is tied down to particular 
positions for the auxiliary points and lines, which he ranges and chains. 
The advantage of the method of transversals is, that it leaves the surveyor 
at liberty to lay out his auxiliary points and lines in such positions as he 
may judge to be most convenient, upon consideration of the figure and 
nature of the ground. 

Problem First. — To range and measure a straight line across an 
obstacle which can be chained round, but neither chained across nor seen 
over. 

In figs. 8 and 9, Plate 185, let a and b be two points in the chained 
straight line at the near side of the obstacle, about as far apart as the in- 
accessible distance, b e, is judged to be. Mark a station, C, so as to form 
a well-conditioned triangle with a and b ; prolong the lines, b C and a C 
until two points, A and B, are reached, through which a straight line can 
be ranged and chained past the further side of the obstacle. 

Fig. 8 represents the case in which the most convenient position for A 
is at the same side of the obstacle with B and C. Fig. 9 represents the 
case in which the most convenient position for A is at the opposite side 
from B and C. (In the latter case, the boundaries of the obstacle may be 
surveyed by onsets from the sides of the triangle, ABC, in which it is 
inclosed.) 

In some cases it may be advisable to begin by choosing the stations, A, 
and B, then to choose C, and then to range the lines, BCs, and A C b, as 
in fig. 8 ; or, A b C, as in fig. 9. 

All the sides of the two triangles, ABC, a b C, are to be measured. 

Then to find the point, c, at the intersection of the main straight line 
loith A B, compute the distance of that point from B by one or other of the 
following formula? : — 

If e lies in A B produced, as in fig. 8 — 



Be 



AB.aB.5C 
C« . A6 - <iB . 6C 
If c lies between A and B, as in fig. 9 — 
A~B.aB.bC 



Be = 



(1-) 



(2.) 



C a . A 5 + a B . b C 

Next, to find the inaccessible distance, b c, use the following formula, 
which is applicable to both fignres — 

ab . kb . BC (3) 

CA . aB-Ab . BC ' ' * K '' 



be 



The same problems may also be solved by plotting the figure, a b C 
A B C a, and producing a b, till it cuts A B, as in fig. 9, or A B produced 
as in fig. 8. In a purely mathematical point of view, it is unnecessary to 
measure both A B and a b, as either of those lines might be calculated 
from the other, but both should nevertheless be chained, as a check on 
possible errors.* 



* The following are the formula for calculating A B from a I. 
of squares it is easy to use them. 



With the aid of a table 



In fig. 8— 

AB: 

In fig. 9— 

AB: 






B C 2 + C A 2 - 



BC 2 + CA 2 + 



BC . C 
6C . C 



BC 
iC 



ft 



b C 2 + c 



6C 2 + C 



) a 2 — a b- ) > . 
a 2 -ai-)j. 



To compute a I from A B, interchange the positions of A and a, B and b, throughout 
the above formulae. 

Problem Second. — To measure a straight line across an obstacle which 
can be seen over, but neither chained across nor chained round. This is 
the case of a station-line intercepted by a deep ravine or deep and rapid 
river. The first operation is, of course, to range and fix a pole at c (fig. 10) 
in the station-line beyond the obstacle. The next is to find the distance, 
b c, as follows : — On the nearer side of the obstacle range the stations, A, 
and B, in a straight line with c, making the angle, b c B, greater than 30°, 
and place them so that the intersecting lines, A b, B a, connecting them 
with two points, a, and b, in the station-line, shall form a pair of well- 
conditioned triangles, a b C, A B C, as in the first problem ; measure the 
sides of those triangles, and compute the inaccessible distance, b e, by 
equation, 3, already given. 

As a check upon the position thus found for the point, c, compute also 
the inaccessible distance, B c, by means of equation, 1. 

This problem is solved graphically by plotting the figure, a b C, A B C a f 
and producing a b and A B till they intersect in c. 

The calculation represented by either of the formula?, 1, 2, or 3, when 
each of the given distances is expressed by four figures, has been found to 
occupy about six minutes without the aid of logarithms, and five minutes 
with logarithms. 

The preceding methods are founded on the first proposition of Carnot's 
theory of transversals, which is as follows : — 

If the three sides of a triangle or their prolongations are cut by a straight 
transversal, there will be formed between the transversal and the three angles 
of the triangle six segments, such that the product of three of them which 
have no common extremity is equal to the product of the other three. 

For example, in either of the figures, 8, 9, 10, A B C is a triangle whose 
sides, or their prolongations, are cut by a transversal in the points, a, b, c, 
forming segments which are related as follows : — 

AJ . Be . Ca = Ac . C6 . Ba. 
The several formula} already given are consequences of this equation. 
SECTION II. — Ranging and Measuring Circular Curves, of which Portions 
are inaccessible to the Chain. 

The method now generally known and practised, of setting-out circular 
curves by laying off angles at the circumference with the theodolite, was, 
so far as the author of this paper knows, first published in a paper which 
he sent to the Institution of Civil Engineers, and which was read on the 
14th of March, 1843. He had begun to use the method, and to teach it 
to others, in 1841 ; and as no account of it had been published by any 
other person, he believed himself for a time to be its only inventor ; but 
he afterwards ascertained that it had been independently practised, though 
not published, by Mr. William Froude (who was at that time assistant to 
Mr. Gravatt), and probably also by Captain Vetch, R.E. 

Before proceeding to range a circular curve by that method, it is neces- 
sary, besides the radius of the curve, to have the following data : — The 
position of at least one end of the curve, and the direction of a tangent at 
that end ; or else, the positions of at least two points in the curve, and the 
length of the arc between them ; and the more points, tangents, and arcs 
are previously determined, the greater will be the ease, speed, and precision 
with which the curve can be set-out. 

The use of transversals in connection with setting-out curves is to facili- 
tate the finding of those data, when the point of intersection of the tangents 
to the ends of the curve is inaccessible, and when part of the curve itself 
is inaccessible. 

Problem Third.— Given, the positions of two straight lines whose inter- 
section is inaccessible, and which are to be connected with each other by 
means of a circular curve of a given radius, r ; it is required to find the 
ends of that curve, and one or more intermediate points, and the lengths 
of the arcs between those points. 

In figs. 11 and 12, the lines to be chained on the ground are represented 
by full lines; those whose lengths are to be calculated only, are dotted. 

Let b B, c C be the two straight lines, meeting at the inaccessible point, 



38 



Expansion of Steam. 



TThe Abtizaw, 
L Feb. 1,1861. 



A. Chain a straight line, D E, upon accessible ground, so as to connect 
those two tangents. The position of the transversal, D E, is arbitrary ; 
but it is convenient so to place it, if possible, that it will cut the proposed 
curve in two points, as in fig. 11, which may be determined, and used as 
theodolite stations. 

Measure the angles, b D E, D E c, which may be denoted by D and E. 
Then the angle at A is-— 



A = D + E - 180° ; 

AD = DE !»L|. AE 
sin A 



DE S 4^; 
sm A 



(1.) 
(2.) 



A A 

DB = r.cotan ^ - AD; E C = r. cotan g - AE;. (3.) 

and by laying off the distances, D B, and E C, as thus calculated, the ends 
of the curve B and C are marked, and it can be ranged from either of 
those stations. But it is often convenient to have intermediate points in 
the curve for theodolite stations; and of these 'the points, H and K, of 
intersection with the transversal and the point, G, midway between those, 
can easily be found by the following calculations ; in making which a table 
of squares is useful. 

Let E be the point on the transversal midway between H and K. 

If B D = C E, the point, P, is at the middle of D E. If B D and C E 
are unequal, let BD be the greater, then the position of F is given by 
either of the two following formula :— 



„ D E BD 
DP = -g- + 



CES 



2DE 



; EP 



DE 
2 



BD 2 - CE 2 
2DE 



(4.) 



The points, H, and K, are at equal distances on each side of F, 
by either of the following expressions: — 



FH = FK 



s/W 



(BD 2 -CE 2 ) 2 BD 2 + CE2- 



4DE 2 2 ) 

= V (D F 2 + E ¥■ - B D 2 - C E 2 ) (5.) 

The equations, 4, and 5, are deduced from the two following, which may 
be used in order to check the calculations, and are given in a form suitable 
for the use of a table of squares — 

_ (DH + DK) 2 - (DK - DH) 2 



BD 2 = DH . DK = 



EC 2 = EH . EK 



^ (EH + EK) 2 - (EH - EK) 



i 



i.) 



PHf ( 8 



The point, G, in the curve is found by setting oft' the ordinate, F G, 
perpendicular to D E, of the following length : — 

p G = r - V r 2 - P H 2 (7.) 

The angles subtended at the centre of the curve by the several arcs 
between the commencement B and the points H, G, K, C are as follows : — 

Angle subtended at the centre by B H = 180° — D — arc sin 1 

„ „ BG=180°-D; 

„ „ „ B K = 180° — D + arc sin 

„ . B C = 180°- A =360° - D- E. 

And the length of any one of those arcs may be computed by means of 
the formula — 

Arc = '0002909 r x angle at centre, in minutes (9.) 

The use of such computations will appear in the next problem. 

Cases may occur in which obstacles upon the ground render it necessary 
to make one or both ends of the transversal, D E, meet the straight 
tangents beyond the ends of the curve. The whole of the formula; already 
given continue to be applicable, with only the following modifications :— 
When D lies further from A than B does, as in fig. 12, D B is negative in 

the first of the equations, 3 ; that is, A D is greater than r. cotan — 

a 

and the point, H, as found by means of equation, 10, lies, not on the arc to 
be ranged, but on the continuation of the same circle beyond B. 

■When E lies further from A than C does, E C is negative in the second 

of the equations, 3 ; that is, A E is greater than r. cotan — ■ and the 

a 

point, K, as found by means of equation, 5, lies not on the arc to be 
ranged, but on the continuation of the same circle beyond C. 

The point, G, always lies on the arc to be ranged. The larger the 
ordinate, F G, is, the more carefully must it be set off at right angles to 
the transversal by means of an optical square, or of the theodolite. 

Problem: Fourth. — To set out a circular curve of a given radius, 
touching two given straight lines, when part of the curve is inaccessible 
to the chaiD. 



If the point of intersection of the tangents is accessible, the two ends 
of the curve can be determined and marked by the ordinary methods, and 
also the middle point of the curve, unless it lies on the inaccessible 
ground; and the length of the curve is to be computed by equation, 9. 

If the point of intersection of the tangents is inaccessible, the two ends 
of the curve, and at least one intermediate point, are to be determined and 
marked by the aid of a transversal, as in Problem Third, and the lengths 
of the arcs bounded by those points are to be computed by the formulae, 
8, and 9. 

A transversal may be useful even when the point of intersection of the 
tangents is accessible, in order to find numerous intermediate points in 
the curve. 

Each of the points thus marked will serve either as a theodolite-station, 
or as a station to chain from, or for both purposes ; and the stakes, lying 
between the obstacle and the next station beyond it, are to be planted, by 
chaining backwards from that station. 

Such are a few of the applications of the theory of transversals to 
engineering field-work ; and if engineers and surveyors generally were to 
turn their attention to that branch of geometry, there can he no doubt 
that many more such applications would be devised. Their tendency is to 
make the operations on the ground more simple, easy, and precise, at the 
cost of certain additional calculations, which, however, are by no means 
difficult or laborious, especially with the aid of a table of squares. 



EXPANSION OF STEAM. 

At a late meeting of the American Engineers' Association, New York 
City, the subjoined paper was read by its author, Mr. Louis Koch, Me- 
chanical Engineer : — 

Question. — What is the pressure of steam in the cylinder at the end of 
the stroke wJien cat off at half-stroke ? 

This question is easily answered by the experimental tables laid down 
by the Committees of the French and the Franklin Institutes, by Dr. 
Lardner, and many others, showing the total pressure in pounds, the 
corresponding temperature, the volume of steam compared to the volume 
of water that has produced it, and the mechanical effect of a cubic inch of 
water evaporated in pounds raised one foot ; all of which show conclu- 
sively that the pressure of steam in the cylinder at the end of the stroke, 
when cut off at half-stroke, is not one-half of its full pressure, and that 
this difference becomes greater, first, with the increase of pressure, and, 
secondly, with the decrease of cutting off; all this is strictly theoretical, 
without regard to friction or the influence of the atmospheric pressure. 

The following are a few examples taken from Dr. Lardner's table : — 



Volume of 
Steam. 


Temperature. 


Pressure. 


Double 
Volume. 


Corresponding 
Pressure. 


Difference. 


1281 
2426 


228-5 
192-4 


20 lbs. 
10 „ 


1 


2562 


about 9£ lbs. 


i lbs. 


679 
1281 


269-1 

228-5 


40 „ 
20 „ 


\ 


1358 


19-2 „ 


•98 „ 


470 
883 


295-6 ' 
251-6 


60 „ 
30 „ 


\ 


940 


28-03 „ 


1'97 „ 


362 
679 


315-8 
269-1 


80 „ 
40 „ 


} 


724 


373 „ 


2-97 „ 


295 
554 


332-0 

283-2 


100 „ 
50 „ 


} 


590 


46-34 „ 


3-36 „ 



There can be no doubt of the existence of a fixed relation between the 
temperature and pressure of steam by immediate evaporation when it has 
received no heat except that which it takes from the water, but that 
relation is not known, and, therefore, empyrical formulae have been pro- 
posed, which express, with more or less precision, this relation in different 
parts of the thermometrical scale. 

Mr. Southern proposes the annexed, when the pressure does not exceed 
one atmosphere : — 



0-04948 + 



/ 51-3 + t V-» 
\l55-7256 / 



t = 155-7256 x Vv - 0-04948 - 51-3. 
Tredgold proposes, when the pressure is from one to four atmospheres : — 



^ / 103 + t V 
\ 201-18 J 



t = 201-18 -/p - 103. 



The Artizan,"] 
Feb. 1, 1861. J 



Expansion of Steam. 



39 



Dulong and Arago propose, when the pressure is from four to fifty 
atmospheres : — 

p = (0-26793 + 0-0067585 t)« t = 147-961 a/p - 39-644. 

Other formulae are given by Biot, Taylor, Gay Lussac, &c. 

The same uncertainty exists in the relation between the pressure and 
the augmented volume, and recourse has also been had to empyrical for- 
mulae, of which two, as the most convenient for low pressure engines of 
of every form, as well as for high pressure engines on the expansion prin- 
ciple, are given. 

Dr. Lardner proposes 

v = — — .. v = volume per number of cubic inches. 

164 + p' 

A more accurate formula, when not less than 30 lbs. per square inch is 
used, is the following : — 



v = 4347826 



618 + p' 



p = lib. per square foot. 



It is well to remark here, in relation to temperature, upon the well- 
known fact that the sum of the sensible and latent heats is a constant 
quantity ; if water at 32° temperature is converted into steam under a 
pressure of one atmosphere, or 14J lbs. per square inch, it is necessary to 
give it first 180° additional sensible heat, and afterwards 990° of latent 
heat, making a total of 1170° of imparted heat and 32° of contained heat, 
or 1202° in all. Should the pressure be two atmospheres, the sensible heat 
would be augmented to 250°, and the latent heat decreased to 952° ; at 
three atmospheres, respectively 275i° and 926;p, and thus continuing, th ; 
sensible augmenting and the latent diminishing, as the pressure increases 
the constant total being 1202° F., 1170° of which are necessary for the 
evaporation of ice-cold water, which, consequently, would be raised to the 
temperature of 1202° if evaporation was prevented. 

A very easy mode of calculating the volume of steam under higher tem- 
perature than that of one atmosphere is the following : 

1. It being known that air expands with every degree Centigrade, to 
l-270ths of its primitive volume at 0° C, it follows that 270 cubic feet of 
air when heated from 0° to 100° C, will expand to 370 cubic feet, and 
that 1 cubic foot of air of 100° C. heated with further (t) degrees will 
become 



370 + t 
370 



cubic feet. 



2. It being known that steam expands agreeably to the same law, it 
follows that steam of 100° C. if its temperature is increased 214° C. will 
increase to 



370 + 21-4° 391-4 



370 



370 



cubic feet ; 



therefore, steam from lib. of water, or 1691 cubic feet, will have a 
volume of 

391 ' 4 ' x 1691 = 1789-078 cubic feet. 
370 

3. And as it is, lastly, known that, at the same temperature, the pres- 
sure of elastic fluids is proportionate to its density, and as saturated 
steam at 12D4° C. has just double the pressure (or that of two atmo- 
spheres), it follows that the before mentioned 1789-078 cubic feet must 
have double the density, and therefore a volume of 894-539 cubic feet. 

Having now conclusively proved that the volume of steam increases 
with the pressure, it follows that there is a decrease of volume with the 
decrease of pressure, and it is, therefore, evident that the mechanical 
effect of steam when cut off at any part of the stroke will not be fully 
one-half of that of its expansion ; all this is nothing new, as many tables 
have been laid down to this effect, as noted above, but as a basis for fur- 
ther calculations on the advantage or disadvantage of cut-offs generally 
they are valuable. 

Now, let us see if there is an advantage in practice by cutting-off steam 
at any part of the stroke. We will select a bore of cylinder of 200 inches 
area, or about 16 inches in diameter and 6 feet stroke. We have, at first, 
to contend with friction and atmospheric pressure at the exhaust ; the 
first of these (friction) is the most difficult to find a basis for^ but it being 
generally conceded that %\ lbs. per square inch is sufficient in a well built 
engine, we will take that as a standard. 

The atmospheric pressure at the exhaust is the same in both cases, and 
in relation to the quantity to be discharged, what is less in one case is 
made up by velocity in the other. It is to be remarked that when, accord- 
ing to the indicator, we work under 50 lbs. pressure, we actually have 
64f lbs. on the piston (theoretically), the difference of pressure in the 
boiler and that exerted upon the piston, we will omit, being in both the 
same,_ if any, as has been asserted. Let us take 60 lbs. total pressure on 
the piston, and then find the mechanical effect in following full stroke and 
cutting-off at one-half, one-third, and one-quarter stroke. 



The mechanical effect of full stroke will be 601bs. 

per square inch, or 12,0001bs. per 200 square 

inches, or 72,0001bs. lifted lft. 

Deducting for friction 2ilbs. per square inch equals 

5001bs., or 30001bs. lifted one foot, and atmospheric 

pressure 14| lbs. per square inch equals 29501bs., or 

l7,7001bs. lifted one foot =20,700 „ „ 

And there remains a clear effect of 51,3001bs. or 71i per cent. 

It has often been asserted that 85, 90, and 95 per cent, mechanical 
effect has been obtained, but this is decidedly an error, as the pressure was 
calculated agreeably to the indicator ; the indicator in this case would only 
show 45i lbs. at 200 square inches equals 9000 lbs., or 54,300 lbs. lifted one 
foot, thus presenting a mechanical effect of nearly 94£ per cent., which is 
a deception. 

The mechanical effect of cutting-off at one-half stroke will be 60 lbs. 
per square inch or 12,000 lbs. per 200 square inches ; 3 feet stroke equals 
36,000 lbs. lifted one foot ; at the end of the stroke, as has been seen, we 
have 28-03 lbs. pressure, and, therefore, a mean pressure of 44-015 lbs. per 
square inch, or 8803 lbs. per 200 square inches ; 3 feet stroke equals 
26,409 lbs. lifted one foot ; adding as above, we have 36,000 + 26,409 lbs. 
= 62,409 lbs. lifted one foot. Deducting the foregoing friction and 
atmospheric pressure, 20,700 lbs. lifted one foot, and there remains a clear 
mechanical effect of 41,709 lbs. lifted one foot, or 57 - 93 per cent., with half 
the amount of steam, or 83 ,418 lbs. lifted one foot, with full steam, being 
nearly 116 per cent. (115-86 per cent.) 

The mechanical effect of one-third stroke will be 60 lbs. per square inch, 
or 12,000 lbs. per 200 square inches ; 2 feet stroke = 24,000 lbs. lifted 
one foot ; we have, as seen at the end of the stroke, 19-2 lbs. pressure, and 
therefore, a mean pressure of 39'6 lbs. per square inch, or 7920 lbs. per 
200 square inches ; 4 feet stroke equals 31,680 lbs. lifted one foot ; adding 
as above, we have 21,000 + 31,680 = 55,680 lbs. lifted one foot. Deduct- 
ing friction and atmospheric pressure 20,700 lbs. lifted one foot, and there 
remains a clear effect of 34,980 lbs. lifted one foot, or 48'53J per cent., 
with one-third the amount of steam, or 104,940 lbs. litted one foot, with 
full steam, being 145J per cent. 

The mechanical effect of one-quarter stroke will be 60 lbs. per square 
inch, or 12,000 lbs. per 200 square inches; IV feet stroke = 18,000 lbs. 
lifted one foot ; at the end of the stroke we will have 13 - 19 lbs. pressure, 
or a mean pressure of 36 - 595 lbs. per square inch, or 7319 lbs. per 200 
square inches ; 4% feet stroke = 32,935-5 lbs. lifted one foot ; adding as 
above, we have 18^000 + 32,935-5 = 50,935-5 lbs. lifted one foot. Deduct- 
ing friction and atmospheric pressure, 20,700 lbs. lifted one foot, and there 
remains a clear effect of 30,235-5 lbs. lifted one foot, or nearly 42 per cent., 
with one-quarter the amount of steam ; or 120,942-0 lbs. lifted one foot, 
with full steam, being 168 per cent. 

Again ; let us see if the same proportions exist in a smaller cylinder, 
shorter stroke, and the same pressure ; we will select an area of 50 in., or 
about 8 in. in diameter, 4 ft. stroke, and 60 lbs. pressure. 

1st. The mechanical effect of full stroke will be 
60 lbs. per square inch, or 3000 lbs. per 50 square 
inches: 4 ft. stroke = 12,000 lbs. lifted one foot. 

Deducting for friction 2 1 lbs. per square inch = 
125 lbs., or 500 lbs. one foot, and atmospheric pres- 
sure 14flbs. per square inch = 737'5 lbs., or 2950 
lifted one foot = 3,450 „ „ 

And there remains a clear effect of 8,550 „ „ 

or 71i per cent. 

2nd. The mechanical effect of cutting off at half 
stroke, will be 60 lbs. per square inch, 3000 lbs. per 
50 square inches : 2 ft. stroke = 6,000 lbs. lifted one foot. 

44-015 lbs. mean pressure per square inch, or 
2200flbs. per 50 square inches: 2ft. stroke = 4,401£ „ ; , 

Adding, we have 10,4Q1£ „ » 

Deducting friction and atmospheric pressure = 3,450 „ „ 

And there remains a clear effect of = 6,951^ „ „ 

or 57'93 per cent, with half the amount of steam, 
and 13,903 lbs. lifted one foot, or 11586 per cent, 
with full steam. 

3rd. The mechanical effect of cutting off at one- 
third stroke will be 60 lbs. per square inch, 3000 lbs. „_,_,. .... , .-. 
per 50 square inches: lift.stroke = 4,000 lbs. lifted one foot. 

39'6 lbs. mean pressure per square inch, or 1980 lbs. ^ 
per 50 square inches: 2| ft. stroke = «>i-80 „ „ 

Adding, we have = : f»^^ " " 

Deducting friction and atmospheric pressure — 3,450 „ : , 

And there remains a clear effect of = 5,830 „ „ 

or 48-58i per cent, with one-third the amount of ( 

steam, and 17,490 lbs. lifted one foot, or 145f per 
cent, with full steam. 



40 



Correspondence — Steumsldj) Capability. 



("The Abtizait, 
L Feb. 1,1861. 



4th. The mechanical effect of cutting off at one- 
quarter stroke will he 60 lbs. per square inch, or 
30001bs. per 50 square inches: lft. stroke = 3,000 lbs. lifted one foot. 

36'595 lbs. mean pressure per square inch, or 
1829f lbs. per 50 square inches : 3 ft. stroke = 5,489; „ „ 

Adding, we have = 8,489; „ „ 

Deducting friction and atmospheric pressure = 3,450 „ „ 

And there remains a clear effect of = 5,039; „ „ 

or nearly 42 per cent, with one-quarter the amount 
of steam, and 20,157 lbs. lifted one foot, or 168 per 
cent, with full steam. 

(To be continued.) 



DEATH OP MR. JOHN WOOD. 

The death of Mr. John Wood, the eminent steamship-huilder, is announced. 
The deceased gentleman learnt the elements of his profession from his father, 
who was a ship-huilder in Port Glasgow. In 1811, on his father's death, Mr. 
Wood assumed the responsibilities of the building yard. One of his first engage- 
ments was the construction of the steamer Comet, which had been contracted for 
hj his father. He likewise built the James Watt, which was the first sea-going 
steamer. Subsequently he built a great number of steam-vessels, mostly large 
deep sea-vessels. The John Wood, Vulcan, City of Glasgoio, Commodore, and 
Admiral, of the Glasgow and Liverpool line, were also built by Mr. Wood. 
Latterly, he built few wooden ships, partly from the fact of these having fallen 
much into disuse, and partly from his having become a relative of Mr. John 
Reid, iron ship-builder, Port Glasgow ; and as such aided in raising the firm of 
Messrs. John Reid and Co. to the high reputation it now enjoys. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our Correspondents. 

STEAMSHIP CAPABILITY. 

To the Editor of The Artizajj. 
Sir, — When Mr. R. Armstrong professed to be able to make any existing 



steamer, tested by the formula . 3 = C, realise the co-efficient (C) 

Ind. h.p. v ' 

= 250, and challenged me to show how I would effect the same object, 
I thought fit to take no notice of such pretensions, which for my own. part 
I disclaim, although, as respects the construction of new steamers, I believe 
that this co-efficient would soon be generally realised in the Merchant 
Service if stipulated for as a condition of ships being taken off the builders' 
hands; it being, however, in this case understood that circumstances im- 
pose no restriction on the type of form — -such, for example, as limita- 
tion of draught — and that the building contract include both hull and 
engines complete, the ship being loaded at her test trial down to the 
stipulated load displacement. By adopting types of hull and engine con- 
struction which have already realised the co-efficient C = 250, 1 believe 
that such would, after a short time, be invariably achieved under the 
contract stipulation above referred to. Also, under such contracts I 
believe that the co-efficient of dynamic duty with reference to coals, as 

determined by the formula ? = C = 10,000 for smooth water, and 

w 
8000 for sea service (w being the consumption of coals per hour expressed 
incwts.) would soon become generally prevalent — thus effecting an im- 
provement in new ships of about fifty per cent, on the dynamic merits of 
the average of existing shipping, in which the co-efficients of sea service 
seldom exceed 6000. I may confidently affirm that various builders are 
now prepared to undertake such contracts ; and if a numerical co-efficient 
of dynamic duty with reference to coals be recognised as the comparative 
test of constructive merit, the rivalry of builders will speedily conduce to 
progressive improvement in ship and engine construction. 

Further, with reference to Mr. Armstrong's queries as to the causes of 
the variations of the co-efficients of vessels, nearly identical in form, I 
replied to Mr. Armstrong, in your number for December last, to the 
effect that I have so fully and repeatedly expressed my views as to the 
general and various disturbing causes which are liable to affect the co- 
efficients of performance, even with the same ship, on the occasions of 
different trials and under different states of condition of hull, and manage- 
ment of machinery, that I declined again to recapitulate such statements, 
but at the same time referring Mr. Armstrong to the published records of 
the British Association, in which I have taken part, and expressed my 
views on this subject, irrespectively of my various communications thereon 
to The Aetizas, The Journal of the Society of Arts, and The Mechanics 
Magazine. Mr. Armstrong, however, by his letter in your number for 
this month, is pleased to designate this reference as a " prevarication," 
which choice expression obviously imposes on me the propriety of declining 
further correspondence with Mr. Armstrong ; but in thus taking leave of 
him, I beg to acknowledge his having made himself, by his communications 



to The Aetizas, however unintelligible as respects his own theories, instru- 
mentally useful, by affording me the opportunity which I may not other- 
wise have enjoyed, of promulgating my views on Steamship Capability, 
and publicly inaugurating a system of calculation under which, as set forth in 
the preface to my Essay on Steamship Capability, published in 1852, 
the result has been attained of bringing under the domination of figures 
" the compound combinations of Displacement, Power, and Speed, in relation 
to the cost of freight, which constitute the Arithmetic of steamship adapta- 
tion to the requirements of the mercantile service." 

I am, Sir, yours very obediently, 

CHARLES ATHERTON. 
Woolwich Dockyard, 17t7t Jan., 1861. 



To the Editor of The Aetizait. 

Sie, — In your last number on the subject of " The New Mail Steam 
Packet for the Holyhead and Kingstown Services," you have made some 
remarks on the performances of those packets, and further, in special 
reference to myself, personally, as the managing director of the Dublin 
Steam Company, which call for a reply. You observe that, " the inference 
you are compelled to draw from the studied concealment to which you have 
referred is, that, up to the present time, neither of the four ships have 
realised the expectations of their owners, the requirements of the service, or 
the conditions of the contract." To these allegations I have to give the 
most unqualified denial. The expectations of the owners have been fully 
realised in all the essentials, namely — speed, sea-worthiness, and general 
efficiency. 

With respect to the requirements of the service, or the conditions of the 
contract, I will content myself on the present occasion by stating, that, 
after the experience of more than three months, that is, since the 1st of 
October, when the new service was commenced, and during the unusually 
severe winter, all the vessels have proved themselves in every way fully 
equal to its due performance. After the completion of one half-year, all 
needful information and details will be made public, and which will, no 
doubt, be considered of far more value, as communicating the results of 
actual work, rather than such as partial expectants might anticipate 
from a few trips made under more favourable circumstances. 

So far as regards the public. With reference to myself, you then 
observe, — " Among the improvements, the absence of which we noticed, 
was any successful apparatus or contrivance for preventing smoke. This 
we naturally expected to find on board these ships. Having ourselves 
witnessed the denseness of the smoke emitted during nearly the entire time 
of the voyage between Holyhead and Kingstown in these new steam vessels, 
and the fearful waste of fuel which must be the result, we cannot avoid 
adding that we think Mr. C.W.Williams is called on, not only for the sake of 
the public, but in his own justification, to explain the cause of these 
serious defects in Vessels constructed under his own eye, as the chief 
managing director of the company, and now under his immediate control." 

You are here pleased to impute to me personally, and to my management, 
the denseness of the smoke yon witnessed and the fearful waste of fuel 
which must be the result. After commenting on the success of the boiler 
at Newcastle, under my management, and on which the distinguished 
judges reported the system to be " practically perfect," you ask, " why do 
the boilers in Mr. Williams's own steamers present such a remarkable con- 
trast; and why does his theory and practice at Newcastle present so 
extraordinary a difference with the steam vessels under his own 
management ? " 

On this, and in my own justification, I have merely to state that, so 
far from being constructed under my own eye, I had no connection what- 
ever with the construction or internal arrangements of any of the boilers 
in any of the four vessels. That 1 studiously avoided any interference 
whatever with the eminent firms who constructed the engines, so that the 
responsibility for the success of the vessels might rest exclusively with 
them ; and I may add that, up to the present, I have not had a drawing or 
tracing of the details of any of the boilers in any of the four vessels. I 
trust, Sir, the above will be a sufficient reply to your remarks. 

Yours, &c, 

Liverpool, January 21, 1861. C. WYE WILLIAMS. 

NOTICES TO CO-RESPONDENTS. 

L. T., J. D. S., and P. — We regret that 3'our communications could not be 
inserted in the present number, for want of space. 

R. D. (Glasgow), J. H. (Kelvin), Amateur (Newcastle), and Tyro. — Send 
your correct addresses, and we will reply by post. 

J. F. S. — The papers will be sent. 

Q. — Apply to Prof. Rankine, Glasgow ; or, if you prefer it, write to us upon 
the subject iu detail, and we will do our best to furnish you with the information 
sought. We make 6J knots = 7"776 miles of 5280 feet, the knot or geographical 
degree being 6082"66ft. The.geographical degree is assumed as — 69"121 miles. 
We cannot reply to the remaining question. 

L. (Liverpool). — We were not able to be present at the trial trip, but we have 
been informed the hull was affected by the swell in the Lower Hope. We disap- 



The Artizan 
Feb. 1, 1861 



'■'] 



Hecent Legal Decisions. — Notes and Novelties. 



41 



prove of the mode in which the " bow and string" principle has been applied 
It is very well suited for supporting a fixed or moving load on the upper side of 
the platform, the piers or abutments forming the end supports at the feet of the 
bow ; but, for resisting undulating motion or force applied at various points 
beneath the platform line and tending to raise it upward, and put out of 
position the various contrivances for strengthening or giving rigidity to the 
structure, it is not the best form or arrangement of materials. We believe the 
deck exhibited a little undulatory movement from stem to stern, whilst going 
at full speed, and when subject to the swell of a passing steamer. 

P. — You will find, in the present number, as much information as we are 
possessed of, respecting Dr. Joule's recent experiments on surface condensation. 
We consider the experiments to hav<; been conducted on too small a scale to be 
of any practical value beyond giving indications of the results which may be 
anticipated, if prosecuted thoroughly. 

S. A. and Co., and others. — We have now completed the set of illustrations 
■which were promised, but which have extended, in number, far beyond our 
original intention. 

D. C. L. — You had better induce some engineering firm to allow you to try 
your plan of boiler in a commercial steamer, before applying to the Admiralty, 
where the mere mention of a pressure of 2001bs. per square inch would be sufficient 
to ensure your being politely bowed out. We are certain that you will not 
successfully realize the expected economy by the mere increase of pressure. 

We are compelled to omit several important papers, numerous reviews of new 
books, and other matters which were prepared for the present number, but 
which we intend to give in a supplementary sheet with our next. 



ERRATA. 

In Plate 185, Fig. 6, the letter Q is omitted at the end of the dotted line com- 
mencing with P, where it is intersecting the arc R. R. 

Page 329, 1st Dec, 1860, in the letter on " Foot- Valves," from "A Marine 
Engineer," to the Editor of The Artizan, 18th line, for " old slide-valve system," 
read " old slide-rule system." 



NOTICE. 

A copper-plate engraving, concluding the series of illustrations of the engines, 
boilers and machinery of the Great Eastern, will, if possible, be given in the 
number for March 1st. 

The tables for calculating the speed of steam vessels — which were promised in 
our last — cannot for want of space be given until the April number. 

The second plate of the Locomotive Engine, constructed by Messrs. R. 
Stephenson & Co. for the Great North of Scotland Railway, will, if possible, be 
given in The Abtizan for March 1st. 



RECENT LEGAL DECISIONS 

AFFECTING THE ARTS, MANUFACTURES, INVENTIONS, &c. 

Under this heading we propose giving a suecinct summary of such decisions and other 
proceedings of the Courts of Law, during the preceding month, as may have a distinct 
and practical bearing on the various departments treated of in our Journal : selecting 
those cases only which offer some point either of novelty, or of useful application to the 
manufacturer, the inventor, or the usually — in the intelligence of law matters, at least 
— less experienced artizan. With this object in view, we shall endeavour, as much as 
possible, to divest our remarks of all legal technicalities, and to present the substance 
of those decisions to our readers in a plain, familiar, and intelligible shape. 

Scott Russell v. Great Ship Company, and Great Ship Company v. Scott Russell. 
— In the Court of Queen's Bench, on the 17th ultimo, these cross rules, relative to an 
arbitration with regard to certain work performed by Mr. Scott Russell for the company 
in fitting up, &c, the Great Eastern, were tried. In showing cause in the first rule, 
it was said the matter arose upon a contract whereby Mr. Scott Russell undertook to do 
certain repairs to the Great Eastern steamship for the new company, after the failure of 
the company who originally built the ship from the designs of the late Mr. Brunei. After 
the vessel was launched, and nearly a million of money had been spent upon her, she 
passed into the hands of the new company to complete her and send her to sea. The new 
company determined to fit her up at first for 1000 passengers only, instead of for 2500, as 
she was capable of carrying. Mr. Scott Russell contracted to do the work required for 
£125,000, to be paid £1000 a week extra for accelerating the work, and to forfeit a cor- 
responding sum if the work was not done within the time specified. On going rounct to 
Portland an explosion took place on board the Great Eastern, for which Mr. Russell 
claimed a large sum for extras. A dispute arose between the parties, which went before 
arbitrators, who made an award, and cross rules had been obtained first on behalf of Mr. 
Scott Russell, calling upon the company tu show cause why they should not pay that 
gentleman the sum of £18,000 pursuant to that award, or why the award should not be 
sent back to the arbitrators for reconsideration. Subsequently Mr. Lloyd obtained a rule 
calling upon Mr. Scott Russell to show cause why the award should not be set aside, on 
the ground that the arbitrators had dealt with matters which did not properly belong to 
them, the matters having reference to the extras charged in consequence of the explosion. 
After hearing the arguments of the learned counsel, which occupied nearly the whole of 
the day, the Court discharged both the rules. 

An Inquest, adjourned from the previous day, was held on the 1st ult., on the body of 
William Southcote, a guard on the Oswestry and Newtown Railway. It appeared that 
the deceased was engaged at the Oswestry Station in the evening, shunting trucks, when 
in some unaccountable manner he got between the engine and a luggage waggon 
belonging to the Great Western Company. The result was that the unfortunate man was 
absolutely crushed to death, his entrails being forced out, and his arms and legs broken 
in several places. A verdict of accidental death was returned. 

The Inquest on the bodies of Sophia Lowe and Mary Jones, who lost their lives 
through the accident which occurred a few weeks back near the Moreton Station, on the 
Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway, was resumed and concluded on the 23rd ult. at 
Hereford. The jury, after about half-an-hour's deliberation, returned a verdict 
of accidental death, accompanied by recommendations that the Shrewsbury and 
Hereford Railway Company should use a better quality of iron for tires of the wheels of 
their rolling stock, and that there should be a communication with the guard and driver. 



NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 



OUR "NOTES AND NOVELTIES" DEPARTMENT.-A SUGGESTION TO OUR 
READERS. 
We have received many letters from correspondents, both at home and abroad, thanking 
us for that portion of this Journal in which, under tiie title of " Notes and Novelties," 
we present our readers with an epitome of such of the " events of the month preceding" 
as may in some way affect their interests, so far as their interests are connected with 
any of the subjects upon which this Journal treats. This epitome, in its preparation, 
necessitates the expenditure of much time and labour ; and as we desire to make it as 
perfect as possible, more especially with a view of benefiting those of our engineering 
brethren who reside abroad, we venture to make a suggestion to our subscribers, from 
which, if acted upon, we shall derive considerable assistance. It is to the effect that we 
shall be happy to receive local news of interest from all who have the leisure to collect 
and forward it to us. Those who cannot afford the time to do this would greatly assist 
our efforts by sending us local newspapers containing articles on, or notices of, any facts 
connected with Railways, Telegraphs, Harbours, Docks, Canals, Bridges, Military 
Engineering, Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, Boilers, Furnaces, Smoke Prevention, 
Chemistry as applied to the Industrial Arts, Gas and Water Works, Mining, Metal- 
lurgy, &c. To save time, all communications for this department should be addressed 
" 19, Salisbury-street, Adelphi, London, W.C." and be forwarded, as early in the month 
as possible, to the Editor. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

At Rewiston, Maine, U.S., a cotton mill, called the Androscoggin Mill, is nearly com- 
pleted. ' Ji_i* 542ft. long, 74ft. wide, and four stories, or 75ft. high. It will contain 
45,000 spindles, and they will be driven by two Turbine wheels, 6ft. 6in. in diameter, with 
a guaranteed horse power of 375 each. The mill will use 9390 bales of 5cwt. each, or 
4,695,000lbs. of cotton per annum, and there are only two larger mills in the States. The 
establishment will cover 5* acres of ground, and about 5,000,000 of brick, and the same 
quantity of lumber, have been used in its construction. 

Street Rolling in Paris. — Steam rollers have recently been set to work in some of 
the streets of Paris, forming a great contrast to those unwieldy-looking machines, drawn 
by eight horses, which every visitor to Paris must have seen at work, crushing down the 
stones at the Champs Elysees. 

The New Steam Fire Engine Department of Boston, U.S., is now fully organised, 
and there is not a single hand engine in use throughout the entire limits of the city. 

English Gas Companies may save some hundred pounds per annum if they will take 
note of a small item — that is, the discovery of the fact by a French workman, who observed 
the effect on iron pipes in various soils, that iron gas pipes and water pipes may be kept 
from rusting by laying them in a bed of clay. The Paris municipal authorities consider 
this of so much importance that they have given him a handsome income for life as a 
reward. 

Steam-engines in Great Britain.— Mr. Fairbairn estimates that the labour now per- 
formed by steam-power is equal to that of 11,000,000 horses, working ten hours per day. 
That is— 

Nominal horse-power. 
Employed in mining and the manufacture of metal . . . 450,000 

„ Manufacture 1,350,000 

„ Steam navigation 850,000 

,, Locomotion 1,000,000 = 3,650,000 

And as these engines are working at an average of three times their nominal power, the 
above numbers represent a force equivalent to 11,000,000 horses ; and taking one person 
to every nominal horse, we shall then have nearly 4,000,000 people to whom the steam- 
engine is giving employment in Great Britain and on board our ships. It is no wonder, 
therefore, that we revere the memory of Watt. 

How Ships are Burnt at Sea. — Two instances of lueifer matches spontaneously 
igniting were reported at Lloyd's on Saturday. The ship Fiel, loading for Havannah, in 
St. George's Dock, Liverpool, was discovered on Friday to be on fire. It was traced to a 
case of lucifer matches that had been surreptitiously shipped on board. The case, in a 
state of ignition, was got up and thrown overboard. Another instance of the dangerous 
character of such shipments took place at Fresh Wharf, London Bridge. A case, intended 
for one of the steamers loading at the wharf, was being carried down from a cart, when it 
fell on the ground, and instantly burst into flames. The case proved to contain lueifers 
and congreves. Had these vessels sailed for sea with these inflammable stores, it is pro- 
bable that the most disastrous consequences would have ensued. It behoves Lloyd's to 
prosecute in all these cases, the character of the shipments being misrepresented. 

New Motive Power. — M. Lenoir asserts that, on igniting by the electric spark a 
mixture of atmospheric air with hydrogen, the compound expands so greatly, as to have 
an elastic pressure on a piston similar to that of steam, and equally applicable to useful 
purposes. The proportion of hydrogen to air required, is from 2 to 5 per cent., and it is 
stated that heat obtainable from coal will answer. 

Magnetic Hammer. — Mr. Reinhold Boeklen, of Brooklyn, New York, has just obtained 
a patent for an exceedingly ingenious and very useful invention, which consists in so mag- 
netising or applying magnetism in connection with a hammer, that it shall be capable of 
picking up tacks and nails, and enabling them, when so picked up, to be knocked into 
wood or other material, without the necessity of handling them ; thereby affording great 
convenience for the application of tacks or nails in laying down carpets, or in upholstery, 
joinery, or other kinds of work. 

New Kind op Straw Paper. — Specimens of a new paper for printing, invented in 
Austria, and made entirely from maize straw, have reached Paris. The paper differs little, 
except in colour, from the ordinary paper in use for the daily journals. It is a shade more 
yellow, that is all ; but the ink turns black, and the printing is perfectly legible. Some of 
the specimens are as fine as if intended for ladies' correspondence, and support a high 
degree of glazing. This paper, coloured pink or lilac, cannot be distinguished from the 
very finest qualities of writing-paper now in use. The advantage in cheapness is more 
than one-half. 

The Oil Wells of America.— The present yield of the wells in Pennsylvania and 
New York is more than 85,000,000 gallons a year. Discoveries in other States are re- 
ported, and the amount produced may safely be estimated at 15,000,000 gallons more 
during the present year, making an estimated amount of 100,000,000 gallons, to be gathered 
up during 1861. This oil readily sells by the wells in its crude state at 25c. per gallon, 
making the value of the whole amount 20,000,000 dols. In market it sells at 40c, and 
when purified at 75c, making its commercial value 75,000,000 dols., or more than 
£15,000,000. This oil is said to be valuable for lubricating purposes, no less than for 
illuminating. Should this prove the case, it will be exported largely to this country. 
Adding this article to the United States list of exports will have a strong tendency to 
keep the balance of trade favourable to that country. It is now sent to Australia, and it 
promises to rank second only to cotton on the United States list of exports. 

Ericsson's Caloric Engine. — In America, these motors have lately come into very 
extensive use, principally owing to their compact form and the small amount of fuel re- 
quired to keep them in motion. They are employed in working printing presses, ware- 
house hoists, small mills, and for raisins water in houses, mines, ships, &c, aud in all 

6 



42 



Notes and Novelties. 



fTxrE Aetizan, 
L Feb. 1, 1861. 



instances with the best success. The characteristics of this engine are, that it is not 
attended with the perils that attach to the steam engine ; it requires no engineering 
supervision ; any person may take charge of it, or it may be kept in action by a few 
minutes' attention of the workman who is using its power ; it consumes a very sma.11 
amount of fuel, say 33 per cent, of the steam engine, requires no water at all, and does not 
raise the rate of insurance. 

Barometer Indications. — At the last meeting of the Royal National Life-boat In- 
stitution, held on the 3rd ult., Captain "Washington, R.N., hydrographer to the Admiralty, 
called the attention of the committee to the desirability of erecting large barometer indi- 
cators wherever practicable on the coast, so that seamen and fishermen might be warned 
when in the harbour or offing, about two miles from the land, of a coming storm. Mr. 
Sopwith, President of the Meteorological Society, who takes great interest in the success 
of the barometer department of the Life-boat Institution's operations, exhibited at the 
meeting some fine specimen models of the proposed indicators. The institution decided 
that barometer indicators should, in the first instance, be placed in Northumberland, in 
compliment to his Grace the Duke of Northumberland, president of the society ; also that 
one should be stationed at Wick in Scotland, and another at Arklow in Ireland. To carry 
out effectually this valuable suggestion a large sum would be required by the institution, 
not only to fit up the indicators, but also to pay persons for carefully and permanently 
attending to them. When it is remem'bered that nearly 1000 persons annually perish from 
wrecks on our coasts, every friend of humanity must. rejoice in the establishment of any 
practicable plan for the mitigation of the fearful misery such a loss of life must cause in 
the homes of our seamen and others. A good barometer, if carefully watched, is an in- 
fallible indicator of a coming storm, and the day cannot surely be distant when a baro- 
meter can be made as portable as a pocket chronometer. Mr. Glaisher, F.R.S., verifies 
each barometer of the Life-boat Institution by the Greenwich standard, and it was decided 
to request the members not to sell any instruments in its name which had not previously 
been so verified by Mr. Glaisher, who takes much trouble in performing tliis important 
but gratuitous duty. 

At a late Meeting of the members of the Academy of Sciences in Paris, the Minister 
of Marine sent in an account, by Lieutenant Laporterie, of the effects of a stroke of light- 
ning experienced on board the St. Louis man-of-war, in the roadstead of Gaeta, on the 
10th December last. This account was accompanied by the platinum point of the light- 
ning conductor which received the stroke, and a bit of melted copper from the rod of the 
same conductor. M. Laporterie states that after a violent gale which blew on the 7th and 
8th the sky was covered with thick masses of clouds, and a storm broke out on the 10th, 
chiefly confined to the north-west part of the heavens. At 1.30 p.m., the electric fluid 
struck the conductor of the mainmast, accompanied by a detonation equal to that of a 
heavy discharge of artillery. A portion of the platinum point was melted, and the rest 
broken off from the rod. Curiously enough, the base of this platinum point, in the shape 
of a cone, had remained uninjured, with the screw in by which it had been fixed to the 
rod, while the remaining extremity of the rod, where the screw had been snapped off, was 
melted ! The conductors of the fore and mizen masts had received no injury ; but a 
sergeant who was seated near the funnel of the engine, at a distance of 19ft. from the 
mainmast, felt such a violent shock that he thought he had been struck by some Sardinian 
projectile which had fallen on board by accident. He thought he felt blood trickling from 
the wound ; and it was only after undressing and submitting to an examination, that he 
could be persuaded he had not been wounded. At the foot of the mainmast a bluish 
flame, 2^ft. in length, was noticed, but it immediately disappeared. The pocket-knife of 
one of the sailors was strongly magnetised, and the same was the case with some steel 
pens in the officers' rooms. 

The Density of Ice, given by Thomson as 0-940; Berzelius, 0-916; Pliicker and 
Geissler, 0-920; and Kopp (iu 1855), 0-909, has been recently examined by M. L. Dufour. 
who gives the mean result of his experiments 0'9175 ; which corresponds to an increase of 
volume at the moment of congelation of about one-eleventh. 

Improved Chemical Filter— M. Malapert, Professor of Toxicology at the School of 
Medicine, of Poitiers, has invented a new kind of filter, which promises to be highly 
advantageous to chemists. It is well known that the filters used in laboratories generally 
consist of a sheet of blotting-paper of a peculiar kind, which, after being folded like a fan, 
is put into a glass funnel resting on a receiver below. Now, it very often happens that if 
the solution to be filtered is poured in without great precaution, the paper will burst, and 
a new filter must be made. Sometimes, notwithstanding the greatest care, such accidents 
will happen on account of some flaw in the paper. M. Malapert obviates this incon- 
venience by preparing a kind of paper with a piece of linen contained in its very substance. 
This paper has the further advantage of containing neither lime nor iron, but at most a 
few traces of chlorine, and much less even of that than any other kind of paper. 

STEAM SHIPPING. 
• The American Pacific Mail Steam-ship Company's new steamer, which is building by 
W .H. Webb, will be fitted with a single vertical beam engine of 15ft. stroke and ll#n. 
diameter of cylinder. The vessel will have water-tight bulkheads. 

The Resistance, iron steam ram, building at Millwall, is rapidly progressing towards 
completion. According to the terms of the contract entered into between the builders 
and the Admiralty, this ship should have been launched and partially fitted with her 
engines by this time. It is expected she will be afloat some time in March. 

The Neapolitan Fleet, now incorporated with the Sardinian fleet, consists of 2 
screw ships of the line of 82 guns, of 2 screw frigates of 55 guns, and 2-1 paddle-steamers 
carrying from 6 to 12 guns ; giving a total of 411 guns on board steamers. The sailing- 
vessels are 4 frigates, 1 corvette, 3 brigs, and 1 schooner— carrying 310 guns. The same 
Aiitrian authority regards the effective strength of the Neapolitan Navy at 19 steamers 
w th 310 guns, and 3 sailing vessels with 122 guns. 

The Sardinian Fleet, as it now stands, exclusive of the Neapolitan fleet, consists of 4 
screw frigates, with 204 guns, 2 paddle-wheel frigates, 10 guns ; 6 other steamers with 4 
guns ; giving a total of 248 guns in steamers. In sailing-vessels Sardinia has 4 frigates, 

2 corvettes, and 6 brigs, with 304 guns. Some of these vessels are out of repair. An 
Austrian authority estimates the effective stren'gth of the Sardinian navy at 12 steamers, 

3 sailing-vessels.fand 352 guns. 

The Defence* iron-plated frigate, now building at Jarrow-upon-Tyne, is making very 
rapid progress, and, though inferior in size to the Warrior, she promises to be equally 
formidable in proportion to her bulk. Upwards of 1000 men are at present constantly 
employed upon her, and they work almost under cover, while the whole exterior of the 
fabric is lit up by gas, so that the workmen may prolong then- labours after sunset. 
Notwithstanding all the efforts which are being made to hurry on to completion this 
gigantic undertaking, it will be fully four mouths before the work will be complete. A 
Government inspector is in attendance in the yard to see that the timber which under- 
lies the iron plates, and which consists of Indian teak, is perfectly seasoned. 

Steamboats in Russia, twenty-five years since, were comparatively unknown, except 
on the Neva ; arid they were but few on that river, and those mostly owned by a Scotch- 
man named Baird, who introduced steamboats into Russia and made a large fortune by 
so doing. Now it may be observed there is hardly a navigable stream in that country in 
which steamers are not running.. There are many on the Neva, running up to Lake 
Ladoga; also on the Volga, which is navigable for 160Q miles, and running down to 
Astraean and the Caspian Sea. On this sea there are many 1 Russian steamers and sailing 
vessels, and it extends far down into Central Assia. 

The "Isis," 44, sailing frigate, has been taken into dock, and;is now in the hands of 
the shipwrights and caulkers, being prepared for a coal depot oh the Coast of Africa. The 
interior of her hold is being lined with sheet iron 



Admiralty Orders have been received at Chatham by the superintendent of that dock 
yard directing a screw corvette of 21 guns, to be named the Menai, be immediately laid down 
on the third slip, from which the Undaunted, 51 guns, was launched a short time since. 
Immediately the order was received a numerous party of convicts and labourers com- 
menced clearing away the materials remaining on the slip, and the vessel will be at once 
commenced, orders having been given that she is to be completed with all despatch. 

The French Navy. — Orders have been given that three new iron-plated frigates, on- 
llie model of the Gloire, but with improvements, shall be constructed at Toulon, with the 
names of the Province, the Savoie, and the Revanche. The Toulonjournals, in announcing 
this fact, add that seven .other frigates on the same model are to be built in the 
northern ports of France. 

Steam Navigation in Russia. — A St. Petersbnrgh journal states that, in 1859, the 
number of steamers navigating the rivers and canals was 358, of which 185 belonged to 
different companies, 170 to private persons, and three to the Ministry of Marine. Of the 
total, 93 belonging to the companies, and 122 to private persons, were employed in the 
navigation of the Volga, and its tributaries. The total steam power is not given, but we 
learn incidentally that 214 were powered to the extent of 13,175 horse-power. The 
engines employed are, 112, high-pressure, and 67 low. 

Arrangements are now being made for a series of experiments on board the Ad- 
miralty steam vessel, Vivid, in order to test the efficiency of a smoke-consuming appa- 
ratus, the invention of Mr. D. K. Clark, C.E., the well-known engineer, which, it is 
stated, is superior to the several inventions of a similar nature hitherto experimented on 
by Government. 

Two New Screw Steam Vessels, the Alligator, 22, and the Dartmouth, 36, are to be 
laid down at Woolwich. 

Arrangements are now being made for the launch of the Bristol, 51, and the Repulse, 
91, is in a forward state. 

Several of the screw gun-vessels built by private firms for the Government have been 
completed at Woolwich, and four of this class of vessels are in a forward state. The 
Britomart and Wizard, built at Newcastle, have been forwarded to Sheerness, and the 
Cockatrice to Portsmouth, for the steam reserve. The Eclipse and Star, built at Millwall, 
are now under the hands of the shipwrights and carpenters for completion. 

The Driver and Devastation, steam vessels, having undergone almost entire re-con- 
struction in dry dock, during the past eight months, are now under the hands of the 
riggers, to be completed for the steam reserve. 

The Bombay, 80, and the Arethusa, 51, in dock at Chatham, being converted from 
sailing ships to screw steamers, have each a large number of shipwrights employed on 
them, in order that they may be completed with all despatch. 

Orders have! been received at Devonport to supply all first-class ships in the Navy 
with gigs thirty feet long, instead of twenty-eight feet, as heretofore. 

The Keel oe a Screw Frigate, of 41 guns and 1200 horse-power, which is to be 
named the Tetnan, has been ordered by the Spanish Government to be laid down at the 
Royal Arsenal of Ferrol. 

" Ariel," 7, screw steam-sloop, commander J. R. Alexander, arrived at Madeiraon her 
way to the Cape of Good Hope, on the 18th of December. She had made the passage 
out under sail, and proved herself to be a good sea-boat. 

"Camilla," 16, sailed from Nagasaki on the 3rd of June for Kanagawa, and is sup- 
posed to have been lost on the 9th of September. 

The La Plata has been taken into dry dock to have the damage caused by the late fire 
repaired. To facilitate the work, gas has been introduced into the ship, and relays of 
men work night and day to get her ready for sea. 

" Termagant," 25, screw steam frigate, Captain Robert Hall, was, by letters of the 19th 
of November, at San Francisco, California. She had happily received very little damage 
from the tumbling in of the dock, but was extricated from the ruins and debris with very 
great difficulty. The temptation of the vicinity of the gold diggings was too strong for 
her loose characters, and she lost forty-two men by running during her stay in this port. 
She was to embark freight, for Panama, to which place her letters by next mails should 
be directed. 

"Llnnet," 2, gun-boat, 60 horse-power, left Sheerness on the 8th ult. for a trial of her 
machinery and speed at the measured mile. The vessel was under the superintendance 
of Captain Schomberg, of the steam reserve at Sheerness, accompanied by Mr. W. Price, 
inspector of machinery afloat, and Mr. J. Baker, chief engineer at Chatham Dockyard. 
The machinery of the vessel is by Messrs. Maudslay, Son, and Field. The results of the 
trial were successful, both the machinery and the boat giving satisfaction. Draft of 
water, aft, 7ft. 3in. ; forward, 6ft. 5in. ; high pressure of steam, 60; revolutions, 150; 
speed, 8'4. The Linnet is one of the vessels on The Navy List not honoured with a num- 
ber by the compilers. 

" Cygnet," 5, screw steam-sloop, has been out for repeated trials with propellers, 
amounting now to over forty runs. On returning up harbour on the 2nd ult., the rapid 
tide caught her on the bows, and before she could be turned she ran foul of the Prince 
of Wales, 3-decker, and tore away the figure-head and part of her cutwater; not, how- 
ever, of sufficient consequence to put a stop to the series of experiments commenced in 
her, and now nearly finished. 

"Eurydice," 26, sailing-frigate, is ordered to be a training ship. She will be com- 
missioned in the spring, probably by Commander Marcus Lowther, with Lieut. George 
S. Nares as first lieutenant. The Eurydice will be chiefly devoted to the purpose of in- 
structing the naval cadets of the Britannia in their sea-going duties— a capital move on 
the part of the Admiralty. 

Speed of American Steamboats. — The steamboat Daniel Drew, the details of which 
have already been given in the Artizan, has lately run from New York to Albany, 
150 miles, in the unprecedented time of six hours and fifty minutes ; tide favourable and 
equal to 2'3 miies per hour, but wind fresh ahead. Her time to Hudson, 125 miles, was but 
five hours and five minutes, which is equal to a nett speed of 22'3 miles per hour through 
the water with an adverse wind. The time to Hudson is selected solely for the reason 
that above that the depth of the river is insufficient to admit of very high speeds. The 
times of previous quick runs are — 

North America 1826 10 hours 20 minutes. 

Ditto, lengthened, ... 1832 9 „ 21 

Albany 1840 8 „ 27 „ 

Troy 1841 8 „ 10 „ 

Alida ; 1849 7 „ 45 „ 

New World 1851 7 „' 43 „ 

FraneisSHddy 1852 7 „ 30 „ 

Armenia 1860 7 „ 42 „ 

Orders have been received at the War Department, Portsmouth, to prepare the arma- 
ment of the new iron screw steamer Warrior by the, end of March. The guns will be 
forwarded at an eaily date from the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. The armament of this 
wondrous ship will be— on the main-deck, 34 68-pounders, 95 ewt., 10ft. long; and, on 
the upper-deck, 2 68-pounders, 95 ewt., 10ft. long, pivots ; 4 40-pounders, Armstrong guns 

The Steamship Queen Victoria was floated off from the rocks in Barn Pool at 5.45 
p.m. on the 28th ult., and at 7 p.m. placed on the beach, where she lies fore and aft, with 
her head about south. , . . h . 

The Lords of the Admiralty have decided on discontinuing the system of job and 
task work at Chatham Dockyard, which has been in operation at that establishment 
during the last few years. 



The Ariizan/1 
Feb. 1, 1801. J 



Notes and Novelties. 



43 



RAILWAYS. 

Railway and other Bills. — The number of private railway and other bills deposited 
in the House of Commons for theparliamentary session of 1861 are as follows :— Railway 
bills, England, 177; Wales, 3* Scotland, 34, Ireland 34 ; total 274; Waterworks bills, 19 ; Gas 
bills, 17 ; Harbour, Dock, and Port bills, 6 ; Market bills, 4 ; Eoad bills, 14 ; Miscellaneous 
bills, 68. 

Grand Trunk Railway, Canada. — The committee of Bondholders have published a 
report preparatory to the meeting of the company called for the 2nd of January. It 
details the constitution and present state of the compnay, points out that £2,500,000 
will be required to meet floating claims (including overdue interest) and to provide 
rolling stock, and recommends a thoroughly searching investigation in Canada into the 
history of the undertaking, a recommendation which the London directors will no doubt 
be desirous to promote. 

For the Birkenhead Street Railway a car has just been completed in 
Philadelphia. 

In Locomotives the greatest length of stroke ever proposed to be used was specified 
by Mr. Joseph Whitworth, the eminent mechanical engineer who, in his patent No. 7453, 
obtained in 1837, shows a locomotive with a stroke six feet in length, which, through a 
rather complicated arrangement of gear and ratchel work, causes the driving wheels to 
revolve, and thus propel the engine. 

The Berkshire Tunnel, New England, U.S., now in course of construction, will be 
four miles in length, and at the deepest part 1800ft. below the surface. The shafts are 
about a mile from either end, leaving two miles of solid material between them. The rock 
is all mica and quartz. 

Mr. John Fowler, C.E., has been appointed consulting engineer of the Great Western 
Railway, in the room of the late Mr. Brunei. 

The New Form of street railway, lately invented and called " The Perambulator Street 
Railway," consists of flat tramways, level with the street, and a middle line with a sunk 
groove, into which a perambulating wheel, attached to any ordinary omnibus or other 
vehicle, is made to dip by pressure on a spring with the foot. It is stated by a gentle- 
man who has recently inspected it at Pendleton, that the result will be its early intro- 
duction and rapid extension in this country and on the Continent, as an improvement on 
other plans. He also says the perambulatory apparatus can be attached to existing 
omnibuses at comparatively small cost, and the gauge of their wheels also adjusted, as 
they do not vary much from one standard. The driver finds no difficulty in dropping the 
perambulator into the groove, and the travelling of the 'bus is, of course, much smoother. 
The cost of the triple line, he adds, is said not to exceed £900 per mile, while Mr. Train's 
involves an expense of fully three times that amount. What of the middle groove, how- 
ever ; how is it to be kept clear of mud and stones on macadamised roads ? 

At the Institution op Engineers in Scotland, the President observed: — "It 
would appear now to be considered as a matter not to be questioned that in the present 
state of locomotive progress and experience, an engine can be made to run and do work 
satisfactorily on common roads. Several engines at work in England have given con- 
siderable promise of success; but there appear still to be some difficulties yet to be over- 
come in producing a good, serviceable, and durable road-engine. That such a thing is at 
present required there is no doubt, and the mechanical engineer has a new field to open 
up in this direction for his skill and industry. 

A Telegram has been received troin Copenhagen to this effect : — " The Banish Diet 
sanctioned to-day (2Sth Jan.) the Government contract from the ISth December, 1860, 
with Sir Morton Peto, relative to the railway through the island Fyen, the east coast of 
Jylland, from Aalborg to the South Slesvig Railway, and from Aarhuus towards the west 
coast. 

TELEGRAPHIC ENGINEERING. 

Electric Telegraph at Oldham.— Messrs. Piatt, Bros., and Co., the extensive 
machinists of Oidham, have lately had constructed for them a line of telegraph of a 
somewhat novel character. The two great branches of this establishment are about a 
mile and a half from each other, on opposite sides of the town, which is now bridged 
over by the electric telegraph. The wire, which is of steel, and about two-tenths 
of an inch in diameter, is supported for its entire length near the summit of six tall 
factory chimneys at an elevation of 180ft. from the ground, and leaving clear spans of 
1000ft. to more than 2000ft. between the supports. The lowest points of the curves ranged 
from 70ft. to 120ft. above the surface of the ground. To a spectator placed at the "ex- 
tremity ofthe curve formed by the longer lengths, the wire appears to stretch out like a 
thread which vanishes in the mist long before the eye reaches the other. The chimneys 
to which the telegraph is fixed being always at work, and consequently very drv, renders 
insulation almost unnecessary, access to the tops of the shafts being gained by the 
means of ropes drawn over with a kite string. 

Russian Telegraphic Lines.— The telegraphic lines of Russia have advanced into 
Asia, and are progressing with a rapidity that is extraordinary. Siberia will soon be 
traversed with them; and it is reported that the Russian Government propose to connect 
Siberia with America by means of a submarine line along the Alentian islands. It is 
not altogether impossible, therefore, that our American, as well as our China news mav 
come to us through Russian channels. 

Electric Telegraphy. — M. Yerard de Saint- Anne, a short time ago, sent a paper to 
the Aeademie Prancaise on a project for establishing a belt of electric telegraphs all 
round the world. In the United States the network of telegraphic lines comprises a 
length of 70,000 kilometres, or 47,250 English miles; and when the New York and San 

Francisco line is completed— the line over Europe and Asia being supposed to exist 

" --i'.d only be 3500 leagues of cable to be sunk in order to enable Paris aud London 



there ' 



to rece:-, e intelligence from Canton in one hour and fifty minutes, from New York in two 
hours and twenty minutes, and from Valparaiso in three hours and a quarter. A con- 
siderable number of partial lines, which, according to the author may easily be collected 
into one great whole, are already in existence, or about to be established. Thus in 
Japan, the lines have been granted to a company, and one of them is in course of con- 
struction; New Zealand is already connected by a cable with Australia, Melbourne with 
Sydney, and Batavia with Singapore ; the whole continent of India, thanks to En°iish 
enterprise, is now being intersected with telegraphic lines. 

Electro-Telegraphic Progress.— Dr. L.'Bradley, of New York, has invented a plan 
by which he can transmit 15,000 words per hour, using the signs constitutinn- the Morse 
alphabet. This is at the rate of four words per second, the highest number°reached by 
the ordinary method of operating being only thirty-three words per minute He has dis- 
covered are:ay magnet capable of acting at the rate of 10,000 words per hour 

Private Telegraphs.— The first electric telegraph devoted to private use it is be- 
lieved, iri the south of England, has just been erected at Southampton connecting the 
two establishments of Messrs. G. Phillips and Co., situated respectively in the Hi<*h-street 
near the liar-gate, and in Canute-road, opposite to the entrance to the docks The 
primary object ofthe firm in the erection of this telegraph was to effect speedv coiumu- 
mcation be-ween their two establishments, but arrangements have been made" with the 
Electric Telegraph Company to enable the public generally to avail themselves of its use 
An office will be opened at the High-street establishment, in all respects under the 
same regulations as to privacy, rates, charges, &c, as the company's offices, for the trans- 
mission ot messages to and from the docks, and all narts of the world. As it is situated 
in the centre of the town, m the immediate neighbourhood of the banks solicitors' 
omces, &c, it will be a great accommodation to the public. The wire extends over the 
nonse-tops, a total distance of about a mile, and has five supports, each post bein<* fitted 



up as a flagstaff, and is carried into the Electric Telegraph Company's establishment at 
the railway terminus. 

The Negociations commenced at Constantinople for the prolongation of a tele- 
graphic line from Bagdad to Teheran are approaching a conclusion, and the line is to 
form part of a vast network which will place Persia in communication with Turkey and 
the different States of Europe. 

Of Submarine Electric Telegraphs not 1200 miles are in working order out of the 
12,000 miles that have been laid ! 

MILITARY ENGINEERING. 

The Armstrong Gun.— One of the cast-iron experimental guns, strengthened accord- 
ing to a principle suggested by Sir W. Armstrong, in order to prove their capability of 
being rifled for service, was lately tested at the Royal Arsenal butt, Woolwich. An order 
having been given to increase the charges and continue firing so as eventually to burst 



.. portion subjee. . 

the greatest amount of shock from the explosion, and extended over the headpiece, leaving 
the easable ring only visible, down to the trunnions. Several rounds were fired with ex- 
ceedingly heavy charges, and at length the gun itself gave way under the excessive 
charge, and was torn into fragments, but the coating of gun-metal remained entire. 

Woolwich Arsenal. — The Armstrong and WHiTwoiiTrt Guns.— Colonel Ladonni, 
an officer of the Sardinian cavalry, entrusted with a special mission to this country, for 
the purpose of entering into negociations for the manufacture of English ordnance for 
the Sardinian Government, visited Woolwich Arsenal lately, accompanied by Mr. Pe"", 
one of the contractors, with a view of making arrangements forproving at "the Govern- 
ment butt a number of the guns'and mortars already completed. A few of each descrip- 
tion were received at the arsenal some days ago, but, in consequence of the pressure at 
the present moment on the proof department it was stated that a delay of some ten or 
fourteen days must necessarily ensue before the request could be complied with, due 
notice of which would be forwarded to the Sardinian Embassy in London. 

One or the heaviest Armstrong Siege Guns manufactured in Woolwich arsenal, under 
the superintendence of Mr. John Anderson, was lately tested at the proof butt. The gun 
was fired two rounds, each time with a charge of 251b. of powder and a 1001b. shot. The 
trial was perfectly satisfactory, and the gun was forthwith stored with others of that 
class proved during the preceding days of the week, to be issued for service. A couple of 
the Whitworth cannon were afterwards subjected to the ordinary test. The first was 
a 12-pounder, which stood the trial exceedingly well, and was very much admired. The 
power ofthe gun was of such an extraordinary nature that the shot penetrated completely 
through the mound of earth against which it was fired. The second, an 84-pounder, was 
then fired — two rounds with a charge of 241b. of powder and a service shot. After the 
second round it was observed that the joints had started, showing a crevice at that part 
of the gun where the junction of the segments is effected. The crevice, although, 
exceedingly slight, was clearly perceptible when pointed out by those accustomed to that 
duty. 

LAUNCHES OF STEAMERS. 
The Screw Frigate " Undaunted," 51 Guns. — The first of the squadron of large 
and improved screw frigates now building for the Bsitish Navy, all of which have been 
laid down under the auspices of the present Board of Admiralty, was successfully 
launched at Chatham dockyard on the 1st ult., in the presence of a large number of 
spectators. The Undaunted has been a little more than a year in building, and imme- 
diately the order was given for her construction every effort was made to have her com- 
pleted with the utmost possible dispatch. She was designed by Rear-Admiral Sir 
Baldwin W. Walker, the late Surveyor of the Navy, and has been built under the direc- 
tion of Mr. 0. Lang, the master shipbuilder at this dockyard, and his assistants. The 
following figures show the principal dimensions of this fine frigate : — ■ 

Feet. In. 

Length between perpendiculars 250 

Length of keel for tonnage 214 9 

Breadth, extreme 52 1 

Breadth for tonnage 51 7 

Breadth moulded 50 9 

Depth in hold 18 10 

Burthen in tons, 3399 44-94ths. 
Her armament will be an exceedingly heavy one, and will consist of 51 guns, which will 
be arranged as follows : — On the main deck 30 8-inch guns, each 65cwt., and 9ft. long; on 
the upper deck, 20 32-pomidcrs, each 58ewt., and 9ft. Oin. long ; and one 68-pounder 
pivot gun, of 95ewt, and 10ft. in length. Her engines are to be constructed by Messrs. 
Ravenliill and Co., and will be of 600-horse power (nominal). The launch was an excel- 
lent one, not the slightest hitch occurring, and no " hanging " on the ways. She will be 
at once furnished with her engines, and be made ready tor the steam reserve. Another 
large screw steamer will be commenced on the same slip. 
RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. 
A Serious Accident occurred at Swinton, at the junction of the Doncaster and Shef- 
field branch with the main line of the Midland Company, on December 23, at a little 
distance from the spot where the branch diverges from the South Yorkshire line. The 
1.10 p.m train from Doncaster was abont ten minutes beyond time as it approached the 
Swinton station, and, although the fast train from Leeds to Derby and London was then 
due, the signal-man allowed it to proceed. The fast train eame up to its time, and the 
consequence was that just as the Doncaster train was entering the main line the fast 
train ran into it, and hurled the engine down an embankment. The disabled engine 
struck the parapet of the bridge, which at this point passes over the canal, but it did not 
fall into it. Had the coupling chains remained intact, or had the train been a few yards 
in advance, the loss of life must have been fearful. As it was, no fatal results ensued ; 
in fact, but few of the passengers were bruised, and no bones were broken. The fast 
train was not injured, and proceeded at once on its journey. With but one exception, 
this is the only accident that has occurred on the Midland line for some years past. 

Two Accidents occurred on the Eastern Counties Railway in consequence of the late 
frost, but happily they have been unattended by any of those serious results which have 
ensued from similar causes on other lines. The first occurred to a goods tram, shortly 
after passing Ingatestone station, on its way to London. The rails were in a very 
slippery and"dangerous state bv reason ofthe frost, and the intense cold so acted upon 
the iron-work ofthe trucks, winch were heavily laden, that one of the axles snapped, and 
the body of the vehicle dropped upon the permanent way. Although travelling at a 
moderate rate, the liinderraost carriages smashed almost to pieces, the deWm completely 
blocking the up-line. This accident rendered it necessary to use the down-line between 
Insatestone and Brentwood for the early passenger traffic both ways on the same day, 
and it was shortly after passing the broken-down luggage tram that the second accident 
occurred to the express train from Chelmsford to London. It was proceeding at some- 
what less than its ordinary speed, when a large portion ofthe tire ot one ofthe earnage 
wheels was seen to fly oil" the line. The train was immediately stopped, and fortunately 
no personal injury was sustained. . 

An Accident of a serious character occurred near Gainsborough, in connection with 
the last through train from Manchester to Hull, on the night of the 26th December. It 
appears that the railway company are in the habit of attaching a third-class carriage to 



u 



Notes and Novelties. 



"The Artizan, 
. Feb. 1, 1861. 



this train at Retford, which is invariably placed behind the guard van. On arriving at 
Gainsborough, several third-class passengers were booked, and altogether there were 
about twenty passengers in this carriage at the time. On nearing Thonock-lane bridge, 
the -passengers in this last carriage began to notice that something was wrong, the 
carriage jumping about in quite an extraordinary manner. Presently there was a crash, 
the windows broke (flying inwards), and the carriage fell down on one side, one of the 
wheels having come off. The other wheel soon followed, and the end compartments of 
the carriages were gradually smashed to pieces. The most serious case was that of a 
mechanic from Grimsby, who sustained a fracture of the skull. Several others received 
some slight injuries. It seems that the accident was not discovered before the train 
reached Blyton, four-and-a-half miles from Gainsborough, notwithstanding that the cries 
of the whole of the twenty passengers were terrific. 

A Collision occurred on the morning of the 2nd ult., on the Hartlepool branch of 
the North Eastern Railway. A train loaded with pit props was going up the line from 
Hartlepool, and had got near Trimdon Station, when an engine coming down on the 
other line took some points laid down at the spot where the train was passing, and, 
crossing over, dashed into the waggons, throwing them off the line, as well as displacing 
itself. Both up and down lines were blocked up. 

On the Morning- of the 3rd ult., on the London and North-Western Railway, as the 
mail train leaving Liverpool at 4.5 in the morning, between Berkhampstead and Wat- 
ford, the tire of one of the wheels of the engine broke, and the train was suddenly 
brought to a stand-still. The suddenness of the stoppage occasioned considerable alarm, 
many of the passengers being much shaken. One gentlemen received a cut upon his 
forehead, but, fortunately, the wound was not a serious^one ; another was found with his leg 
broken, and suffering from several severe contusions. A good deal of alarm was excited 
by the shaking and jolting of the carriages. The traffic was stopped for about two hours. 

Near Sittingbouene, on the Chatham and Dover line, an accident occurred to the 
down express train leaving Victoria Station at 9.55, which had started five minutes 
behind its time, and on arriving within a short distance of that station was half-an-hour 
behind. Everything appeared to have gone right with the train until it arrived within a 
mile of this station, when the tire of one of the leading wheels of the first guard's break 
van, next the tender, flew off. This had the effect of throwing the guard's van off the 
line, dragging with it a third-class and also a first-class carriage, both of which were 
thrown over on their sides. The head guard was so violently bruised and shaken as to 
have been unable to do anything towards stopping the train. One passenger was killed, 
and several others injured. In consequence of the accident, the down line was blocked 
up for several hours ; but an efficient staff of labourers, under the direction of the sta- 
tion-master, were employed the whole of the day in clearing the lines. This is the 
first fatal accident which has occurred on this line since its opening for traffic. 

A Sekious Accident occurred on the 3rd ult. on the London and North-Western Railway, 
by which the traffic was seriously impeded. As the express train from Manchester, which is 
due in London at 11 p.m. neared the Camden station, two first-class carriages and a 
break van became detached, ran off the line, and, upsetting, caused terrible confusion. 
The train proceeded on to Euston-square, which it reached before the carriages in question 
were missed. So soon as the discovery was made, a special engine and carriage, with a 
number of railway officials, were despatched from Euston Station to render assistance, 
when it was found that a gentleman was killed, and several others had sustained serious 
injuries. The line was speedily cleared, and after a delay of three hours the traffic was 
resumed. 

On the Geeat Noetheen Railway an accident of a serious character, involving the 
destruction of a considerable amount of property, happened on the afternoon of the 4th ult., 
near Essendine, the junction with the Great Northern of the lines to Stamford and 
Bourne. It seems that while a goods train was running between Bytham and Essendine, 
on the upline, and within a mile of the latter station, a waggon suddenly left the rails. 
Shortly afterwards the train broke in two parts — that portion attached to the engine 
darting forward, whilst the other, headed by the disabled waggon, and consisting of about 
10 or 12 vehicles, nearly all left the metals, tumbling about in strange confusion. Both 
lines were blocked, and of course the passage of all traffic for a time was prevented. 
Assistance, however, soon came from Essendine and Peterborough, and firstly under the 
direction of the station-master at Essendine, and subsequently of the district manager, 
a clearance was effected, and the traffic, which had been detained three or four hours, 
was resumed. Eight waggons now lie on the line side in a mangled and disabled state, 
some topsy-turvy, others on their sides — all evidence of the violent nature of the accident. 
It is stated by the officials that the cause of the waggon, which was an Eastern Counties' 
one, leaving the line, was the breaking of its leading tire. 

Fatal Accident on the Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway. — On the afternoon 
of the 4th ult. a sad accident occurred near the Moreton Station, about five miles from 
Hereford, to the down train due in that city at 2.40 p.m. By the breaking of an axle, or 
the tire of one of the wheels of the carriage preceding the guard's van, the connection 
between the first carriage and the tender was severed. The whole of the carriages, five or 
six in number, with the exception of the first, were thrown off the line down an embank- 
ment into a meadow, over which the waters of the River Lugg had overflowed to some 
depth, and which were covered with ice. The alarm of the passengers as they were 
toppled over in a state of pell-mell confusion, and then as suddenly immersed in water to 
a considerable depth, was intense. The engine fortunately remained on the line, and the 
driver was thus enabled to goon and get assistance. Medical men from Hereford soon 
arrived. Two females were found to have been drowned, but the other passengers 
marvellously escaped with a few slight injuries. The guard was up to his neck in water, 
and was with difficulty rescued from his perilous position. The passengers and also the 
dead bodies were removed to Horeford, and sent to the hotels, being wet and shivering 
from the immersion. 

Accident on the West Midland Railway. — The excitement which was created 
here by the unfortunate accident which occurred on the 4th ult. on the Shrewsbury and 
Hereford Railway, about six miles from Hereford, had not yet subsided when an accident 
of a still more serious character happened on the Hereford, Abergavenny, and Newport 
section of the West Midland Railway. From the statements of the officials of the 
company, it seemed that the train quitted Newport as usual, at 5.45 p.m., and 
that it consisted of six carriages, and proceeded safely, at its ordinary speed (which 
is somewhat slow), until it reached the Nantydering Station, about twenty-five miles 
from Hereford, and two stations beyond Abergavenny. Between that station and 
Penpergwn, however, the fourth carriage behind the engine got off the rails. The 
passengers in the other carriages found that something was amiss, and, as all were aware 
of the accident of the previous day, a state of anxious fear succeeded which it is im- 
possible to exaggerate. Fortunately the guard and engine-driver soon had their atten- 
tion directed to this alarming state of things, and, as soon as possible, the engine was 
reversed, and the train brought to a stand. It was then discovered that the tire of 
one of the wheels of the fourth carriage had broken — it is supposed through the frost — 
but otherwise neither that carriage nor any other was injured, while the passengers — 
almost by a miracle — had escaped with a few trifling bruises. Nevertheless, three 
hours elapsed before the line was cleared and the train able to proceed. 

Another Accident on the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway.' — Scarcely 
had the coroner's jury separated which had been assembled, on the 5th ult., at Sitting- 
bourne, to inquire into the particulars connected with the fatal accident which took place 
at that station the previous day, than an accident of a much more serious character, and 
attended, unfortunately, with more alarming results, occurred a short distance from that 
station, and only a few miles from the scene of the late fatal accident, by which, we regret 



to state, two persons lost their lives, and one, if not more, of the passengers was so 
seriously injured that no hope was entertained of his recovery. The train to which the 
accident occurred was the last down train from Victoria Station, which it left at 7.45. It 
consisted of six passenger carriages, and two break vans placed at both ends of the train. 
Everything, it appears, proceeded safely until the train was within a short distance from 
Teynham Station — which it is timed to reach at 10.1 — when, just as it was proceeding, 
about twenty miles an hour, and the engine-driver was shutting, or had shut off, the 
steam, the engine, which was a very large and powerful one, gave a sudden bound, and 
left the rails, dragging with it the tender, the break van, and the whole of the carriages, 
with the exception of the last. The effect of the accident was one of the most appalling 
character. The engine, which was named the Eclipse, is described as having turned a 
complete summersault, the tender at the same time being thrown over it. The fireman 
of the engine was killed on the spot, and another fireman in the employ of the company, 
who happened to be riding on the engine, was also killed. The engine-driver, who was 
one of the most efficient drivers in the company's employ, was also severely injured by the 
engine falling over upon him, and by scalds from the hot water and steam. The guard's 
van and the other carriages comprising the train were all huddled together, and their 
debris scattered in all directions. Fortunately there were not many passengers in the 
train at the time, but those appear to have had some marvellous escapes, considering 
that all the carriages were eompletely smashed. One of the passengers, a clergyman, who 
occupied a seat in the centre of the train, was severely cut and bruised. Several 
other of the passengers also received rather serious injuries. The whole of the sufferers 
were carefully removed to the Teynham Station and the adjoining hotel, where medical 
assistance was promptly obtained," and their wounds and other injuries attended to. It 
was considered probable that the accident was caused through the late severe frosts 
having contracted the metals of the line, and widened the gaps between the rails ! On 
the engine coming to one of these gaps it probably gave a jump, and, instead of the 
wheels falling on the metals, they bounded aside, there being a slight curve there. 

An accident, happily unattended with serious consequences, happened to the through 
parliamentary train from Hull to Manchester, on the 7th ult. Just as the train had got 
through the very long tunnel about two miles from East Retford, a tire from one of the 
carriages in which there were many passengers came off, and, breaking through the floor, 
flew right up to the roof of the carriage. Fortunately in its descent no person was 
seriously injured. The wheel, however, coming off altogether shortly afterwards, the 
carriage was much broken up before the train could be brought to a stand. The accident 
was caused, it is supposed, by the severity of the weather. 

A Collision of a serious, but not of a fatal character occurred at the Mirfield Sta- 
tion of the London and North-Western Railway, about nine miles from Leeds, on the 
7th' ult., at noon. The facts are as follows: — The Lancashire and Yorkshire mail train 
left Normanton at 5 minutes past 11 a.m., being due at Mirfield at 1V45. On approach- 
ing the distant signal on the Thornhill side of the Mirfield Station, about half-a-mile 
distant, the axletree of the leading wheels of the guard's van, next the engine, broke, 
and the driver brought his train gradually to a stand, when the guard jumped out of the 
van for the purpose of going back to stop any approaching train. Immediately on 
alighting a London and North-Western train of empty carriages from Wakefield, which 
was following close behind, ran into the passenger train at a terrific speed. It is sup- 
posed that the driver of the London and North-Western train had not time to stop his 
engine, or even seriously to check the speed at which the train was proceeding. The 
passengers were thrown violently against each other, and the guard of the London and 
North- Western train received a shock which rendered him insensible. About a dozen of 
the passengers sustained cuts and bruises about the head and face. In addition to the 
injury of the passengers, five of the carriages ' belong to the London and North-Western 
train were forced off the frame-work, and the train was delayed for about an hour. 

On the same Night an accident occurred between Luton and Dunstable, the ehiet 
casualty being the delay of both up and down trains for several hours. On the down 
train from London, due at Luton at 7.40 p.m., reaching about half-way between Luton 
and Dunstable, the axle of one of the wheels of the engine snapped, which immediately 
stopped the progress of the train, at a spot where only a farm-house was near, delaying 
it for two or three hours. 

An Accident occurred on the night of the 8th ult., on the London and North- Western 
Railway, almost within sight of the London terminus, by which one gentleman, a first- 
class passenger, sustained serious injury, others were slightly cut and bruised, and the 
guard of the auxiliary mail was much hurt. The auxiliary mail train started at 9.15, 
and in five minutes afterwards was followed by the 9.20 short mail train to Wolver- 
hampton. On reaching the incline upwards from the outside of the northern end of the 
station to Camden-town, the driver of the engine drawing the auxiliary mail found the 
rails so slippery, that, with all the-steam he could put on his engine, he could not advance, 
although the usual practice otthrowing gravel and cinders on the rails was resorted to. 
It was not until the driver of the Wolverhampton train had passed through this bridge 
that he was aware the auxiliary mail was immediately before him on the same line. He 
was unable to check the impetus upon it in sufficient time to prevent a collision. His 
engine ran into the guard's break van, in which was the unfortunate guard. With the 
exception of one passenger and the guard, it was found that the injuries sustained by the 
other passengers were of a superficial character, and the injured people were enabled to 
proceed on their journey. None of the carriages were displaced from the line, and, after 
a short delay, both the auxiliary mail and the Wolverhampton train were enabled to pro- 
ceed on their journey. 

On the 9th ult. an alarming accident occurred on the Bristol and Birmingham 
branch of the Midland line, near Mangotsfield. When the slow train, which left 
Bristol at 1.35, with about twenty passengers, had reached the Rodway-hill cutting, 
the engine driver observed a large quantity of stones and debris upon the line 
on which he was travelling. Owing to the curve this obstacle had not been seen 
by him till he was nearly upon it; he, however, with great promptitude, immediately 
reversed his engine, but not in time to prevent a collision between the train and the mass 
of rock which lay upon the rails. The heap of stones was of such a height that it came 
into contact with the buffer of the engine, which is about four feet from the ground, and 
split it. The engine was thrown off the rails, and, forcing its way through the debris, 
dragged the carriages also off the line. The train ran for about fifty yards between the 
up and down line, ploughing up the ground, and jerking the carriages over the sleepers ; 
but happily causing the passengers |no injury. It was subsequently discovered that 
several tons of stone had— it is supposed owing to the frost— become dislodged from the 
rocks, which, at this point, attain a height of thirty feet on the side of the up line, and 
fallen upon the rails. None of the carriages were at all damaged, but the engine 
was disabled, owing to the fore axle having been bent. Steps were promptly 
taken to substitute another engine and carriages for the disabled train, the pas- 
sengers being taken on to the Mangotsfield Station by the fast train, and labourers 
were set to work to clear the line. Had the fall taken place upon a passing train, the 
probabilities are that we should have had to record a loss of life, as the immense mass of 
stone which fell (computed at several tons' weight) must have penetrated the roofs of 
the carriages and fallen upon the passengers. 

A Railway Collision at Victoria Station, Manchester.— On the 9th ult., an acci- 
den of a very unusual character occurred underthe Ducie Bridge, near the Victoria Station, 
which might have been attended with the most serious results, but which eventuated for- 
tunately in no further mischief than the damage of three carriages. It is customary for 
each train leaving Manchester for Yorkshire to be followed by a pilot engine, to assist in 
propelling it up the inclines, and the pilot engine usually leaves the station from the line 



Xbe Aetizan,"] 
Feb. 1, 1861. J 



Notes and Novelties. 



45 



of rails on the opposite side to the platform, whilst the train starts from the near side. 
Before the train gets under the bridge, it commences to cross the rails to the extreme 
left, and then the pilot-engine moves forward and joins up to it. On that afternoon the 
3.50 London and North- Western train for Leeds left the station at the usual time, and 
proceeded to cross to the opposite side. Before it had got completely across, however, 
the pilot engine came up, and ran into the centre of it. The engine struck three of the 
carriages, in which there were passengers, and the force of the concussion caused it to re- 
bound, and threw it off the rails. This was a most fortunate circumstance, after all, for 
had not the engine been thrown off the rails, it would have proceeded on its way clean 
through the train, instead of running to the left as it did, merely tearing up the road. It 
was thought at first that some of the passengers might have been injured, but on exa- 
mination it was found that the sides of three of the carriages were slightly broken, and 
that the passengers had received no further damage than the fright which the collision 
caused. The train was brought back to the station, new carriages were substituted for 
those broken, and in twenty-five minutes afterwards the passengers again proceeded on 
their journey. 

An Accident of a fatal character took place on the 9th nit,, on the works of the 
railway running through Bewdley. It appears that some men were at work blasting in 
a cutting when the accidents took place. In the explosion of 6W of the blasts a portion 
of rock struck a man on the head, felling him to the ground. He was taken up, and 
it was found that life was extinct. Another man was also struck by a piece of rock, and 
is said to have received dangerous injuries. 

A Serious Accident occurred on the 10th ult. to the Leeds and Bangor mail train, 
which joins a portion of the London and) North- Western mail train at Crewe. On that 
morning the Leeds and Bangor train left that station for Holyhead two hours and forty 
minutes, it is stated, later than its regular time. It proceeded safely until it reached " Ty 
Croes," within a few miles of Holyhead, when the tire of one of the wheels gave way, owing to 
which the post-office carriage, and two other carriages, were thrown off the rails, dragged 
about a mile, when they were overturned into a ditch. The engine and guard's van went 
on for some distance before the driver could stop the train ; and on going back it was dis- 
covered that one of the passenger carriages was smashed to pieces, and the other carriages, 
including the post-office van, were complete wrecks. Most fortunately the clerks and sorters 
had left the van at Bangor, where their duty is completed, only the mailguard being left 
therein, and his escape, under the circumstances, was very wonderful ; he was, how- 
ever, thrown out on the line before the van turned over, and sustained severe injuries to 
his head and back, from the rebound of the carriage and the fall on the rails. There was 
only one passenger besides the train guard, and both, happily, escaped without injury. 
Had there been many passengers by this mail the result must have been very calamitous. 
Fragments of wheels, axles, &c, were scattered over the line, which was cleared during 
the day, and the traffic resumed. 

An Accident of a truly terrible character occurred to the Irish night mail due at 
Holyhead about 3.30 a.m. on the morning of the lOtu ult. The train had just left the 
Tubular Bridge and entered on the Isle of Anglesey, when the tire of one of the wheels 
flew off, causing a carriage to leave the line, becoming a complete wreck, and bringing 
the train to a stand still. The scene that then ensued is described by those who were so 
fortunate as to escape injury as appalling; the cries of females and the groans of 
wounded passengers were heartrending in the extreme. Several persons were taken from 
the debris of the broken carriage, evidently seriously injured, the post-office clerks espe- 
cially being severely bruised. Two of the injured passengers died the same night. The 
mails due at Kingston early on Thursday morning did not arrive till late in the day. 

On the Evening of the 10th ult., about eight o'clock, a terrific explosion of gas took 
place at the Colney Hatch Station on the Great Northern Railway, which nearly killed 
the guard of a train then waiting at the station, and completely blew the roof off the 
station. The accident is attriDuted to the action of the frost on the iron pipes. 

A Fatal Accident occurred, at eleven o'clock on the night of the 11th ult., in the 
yard of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, Great Howard-street, Liverpool, whereby 
the fireman lost his life, and the engine-driver was seriously injured. The fire- 
man on an engine was engaged at the time the accident occurred in shunting some 
waggons off a high level platform in the yard, between Great Howard-street and Fulton- 
street, when the platform gave way, burying the engine, tender, and break van in the 
debris. The fireman was caught between the engine and tender, and instantly killed. 

An Accident of a fearful character, attended with loss of life, happened a short 
distance from Lincoln on the evening of the 14th ult., on the Manchester, Sheffield, and 
Lincolnshire Railway. It appears that the down train from Hull, due at Lincoln at 
7.45 p.m., entered the Greetwell cutting a little after its time. On reaching the Lincoln 
end, the tire of the engine wheel came off, and the engine slipped oft' the rails, rushed 
over the other line of rails, and ran into the bank — at this place several feet high — and 
toppled over, the cleaner falling off, the lower part of his body being underneath the 
engine. The driver was pitched up on a hedge, his head being severely cut. The tender 
was also upset, but it laid in such a position as to form an arch, under which the stoker 
crept, by which means he escaped uninjured. Next to the tender were three vans laden 
with fish, all of which were thrown over, the contents being strewn about in all directions. 
After the fish vans were the passenger carriages, in the first of which were several pas- 
sengers. On either side of the seat nearest the engine two men were sitting, father and 
son. The passengers were first made aware that something was amiss on hearing a loud 
bump. The father at oncejumped over the seat in front of him, and no sooner had he 
done so than the middle of the end of the carriage was forced in with a terrific crash, 
the son having both his legs severely injured. The father escaped with a few bruises, 
but there can be no doubt that had he not taken the precaution to move from his position, 
he would have been crushed to death. None of the other passengers were injured. 
Both lines of rails were completely blocked up by the shattered carriages, and conse- 
quently the guard at once proceeded to Lincoln, the majority of the passengers accom- 
panying him. On the station master being made acquainted with the particulars of the 
accident, he at once sent for a surgeon, who, with two assistants, proceeded to the scene of 
the melancholy occurrence. On reaching the spot the terrible nature of the accident 
was at once apparent. Fish and portions of the broken vans were lying about in all 
directions, the "smash" being as complete as could well be imagined. The poor cleaner 
was found under the engine, the whole weight of which was upon the lower part of his 
body ; and, upon examination, it was found that his head and shoulders had been fright- 
fully scalded — there can be no doubt, however, that his sufferings were only momentary. 
It was found impossible to extricate the body, there not being means at hand to raise 
the ponderous engine. The injured man, with the remainder of the passengers, were 
then brought to London, and the wounds of the driver were dressed in the refreshment- 
room of the station, the other being, in the meantime, removed to the Lion Hotel, where 
the injuries received have been foimd to be much more serious than were first antici- 
pated. On examination it was found that the outer side of the left leg, from the hip to 
the knee, was bared to the bone, and that the splinters of wood penetrated completely 
through the underneath portion of the leg, the whole of the muscles being severely 
lacerated and much bruised, and the principal artery torn. The leg was also swollen 
considerably. A consultation of the medical officers of the Lincoln County Hospital was, 
therefore, called, and it was found necessary to amputate the leg from the thigh. The 
operation reduced the sufferer so much that no hopes are entertained. It was also 
found that the father had received severe injuries, although not of so serious a nature as 
his son. 

On the 14th ult. the Deputy Coroner for the western division of Middlesex, and the 
jury empannelled to investigate the cause which led to the extraordinary accident which 



took place on the line of the London and North- Western Railway, on the London side of 
the Primrose-hill tunnel, on the night of Friday the 4th ult., resulting in the death of Mr 
William Michael George Kelly, a first-class passenger, and injury to other persons, re- 
assembled in one of the committee rooms of Euston Station for the purpose of further 
prosecuting their inquiry. The extraordinary character of the accident had the effect of 
producing a powerful array of scientific and legal gentlemen. The Deputy Coroner 
havmg briefly summed up, the room was cleared of strangers, and after a deliberation, 
the jury returned the following verdict :— " That on the 4th day of January, William 
Michael George Kelly was found deadbeneath a certain carriage on the London and North- 
western Railway, and that his death was occasioned by the effects of the fracture of his 
skull, and other injuries produced by his having become crushed beneath the carriage 
aforesaid accidentally and by misfortune." To which they appended the following 
remarks :— " The jury sitting to inquire concerning the death of Mr. M. G. Kelly, earnestly 
recommend the London and North- Western Railway Company to remedy on their line, 
as speedily as practicable, the defect which is represented to have been the cause of the 
accident, and which resulted in the death of the gentleman aforesaid." The proceedings, 
which lasted the whole day, terminated at six p.m. 

On the Morning of the 14th dm., a very serious accident occurred at a spot about 
midway between the Harrow and Pinner stations on the London and North Western 
Railway, by which one passenger sustained such severe injuries to Ms left leg that in the- 
aftemoon he was compelled to undergo the painful ordeal of amputation ; and three 
other persons were more or less seriously injured — one, an elderly lady, having one of her 
arms broken. The train to which the accident happened was what is called the 
" limited mail." This train leaves Glasgow at 5'53 p.m., and is due at the Euston 
station at 4'37 a.m. on the following morning ; but yesterday, instead of arriving in 
London at its proper time, it was telegraphed as having just passed Wolverhampton 
exactly at the moment when it should have been at Camden-town, where it stops for 
the collection of tickets. It was therefore about an hour and a half late, and it appears 
that after leaving Bletchley, which is the last stopping station, and which should be 
reached at 3'28, but was not until about 5 o'clock, the train sped upon its way at a very 
rapid pace indeed, and continued to do so until it arrived at the spot indicated above, 
when suddenly the passengers heard a crash, followed by a singular shaking of the 
carriages. The travellers became much alarmed, which was considerably increased when 
shrieks and cries were heard above the noise of the train, the speed of which had become 
gradually slackened. At length the carriages were brought to a stand, wiien, as de- 
scribed by a passenger in the train, the excitement was intense. Tins via-, about six 
o'clock, when it was pitch dark and extremely cold. The passengers— fortunately 
limited in number — rushed from the carriages in a state of great alarm, and proceeded to 
investigate the nature of the accident which had happened. It soon became apparent 
that the results were of a serious character. Shrieks and moans emanated from a com- 
posite carriage which was lying on its side, minus, it is said, the whole of its wheels, and 
having been dragged in its dilapidated state for upwards of two hundred yards. As 
speedily as possible the inmates were extricated. A gentleman was not much injured, 
nor was a young female, but an old lady had her arm broken, and was besides much 
shaken and otherwise injured. The carriage was completely crushed, and how its 
inmates escaped with life is considered almost a miracle. Before the train was stopped 
they were hurled backwards and forwards with every motion, and consequently were much 
bruised, and placed in great mental agony. As soon as the full extent of the accident had 
been ascertained, it was deemed advisable to send the gentleman to London immediately. 
He was placed in a break van, and at once conveyed to the Euston Hotel, near the 
station. After careful deliberation, it was found impossible to avert amputation of the 
left leg, which operation was afterwards accomplished, the patient evincing considerable 
courage and endurance. With regard to the cause of the] accident, it is supposed to have 
originated through the breaking of the axle of a carriage, which threw some of the other 
vehicles oft' the line. The " post office " had to be left for some time on the spot where 
the accident happened, and it was not until another engine arrived from London that it 
could be brought up. The letters were therefore considerably late, the post-office tender 
being several hours behind time. 

Accident on the Great Western Railway. — An accident happened to the down 
express train on the Great Western Railway on the morning of the 14th ult., which atone 
time threatened to be attended with consequences of a very serious nature. The train 
quitted the Paddington Station for its westward journey at the usual hour, 9.15 a.m., 
and proceeded as far as Twyford without interruption or mishap of any kind. When near 
that station the axle of the third of the second-class carrriages attached to the train 
(which happened to be one of those which belong to the Bristol and Exeter Company) 
suddenly broke, and the tires ot the wheel flying off smashed all the grease-boxes of the 
carriage to pieces. The carriage, in which were several passengers, was thrown off the 
rail by the jerk, causing, as may be supposed, considerable consternation amongst its 
inmates. After it had dragged some half a mile the engine-driver succeeded in pulling 
up the train, and the encaged voyagers were released, and the injured carriage removed 
from the train. None of the passengers were severely injured, but the train was delayed 
an hour and a half before it reached Bristol. 

A Fatal Accidbnt occurred on the London and North- Western Railway on the morn- 
ing of the 15th ult., near Boxmoor Station. The down Irish mail train, leaving the 
Euston Station at 7.25 a.m., and which does not stop till it reaches Rugby at 9.25, was 
proceeding at its usual rate of speed as it neared the Boxmoor Station, when the engine- 
driver, who was keeping a good look out a-head, perceived several plate-layers at work 
upon the line. He at once gave the customary danger signal ; but the men appeared to 
be unconscious of the approach of the train until the engine was upon them. The buffer 
struck one of the men, and inflicted upon him such fearful injuries that his death must 
have been instantaneous. His mangled remains Vere picked up after the train had 
passed, and conveyed by his fellow-workmen to an adjoining public-hor.se, to await the 
holding of the coroner's inquest. Another of the plate-layers was also struck by the 
engine, and so severely injured that it is doubtful whether he will recover. There seems 
to be no blame attributable to the driver of the train, who, on his arrival at Rugby, was 
corroborated in his statement! that he sounded the danger signal in sufficient time for 
the men to have got clear of the line. . 

On the 17th ult. a serious collision took place on the Chester andA\amngton Railway 
between a goods and passenger train. It appears that a goods tram left Chester for 
Manchester, as usual, in the morning, and proceeded along until it got through the 
Frodsham tunnel ; but when it got into the cutting between the tumiel and Frodsham 
Station, the rails were so slippery, owing to the thaw, that it could only get along 
with great difficulty. The passenger train, which left Chester at 9.5. a.m., proceeded 
along at its usual speed, and, on arriving at the entrance of the tunnel, was sig- 
nalled to go on. It accordingly passed through the tunnel at the usual speed. The 
dampness of the morning caused the steam from the goods tram engine to hang more 
than is common in the tunnel, and also in the deep cutting between it and the Frodsham 
Station, so that the driver of the passenger train could not see more than a lew yards 
ahead, and the consequence was that he overtook the goods tram and ran right into it, 
knocking the buffers of his engine completely off. The passengers in the latter train 
were much shaken. One lady received a contused forehead and a blow on her knee ; 
but we believe there was no more serious casualty than this. All the passengers 
were able to proceed. The damage to the goods and passenger carnages was slight. 

On the 18th ult., an accident happened to the down parliamentary tram upon the 
Eastern Counties Railway, when near Ardleigh station, about midway between Col- 
chester and Manningtree. The train, on approaching the above station, slackened speed, 



46 



Notes and Novelties. 



rHE Artizaw , 
Feb. 1, 1861. 



for the purpose of enabling the passengers to alight, when the connecting rod of the 
engine broke asunder, and the end of it nearest the driving-wheel was driven with great 
violence into the soil. The engine was thrown off the line, but it maintained its equili- 
brium, and most fortunately all parties escaped without personal injury, though it is 
almost needless to say they were much frightened. The passengers were forwarded by 
the mail train, which arrived shortly afterwards, and continued their journey to Ipswich, 
and after an hour or two the eugine was again on the metals, the traffic of the fine not 
having been entirely stopped. 

Railway Accident m the North. — On the night of the 19th ult., a special train 
from Sunderland ran into a luggage train every shortly 'after passing Brockly Whins 
station. The latter train was knocked oil' the line by the force of the concussion. The 
occupants of the special train — many of them being ladies — were of course a good deal 
alarmed, but fortunately the only inconvenience which they suffered arose from fright and 
detention in the snow from 11.0 until 1.0 a.m. 

Oir the 23rd. ult., on the Liverpool branch of the London and North-Western 
Railway, the mail train which leaves Liverpool at eleven o'clock was ascending a steep 
incline between Huyton and Raichill, ran into a goods train which was being propelled 
up before it. The company's guard and the mail guard were both much injured. The 
engine behind the goods train was also damaged, as was that which ran into it. 
• A. Collision on the Midland Railway occurred on the morning of the 24th ult. 
The Derby 7.55 train was in the station-yard at Nottingham, and whilst the tickets were 
being collected from the passengers, the 8.5 train from Leicester was seen to be approach- 
ing on the same line. A signal was immediately given to stop the train, but owing to 
the slippery state of the rails it was found impossible to check the train, and the latter 
ran into the Derby train. The shock was considerable, the Derby train being carried more 
than a dozen yards by the force of the concussion; but, with the exception of a few 
bruises to the passengers, nothing serious occurred. 

On the Moening of the 25th ult., a number of luggage trucks got detached from 
the engine on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, and, notwithstanding the efforts of 
the guard to stop them, with the break, the whole came with a tremendous velocity 
forward to Leeds, several being eventually thrown into the Great Northern goods yard, 
Wellington-street, a depth of about forty feet. The vans were all broken to pieces. The 
guard leapt from the van, and thus saved his life. 

Deaths fbom Steamboats and Raileoads in America. — The statistics of the num- 
ber of persons killed and wounded in America by steamboat accidents during the past 
year, show, — killed, 242 ; wounded, 146. In 1859 the numbers were, killed, 597 ; wounded, 
134. During the past eight years the lives lost by steamboat accidents, notwithstanding 
those which occurred at sea, were, killed, 30,001 ; wounded, 1000 ; and the total number 
of accidents for that period was 242. A similar return of railway accidents shows — For 
1860, killed, 57; wounded, 315 ; in 1859, killed, 129 ; wounded, 411. These figures do not 
include individual accidents caused by the carelessness of travellers. An additional table 
of deaths and injuries by accidents to railroad trains for the past eight years shows as 
follows :— Accidents, 977 ; killed, 1166 ; wounded, 3926. 

BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 

Of Boilee Explosions, it is estimated that, in the United States, there is an average 
of one daily. They occur in every section of the land, at sea, on rivers, in basements, 
garrets, scattering death and destruction in all directions. An American paper remarks, 
on this subject — " If so much dangerous carelesness is discovered where periodical exami- 
nations are made, what is likely to be the condition of boilers where examinations are 
unfrequent and superficial ? " 

Manchester Steam Boiler Assurance Company. — The Chief Engineer of this Com- 
pany has issued his monthly statement, showing that during the month of December last 
259 boilers have been accepted by the board, and proposals received for the insurance of 
192 additional boilers. The total number of boilers for which proposals have been 
received during the year 1860 is 1851, of which 1636 have been accepted. The number of 
boilers inspected in the month of December is 616, of which 10 have been internally, and 
43 thoroughly examined. The principal defects noticed were as follows — viz., corrosion 
of plates, or angle iron, 20 ; fractures of ditto, 15 ; safety valves out of order, 33 ; water- 
guages ditto, 15. 

The Huddeesfield Boiler Association, it isstated, is about to be wound-up, and the 
members are individually recommended to join the Steam Boiler Assurance Company, 
which offers inspection with the additional advantage of allowance in case of accident. 

DOCKS, HARBOURS, CANALS, &c. 
Facility in Coal Lading. — As a proof that the accommodation afforded for the ship- 
ment of coals in the Sunderland South Dock cannot be equalled in any other port of the 
north, we may state that the Ryhope screw steamer entered between five and six o'clock 
on a Friday evening, and sailed on the first following tide, five o'clock next morning, 
having in less than twelve hours taken in 850 tons of coals. She made a quick voyage to 
London, had good despatch there, and reached Sunderland again on a Wednesday, received 
another cargo of coals of the same quantity, and sailed on Thursday, having twice left 
the docks, and made a voyage to London, in five days. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

Artesian Wells in Algeria. — The number of these wells sunk up to the present 
day in Oued Kir and in Hodna amounts to 31, yielding about 33,631 pints of water per 
minute. The wells sunk in the district of Tougourt are 19 in number, they yield 2790 
pints of water per minute. We have, therefore, for the whole province of Constantine 
a total debit of 36,421 pints of water from the 50 wells, or 52,446,249 pints in the 24 
hours. All these sinkings have been made with three sizes of perforators only ; the ave- 
rage depths of the wells of Oued Rir and Hodna, is some 90 to 100 yards ; those of 
Tougourt about 60 yards. The expenses entailed by these works have amounted in the 
i years, 1S57 — 60, to 262,676 francs ; or, if we deduct the value of the perforators (120,000 
francs),.to 142,676 francs. The average expense of each well is therefore about 2853 fr. 

GAS SUPPLY. 

Gas on Steamers. — A new method of lighting the Sound Steamboats, United States, 
from large reservoirs of gas, to be placed on the upper-deck, the latter being fitted at 
either terminus of the route, is soon to be put in operation. Four iron reservoirs, 
capable of holding 1800 feet of gas, are to be secured on the hurricane deck, and it is 
thought that in case of emergency these buoyant tanks may prove very efficient as life- 
preservers. 

The Watee-gas Lighting at the Girard House, Philadelphia, U.S., it appears by the 
Philadelphia papers, is likely to be abandoned, a legal demand having been made on 
the gas trustees to have the house supplied with coal gas from the City works. Some of 
the pipes were found to be so filled with tar that it was found necessary to clean them 
out before the City gas could be introduced. " It has been said that water-gas contained 
no condensable products. 

Gas Pueifying. — A firm in Wakefield propose to remove ammonia from gas by 
causing it to pass through and amongst dry, or, by preference, damp cocoa-nut fibre, 
which is found to have a great absorbing power for that substance. 

MINES, METALLURGY, &c. 

In Boilee Plates there is a difference in quality which is fearful enough to contem- 
plate ; but when we consider that "cheap" plates are made, which, instead of carrying 



60,000 lbs. to the inch, will break into pieces under a heavy blow from a hand hammer, 
and that there are thousands of engine owners who are willing to risk everything to save 
first cost, who invariably get the"" cheapest " (lowest priced) work; and, moreover, that 
too many boiler makers do, and are capable of using anything which the purchaser will 
call iron, we cannot but wonder that explosions are not more frequent. 

Important Discovery of Coal. — About eighteen months since, Mr. Thomas Rees, of 
Swansea, South Wales, purchased some corporation property, intending it for agricultural 
purposes. About six or seven weeks ago the idea of trying for coal or other valuable 
mineral suggested itself. A 23in. vein of valuable fire-clay was discovered in about a 
fortnight: and in a few days later the workmen came upon a 5ft. seam of level. The 
coal! is highly bituminous, possessing superior coke-producing qualities, and is the 
nearest to Swansea of any coal yet discovered in the locality, not being more than a quarter 
of a mile from the town. Mr. Rees has secured the right to all minerals found upon the 
farm, which extends over some 600 acres. 

The Passivity of Ibon. — When a piece of iron is placed in ordinary nitric acid, it is 
violently attacked; if it be withdrawn, the acid adhering to the surface continues its 
action. If we wait until the adherent acid is saturated, and then again plunge the iron 
into nitric acid, the coating of rust which has been formed becomes of dead white colour, 
and is no longer attacked by the acid— it has, indeed, become passive. If the iron be 
rubbed it becomes attackable again, and may be brought back into the passive state in 
the same manner as before. 

Iodine in the Atmosphere. — It is insisted by French chemists that there is iodine 
in the atmosphere. M. Chatin says he has found it in the rain water of Pisa, Florence, 
and Lucca, as at Paris. Further, he adds he has found it in five samples of distilled 
water, and three specimens of potassium from the best laboratories; and he believes that 
it may be found in all potassiums and most rain waters. M. Chatin cannot succeed in 
isolating the iodine, but he is none the less certain of its presence. 

APPLIED CHEMJSTRY. 

On Nitro-Prusside of Sodium as a Re-agent. — The colour of the compound formed 
through the action of nitro-prusside of sodium on alkaline sulphurets depends upon the 
nature of the alkali employed, and upon the proportion of sulphuret aud alkali in solu- 
tion. Ammonia always produces a purple colour ; but if soda or potash are present in 
great excess, the colour formed is red instead of purple. Organic compounds of sulphur 
which are not easily decomposed by alkalies seem, therefore, to give a different reaction 
to that of inorganic compounds. Bisulphuret of carbon, or oil of mustard, for instance, 
when digested with caustic soda, at a common temperature, gave not a purple but a 
deep red colour with nitro-prusside of sodium. When boiled with soda, these compounds 
form sulphuret of soda more freely, and then give the purple colour with the re-agent. 
Albumen may be boiled for some time before the first reaction changes into the second 
one. Mercaptan proves the alkaline properties of Us radical by forming the red colour 
without the addition of soda, which, when added, however, intensifies it. A solution of 
sulphur in an organic medium, such as benzine, or oil of turpentine, when acted upon 
by soda, at a common temperature, does not give the red but the purple colour — the 
former appearing only when soda was added in great excess. The action of nitro- 
prusside of sodium on alkaline sulphurets is much stronger and more rapid than that of 
metallic salts. It was tried to determine the quantity .if an alkaline sulphuret in solu- 
tion by volumetric analysis, by precipitating it with alkaline solution of metallic oxides 
[of lead or zinc], tcstiug from time to time for the presence of the sulphuret with nitro- 
prusside of sodium. It was then found that the alkaline sulphuret was thus indicated, 
even in the presence of an excess of the. metallic solution. For indicating the presence 
of alkalies, nitio-prusside of sodium is superior to the best litmus paper, and for indi- 
cating alkaline eaiths, it can be used when litmus fails to give a reaction. For 
tho purpose of testing for these substances, sulphuretted hydrogen is passed 
for a short time through the solution previous to its beinir mixed with a lew drops of the 
re agent. A solutiou of 1 part of dry carbonate of soda in 20,000 parts of water thus 
assumes a colour dark enough to be diluted with three times its own volume of water with- 
out becoming indistinct. The reaction, however, is the slower in appearing, and the 
quicker in disappearing in proportion as the solution is the more dilute. If, therefore, 1 
part of carbonate of soda be dissolved in more than 40,000 parts of water, the reaction 
becomes indistinct. The limit of a distinct reaetion for litmus paper seems to be, 1 part 
of carbonate of soda in 10,000 parts of water. Tincture of litmus is equally sensitive as 
n itro-prusside of sodium for indicating alkalies, but not for earths. One part of carbonate 
of lime in 20,000 parts of water containing carbonic acid is distinctly indicated through 
sulphuretted hydrogen and nitro-prusside of sodium ; whereas litmuj, in such instance, 
indicates the carbonic acid only. Baccic salts, such as the borate or phosphate of soda, 
give, as might be presumed, a strong reaction with nitro-prusside of sodium. Organic 
bases act in an analogous manner with regard to both re-agents. Those which are not 
indicated by litmus seem not to be capable of forming a sulphuret reacting upon nitro- 
prusside of sodium. Nicotine is indicated by both re-ageuts ; quinine, cinchonia, and 
aDiline are not. The sulphuret of nicotine, when evaporated at a common temperature 
over sulphuric acid, is split into sulphuretted hydrogen, which goes off, and the base, 
which remains in solution. An alcoholic solution of aniline, when submitted to the 
reaction, assumes a green colour of a very transitory nature. In conclusion, it may be 
remarked, that nitro-prusside of sodium is capable of acting as a powerful oxidizing agent. 
It forms brown resinous substances when acting upon volatile oils. 

On Monohydratkd Sulphuric Acid. — Recently, at a meeting of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, attention was drawn to the researches of Marignac on sulphuric acid. This 
chemist always found too much water in monohydrated sulphuric acid, aud fixed its 
specific gravity, as Beneau and others have recently done, from r842 to V845. it is well 
known, indeed, that this hydrate loses anhydrous acid when distilled or boiled, and the 
object of the present communication is to ascertain the exact conditions under which 
this loss takes place, as this knowledge is of importance in a practical point of view. 
The author occasionally found, on distilling, aud afterwards heating oil of vitriol, that 
acid of the specific gravity of 1'84S was obtained, but at other times the specific gravity 
was as low as 1'842. To explain this difference, the following experiments were made : — 

1. Sulphuric acid, having a specific gravity of 1-848, and aper centage of auhydrids of 
81-62 by the"alkalimeter, was put in a retort, burned in hot sand, and distilled. The 
distillate had a specific gravity of 1-840, aud a per centage strength of 80-12. It had, 
therefore, lost by distillation lj per cent, of auhydrids. 

Si. The weak acid got by the last experiment was heated forhalf-an-hour to 550°Fahr , 
and after cooling gave an acid of l'S179S specific gravity, and strength of 81-615 an- 
hydrids. 

3. A portion of this acid now restored to its full strength and specific gravity, was 
violently boiled for two hours. On testing the acid, on cooling, it was reduced in strength 
to 80'01 of auhydrids, and to a specific gravity of 1-838. 

4. The weak acid obtained in the last experiment was kept for one hour at 550° Fahr. 
On cooling it had increased to 81 62 per cent, of anhydrids, and the specific gravity was 
1-84792. 

As a general result of these experiments, it follows that the old specific gravity o f 
1-848 is more correct than that given by Marignac and Beneau; that there is a true 
monohydrate of sulphuric acid "which loses anhydride near its boiling point, but not 
below 030°. The latter, temperature should not be exceeded in the concentration of 
oil of vitriol. 



The Aiitizan,! 
Feb. 1, 1861 J 



List of New Patents. 



47 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTIONS 
ALLOWED. 

Hated September 6, 1860. 

2150. C. A. Schneider, 9, Albany-street, Regent's Park — 
Manufacturing letters, numerals, designs, and orna- 
ments to be attached to glass. 

Bated October 13, 1860. 
2491. M. Strang, Glasgow— Manufacture of lubricating oil. 

Bated October 15, 1860. 

2508. G. F. Goble and F. S. Hemming, London — Machinery 

for crushing quartz and other substances. 

Bated October 22, 1860. 

2572. A. Dietz, New York, United States— Method of treat- 
ing skins and hides during or after the process of 
tanning or finishing them. 

Bated October 26, I860. 

2614. R. Tiernan, Liverpool — Infants' and invalids' feeding 
bottles. 

Bated November 2, 1860. 

2690. "VV. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— An improved press 
for compressing substances for packing in the form 
of bales, or for other purposes . 

Bated November 9, 1860. 
2748. J. P. Fittere, Castelnau Magnoae, Hautes Pyrenees — 
Portable sewing machines. 

Bated November 15, 1860. 
2810. G. Gill, 37, Francis -street, Newington— Steam rams and 
ships of war. 

Bated November 16, 1860. 

2812. J. C. M. Beziat, 51, Rue de Malte, Paris— Apparatus 
employed for permitting, stopping, and regulatin; 
the passage of steam. 

2820. T. Welton, 29, New Compton-street, Soho, and E. H, 
C. Moneton, Parthenon Club, 16, Regent-street- 
Application of electricity to the human body for 
the relief of pain. 

Bated November 17, 1860. 

2828.. J. H. Radcliffe, King-street, Oldham, Lancashire — 

Lubricating or oiling vessels. 
2831. A. L. Leveque, Paris — Apparatus for carburatin 

napthalizing lighting gas. 

Bated November 19, 1860. 

2836. H. A. Jowett, Sawley, Derbyshire — Heating ovens for 
the manufacture of pottery and porcelain by means 
of gas. 

Bated November 20, 1860. 
2844. F. Palling, Esher-street, Lambeth — Fountain pens. 

„ Bated November 22, 1860. 
2864. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Apparatus for com- 
municating continuous rotary motion from manual 
power. 

Bated November 23, 1860. 

2870. W. Manwaring, Banbury, Oxfordshire — Gearing of 
mowing and other light portable machines. 

2872. J. Coupe, Blackburn — Power looms for weaving. 

2874. B. Beniowski, Bow-street — Manufacture of types and 
cases to be used therewith. 

Bated November 26, 1860. 

2892. J. W. Hadwen, Kebroyd Mills, Halifax— Treatment of 
silk waste, waste silk, or silken fibre. 
Bated November 27, I860. 

2908. W. S. Wood, Chislehurst, Kent— Apparatus for curing 
smoky ehimnies. 

Bated November 28, 1860. 
2916. J. Robb, Aberdeen, North Britain— Gas Stoves. 
2920. H. Grafton, 80, Chancery-lane — Application of machi- 
nery to the cultivation of land. 

Bated November 29, 1860. 

2928. Sir J. T. Bethune, 39, Rue de 1'Echiquier, Paris— Pro- 
duction of motive power by application of the dead 
weight of liquids. 

2935. J. A. Fanshawe, and J. A. Jaques, Tottenham — Brushes 
and other scrubbing surfaces. 

Bated November 30, 1860. 
2938. J. Fry, Wrotham, near Sevenoaks, Kent— Mills for 

crushing and grinding grain. 

Bated Beeember 1, 1860. 
2945. R. Dawbarn, Wisbeach— Apparatus for stopping holes 

in elastic tubes or pipes. 
2947. A. Jackson, Liverpool — Generating steam as adapted 

to a certain arrangement or construction of steam 

engines for transmitting motive power. 
2952. J. Ronald, Liverpool — Machinery for the spinning of 

hemp. 
2954. T. Shedden, Ardgartan House, Argyle, North Britain 

— Ammunition for fire-arms. 

Bated Beeember 3, 1860. 
2960. W. Galloway and J. Galloway, Manchester— Steam 

boilers. 
2962. W. R. Barker, Chapel-street, Belgrave-square— Bottles 

for medicines and poisons. 



2961. 
2966. 
2968. 

2972. 
2974. 
2976. 
2978. 
2980. 

29S2. 
2984. 
2986. 



LIST OP NEW PATENTS. 

J. Lowden and R. Buckley, Royton, Lancashire 

Carding engines. 
J. T. Carter and J. Austen, Sydenham, Kent — Method 

of roughing horse shoes. 
T. Whitehead, Holbeck, Leeds — Machinery for comb 

ing wool, hair, and other fibrous substances. 



Bated Beeember 4, 1860. 

B. Greenwood, 5, Southfield-square, Manniugham — 
Manufacture of brooms. 

F. Jaques, Droylsden, near Manchester — Apparatus 
applicable to rifled or other muskets. 

R. Griffiths, 69, Morningtoa-road, Hampstead-road — 

Screw propeller blades. 
J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Folding racks 

for airing and drying clothes. 

C. S. Duncan, Hereford-road North, Bayswater — Con- 
struction of electric telegraph cables or ropes. 

Bated Beeember 5, 1860. 
C. W. Siemens, 3, Great George-street, Westminster- 
Fluid meters. 

G. Hallett, 52, Broadwall, Lambeth — Coating iron and 
other ships' bottoms. 

B. GorriU, Birmingham — Gilding tools for embossing 
ornaments on leather. 

Bated Beeember 6, 1860. 
2089. H. Jordan, Liverpool — Construction of ships or other 
vessels. 

2990. J. F. Pratt, Oxford-street— Instruments for receiving 

and transmitting sound. 

2991. R. A. Glass, Greenwich— Apparatus for preserving 

electric telegraph cables and wires prior to their 
being laid. 

2992. M. Deavin, Rotherhithe— Apparatus applicable as a 

fire escape. 

2993. T. Mellodew, Oldham, and C. W. Kesselmeyer, Man 

Chester, and J. M. Worrall, Salford — Treatment of 
velvets, velveteens, and other fabrics, on which 
there are floated weft threads to be cut. 
2294. J. Bellamy, Wednesfield, near Wolverhampton — 
Traps for taking rats, birds, rabbits, and other 
animals. 

Bated Beeember 7, 1860. 

J. Musgrave, Bolton-le-Moors — Apparatus for regula 
ting the discharge of water from steam pipes. 

J. C. Haddan, 14, Bessborough-gardens, Pimlico— 
Manufacture of cannon. 

P. Guerin Cluny, department of Saone-et-Loire, France 
— Hydraulic press. 

F. H. Edwards, Newcastle-upon-Tyue— Air engines. 

S. Holman, Lewisham — Machineryfor communicating 
motion to and tranmitting motion from recipro- 
cating rods. 

J. B. Turtle, 93, Minories — Means of communicator 
signals. 

W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Machinery for planin: 

or cutting wood. 
J. J. Wheble, Reading— Manufacture of artificial stone 
for building purposes. 

B. G. George, Hatton Garden— Mounting of tablets 
or show bills. 

T. Foxall, Princes-street, Fitzroy-square — Canteen for 
containing refreshments for soldiers or travellers, 

W. Morris and J. Radford, Oldbury, Worcestershire- 
Compositions to be employed in the manufacture of 
fire bricks. 



2995, 

2996 

2997. 

2999. 
3000. 

3001. 
3002. 
3003. 
3004. 
3005. 
3006. 

3007. 

3008. 

3009. 
3010. 

3011. 

3012. 

3013. 

3014. 

3015. 

3016. 
3017. 

3018. 

3019. 

3020. 

3021. 
3022. 

3023. 



Bated Beeember 8, 1860. 

J. H. Cary, St. James's Factory, Norwich — Hammer 
rails. 

G. Davies, 1, Searle-street, Lincoln's-inn — Construc- 
tion of steam boilers. 

J. Robson, .junior, North Shields — Mineral-oil lamps. 

R. Mushet, Coleford, Gloucestershire — Manufacture 
of an alloy or alloys of titanium and iron. 

T. Roberts, Holborn — Construction of ships and 
floating batteries. 

M. Jones, Royal Mint — Apparatus for preparing the 
edges of discs of metal for coin. 

A. Wheeler, Banner Cross, Sheffield — Manufacture of 
railway carriages, trucks, engines, and other 
vehicles. 

J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Apparatus for 
applying capsules to bottles. 

B. Hockin, Limehouse — Mode of fitting and workin 
furnaces. 

L. Simon, Nottingham— Heated air engines. 

D. Annan, 8, Albert-terrace, Bow — Furnaces and fire 

bars. 
J. Durrant, 63, Warren-street, Fitzroy-square-Chimney 

pots. 
W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Machinery for 

making bricks. 

Bated Beeember 10, 1860. 
A. Granger, 308, High Holborn — Manufacture of 

collars, cuffs, shirt fronts, and articles of a like 

nature. 
A. J. Filliette, 42, Rue Amelot, Paris — Presses for 

copying, stamping, and embossing. 
T. Peake, Derby — Method of locking or skidding the 

wheels of vehicles for the purpose of arresting the 

progress thereof. 
J. A. Barde, Paris — Apparatus for producing and 

purifying lighting gas. 



3024. W. Ciark, 53, Chancery-lane— Photographic apparatus. 

3025. J. Young and C. Cairns, Glasgow— Making moulds 
for casting. 

3026. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Implements for 
digging and breaking up the soil. 

3027. R. Davidson, London-street — Apparatuses for drying 
and heating. 

3028. R. H. Hughes, Hatton-garden — Apparatus for sup. 
plying- fresh air to mines. 

3029. R. Hudson, Adwalton, near Leeds— Apparatus for the 
generation of steam. 

3030. R. Muschet, Coleford, Gloucester— Manufacture of an 
alloy or alloys of titanium and iron. 

3032. J.H.Johnson, 17, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Electric appara- 
tus for striking thehours on bells. 

Bated Beeember 11, 1860. 

3033. J. Townsend, Glasgow— Obtaining animal charcoal. 

3031. A. J. Canu, Paris, Rue Lafitte, numero 42— An im- 
proved pulverising and bruising machine. 

3035. C. Stevens, 1b, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square— An 
impermeable anti-sulphuric coating for leather. 

3036. R. A. Ford and W. A. Paige, 38, Poultry— Shirts. 
3038. J. Townsend and J. Walker, Glasgow— Treating bye 

products arismg in the manufacture of soda and 
potash for the obtainment of antichlores and other 
useful products. 

3040. G. C. Wallich, 17, Campden Hill-road, Kensington- 
Apparatus for taking deep sea soundings. 

3041. H. Tucker, 11, Queen-square, Bloomsbury— Bedsteads. 
3043. J. Pym, 4, Lawrence Pountney-hill— Railway sleepers. 

Bated Beeember 12, 1860. 

3042. T. Massey, 4, Birchin-lane — Sounding machines. 
3041. J. Steart, 5, St. James'-road, Blue Anchor-road, Ber- 

mondsey — Treating skins for the manufacture of 
leather. 

3045. R. Mushet, Coleford— Manufacture of cast-steel. 

3046. H. Hall, Stack Steads, Lancashire — Apparatus for 
spinning and doubbng fibrous materials. 

3047. A. F. Jaloureau, Paris — Processes for holding, pro- 
tecting, and insulating subterraneous telegraphic 
wires. 

3048. H. Newey, Birmingham— Manufacture of certain parts 
of umbrellas and parasols. 

3049. J. Seott, Sunderland — Reefing and furling sails. 

3050. C. P. Moody, Corton Denham, Somersetshire — Con- 
struction of gates. 

3052. S. T. Cornish, Beaumont-square, Mile-end — Construc- 
tion of ships for the purpose of rendering them 
shot and shell proof. 

3053. G. Richardson, Mecklenburg-square, and E. D. Chatt- 
away, Bromley — Apparatus for enabling guards and 
engine drivers of railway trains to communicate 
with one another. 

3054. A. Kyle, Binghill, Aberdeen — Apparatus for propelling 
ships or vessels and boats. 

3055. S. C. Lister, and J. Warburton, Manningham, York- 
shire — Spinning and doubling. 

3056. R. Pitt, Newark Foundry, Bath, and S. F. Cox, 
Bristol — Apparatus employed in the manufacture 
of leather. 

Bated Beeember 13, 1860. 

3057.- J. Casson, Wellington-street, Woolwich — Machine for 
dressing dried fruits. 

3058. J. G. Reynolds, 33, Wharf-road, City-road— Covering 
the surfaces of smoking pipes and other articles to 
obtain ornamental and useful effects. 

3059. R. Henson, 113a, Strand — Eye glass and spectacle 
frames. 

3060. G. F. Chantrell, Liverpool — Draught generator. 

3061. C. Neville, Great Dover-road— Washing apparatus. 

3062. T. West, Warwick — Apparatus for slicing, shredding, 
and pulping turnips and other roots. 

3063. S. Pitts, 11, Catherine-street, Strand— Billiard tables. 

3064. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Manufacture of gas. 

3065. G. O. Vandenburg, New York —Breech pieces of 
breech-loading cannon. 

3066. F. J. Evans, Gas Works, Horseferry-road, Westmin- 
ster, and G. F. Evans, Gas Works, Brentford— Manu- 
facture of illuminating gas. 

3067. J. R. Cooper, Birmingham— Breech-loading firearms. 

3068. E. Jones, Manchester — Improvements in rifling small 
arms and ordnance. 

3069. C. Reeves, Birmingham— Breech-loading firearms. 

3070. R. Muschet, Coleford, Gloucestershire— Manufactur* 
of iron and steel. 

3071. J. Chubb, St. Paul's Churchyard, and E. Hunter, 
Wolverhampton— Locks. 

3072. W. D. Allen, Laithfield-house, Norfolk-road, Sheffield 
— Bearings in which the axles of locomotive engines 
and carriages revolve. 

3073. J. A. Mello, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square — Stereo- 
scopic slides. 

Bated Beeember 14, 1860. 

3074. J. Fenton, Queen-street, Lincoln's-inn — Securing the 
wearing tyres on wheels. 

3075. J. Jackson, 21, West-grove, St. John's-hill, Battersea 
— Lamps. 

3076. J. P. Baragwanath, 22, Castle-street, Faleon-square-^- 
Hydraulie punching apparatus. 

3077. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Signalling from one part 
of a railway train to another. 

3078. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane, — Pavement for 
streets. 



48 



List of New Patents. 



TTjie Aetizan 
L Feb. 1, 1861. 



3079. W. E. Newton, 68, Chancery-lane— Cutting and round- 
ing corks aud bungs. 

3081. H. Batehelor, Newport, Monmouthshire— Construc- 
tion of models of ships, boats, or other vessels: 

Dated December 15, 1860. 

3083. N. C. Barton, ofHer Majesty's Himalaya, a Lieutenant 

in the Royal Navy — An improved scaling ladder for 
military, naval, and other purposes. 

3084. G. Davies, 1, Serle-street, Lincoln's-inn — Building 

bridges, ships, or other structures of iron or other 
metal. 

3085. G. Davies, 1, Serle-street, Lincoln's-inn — Boiling and 

corrugating plates of metal. 

3086. G. Davies, 1, Serle-street, Lineoln's-inn — Iron or other 

metal beams. 
30*7. J. G. Williams, Blaenavon — Extracting inflammable 
and other noxious gases from coal and other mines. 

3088. A. Kinder, Great George-street, Westminster — Ap- 

paratus for cutting wood. 

3089. A. Prince, 4, Trafalgar-square, Charing-eross— Steam 

engines. 

Dated December 17, 1860. 
3092. N. C. Szerelmey, 6, Park-terrace, Brixton-road — Appa- 
ratus for purifying oils and varnishes. 

3094. J. Morison, Paisley, Renfrew— Spinning or twisting. 

3095. R. Bodmer, 2, Thavies-inn, Holbom — Apparatus for 

preventing or modifying the effects of collisions on 
railways. 

3097. A. and E. M. Denny, Waterford, Ireland— Apparatus 

for singeing the carcases of dead pigs. 

3098. A. Eddington, Springfield, Chelmsford — Draining 

ploughs. 

3101. T. W. Walker, Poole— Manufacture of ornamental 

bricks. 

3102. E. L. Morel, Paris— Ships' rudders. 

Dated December 18, 1860. 

3103. F. Silas, 4, Leicester-place, Leicester-square — An aero- 

static signal apparatus, to be called " Semasphere." 

3106. T. L. Preston and T. Lloyd, Birmingham— Metallic 

bedsteads, chairs, and couches. 

3107. R. W. MacArthur, 38, Chapel-street, Belgrave-square— 

Hulling and dressing rice and other grain. 

3109. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Spears for cutting 

sheet metal and other materials. 

3110. C. L. Hancock, Pentonville — Improved fuel. 

3111. J. Paterson, Wood-street, London — An improved neck- 

tie. 

3112. J. Chesterman, Sheffield— Door and gate springs. 

Dated December 19, 1860: 

3114. W. Spence, 50, Chancery-lane — Apparatus for closing 

doors and keeping them closed. 

3115. J. W. McGauley, Pimlico — Apparatus for preventing 

collisions on railways. 

3116. R. J. Cole and M. Scarvell, Pembridge-gardens, Bays- 

water — Ornamenting or illuminating glass for 
decorative purposes. 
.5117. O. Blake, Southampton-street, Strand — Manufacture of 
plate glass. 

3118. J. Brinkley, Carrickfergus, Antrim— Furnaces for con- 

suming or preventing the emission of smoke. 

3119. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-street— Manufacture of colours 

applicable for various uses in arts and manufactures. 

3120. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Irons for ironing. 

3121. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Treatment of caout- 

chouc, and the employment of a product obtained 
thereby, for lubricating and coating bodies. 

3122. J. Gilmore, Ramsgate — Method of raising water in 

baths. 

3123. C. W. Robinson and J. Robinson, jun., Mount Kennett, 

Limerick — Singeing the hairs off pigs after being 
killed. 



3110. 
3141. 
3142. 
3143. 

3144. 

3145. 
3146. 
3147. 
3148. 

3149. 
3150. 
3152. 

3155. 
3156. 
3157. 

3158. 
3159. 

3161. 



3162. 
3163. 



3161. 



J. Rigby, Suffolk-street, Dublin, and J. Needham, 
Piccadilly — Breech-loading fire-arms and cartridges. 

T. Hunt, Crewe, Cheshire— Apparatus for supplying 
steam generators with water. 

J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Magneto- 
electric machines. 

J. Glover, Danes'-inn, Strand - Mounting and affixing 
opaque letters or numerals on a translucent ground. 

Dated December 22, 1860. 
C. Peters, Coventry — Manufacture of ribbons and 
other fabrics. 



Dated December 20, I860. 
3124. W. Mossman, 1, Cleveland-terrace, Downham-road — 
Bonnets from papered cloth. 

3126. J. West, Kingstown, near Dublin — Apparatus for 

drying grain. 

3127. J. Clarke the younger, Longford-Street, Rochdale — 

Warping. 

3129. G. Hadfield, Carlisle— Preparation of wood for conver- 

sion into casks or barrels. 

3130. F. Schwann, Gresham-street — Dressing and stiffening 

fabrics and yarns. 

3131. F. B. Baker, Sherwood-street, Nottingham— Manufac- 

ture of lace. 

3132. G. B. Rennie, Holland-street, Blackfriars — Examining 

or repairing ships and other vessels. 

3133. E. Whitehall, Nottingham — Machinery for embroider- 

ing on lace and other fabrics. 

3134. E. Southam, Manchester — Apparatus for retarding 

and stopping railway trains. 

Dated December 21, 1860. 

3135. W. Price, 4, Wood-street, Lambeth — Manufacture of 

articles called shives, tits, bungs, and corks, or other 
conical bodies. 

3137. H. Loveridge, Wolverhampton — Meat screens. 

3138. J. Chatterton, Highbury-terrace, and W. Smith, 

Pownall-road, Dalston — Manufacture of electric 
telegraph cables. 

3139. T. Moore, 33, Regent-circus, Piccadilly— Navigating 



3166. 
3167. 

3168. 
3169. 
170. 
3171. 
3172. 

3173. 

3174. 

3175. 
3176. 

3177. 
3179. 



3181. 



3183. 
3184. 



3186. 
3187. 



3189, 
3191, 



Dated December 22, 1860. 
J. Johnston, 1, Pond-street, Hampstead — Apparatus 
for withdrawing corks from bottles. 

E. Cook and J. Stokes, Birmingham — Sacking and 
joints for bedsteads. 

H. Hughes, " Falcon Works," Loughborough — Wheels 
for carts, waggons, and carriages. 

G. Sandys, Aldersgate-street — Apparatus for con- 
veying signals between railway stations and other 
distant points. 

T. B. Marshall, 41, Queen-street, Cheapside — Wind 
. musical instruments. 

W. Clark,"53, Chancery-lane — Manufacture of colouring 
matters. 

A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Watches. 

Dated December 24, 1860. 
C. H. Adames, Birmingham, and C. Whitehouse, Wol 

verhampton — Manufacture of frying-pans. 
W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — An improved 

archers' bow and bow gun-toy. 
J. A. Fanshawe, Tottenham, and J. A. Jaques, same 

place — Manufacture of fabrics with rubbing or fric- 
tion surfaces. 
J. L. Norton, 38, Belle Salvage-yard, Ludgate-hill — 

Apparatus for drying wopl and other fibres. 
J. L. Norton, 38, Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgate Hill — 

Apparatus for drying wheat, barley, and other grain 

and seeds. 

Dated December 26, 1860. 

F. Puis, 25, Francis-terrace, Hackney-wick — Obtaining 
products from coal, gas tar, gas pitch, coal tar, 
asphalte, resin, and other bituminous and resinous 
substances. 

C. Lizars, 36, Rue Lafayette, Paris — Gas meters. 

S. Desborough, Noble-street, and S. Middleton, Essex- 
street, Strand— manufacture of boots and shoes. 

J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's Inn Fields — Instruments 
for assisting the sense of hearing. 

J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Smoothing 
irons. 

Dated December 27, 1860. 

W. Darby, Birmingham — Constructing and working 
stamps for cutting and shaping metals. 

F. Sage, 11, Hatton-garden — Brackets for carrying 
trays, shelves, glass cases, &c., in windows and glass 
cases. 

W. Parry, High-street, Deptford — Manufacture of 
chimney pots and articles made from clay. 

J. T. G. Stone, Gopsall-street, Hoxton — Covering steel 
used for ladies' crinolines. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Axle boxes and 
naves of wheels. 

T. V. Guerrc5e, L'Aigle, France — Apparatus for moving 
waggons or carriages on railways. 

W. Hill, 103, Milton-street, Sheffield, and H. Barber, 
60, Thomas-street, Sheffield — Manufacture of spring 
knife scales and knife handles. 

R. andH. Pamall,Bishopsgate-street-without — Means 
for promoting warmth and comfort in railway and 
other travelling. 

W. R. Mulley, 10, Lockyer-street, Plymouth —Appa- 
ratus for steering ships or vessels. 

G. Dodman, and W. Bellhouse, Rochdale — Thoists. 
A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — bedsteads. 

Dated December 28, I860. 

G. H. Birkbeck, 34, Southampton-buildings, Chancery- 
lane — Furnaces for consuming smoke. 

C. Binks, Parliament-street, Westminster — Manu- 
facturing certain gases applicable in generating 
heat and light. 

I. Dimock, Florence, Massachusetts, United States — 
Machinery for cleaning, sorting according to size, 
and doubling silk and other threads. 

C. Pallu, Nogent-sur-Marne, near Paris — Apparatuses 
and process for producing photographic pictures 
without working in dark rooms. 

A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Breech-loading fire- 
arms. 

J. S. Russell, Great George-street, Westminster — Con- 
structing and arming ships and vessels. 

Dated December, 29, 1860. 

W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane- — An improved tissue, 
fabric, or structure. 

E. R. Burnham, Liverpool — Machinery for stamping, 
shaping, or forming certain kinds of goods, manu- 
factured of india rubber. 

H. W. Viner, Penzance, Cornwall — Grand pianofortes, 

G. Davies, 1, Serle-street, Lincoln's Inn — Printing 
calicoes and other fabrics. 



Dated December 31, 1860. 

3194. J. Midgley, J. Sugden, and W. Clapham, all of Keighley 

— Trombones 

3195. W. Eades, Birmingham — Screw-wrench. 

3196. W. Clissold, Dudbridge — An improved construction of 

clutch for driving gear. 

Dated January 1, 1861. 

1. E. Tomlinson, Manchester — Apparatus for facilitating the 

placing of cop tubes on the spindles of spinning 
machines. 

2. G. Cook, Croydon — Watch movement. 

3. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-street— Breaks applicable to carriages 

used on railways. 

4. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-street — An improved slide valve. 

5. P. Campbell, India-terrace, West India-road, and T. A 

Kendal, Cowley-street, St. George's-in-the-East — 
Sails and apparatus used therewith. 

Dated January, 2, 1861. 

8. J. F. Belfield, Primley-hill, Paignton— Reaping and mow- 

ing machines. 

9. W. Morgan, Liverpool— Certain metals for the manufac- 

ture of coaling, swill, and similar baskets. 

10. J. Taylor and M. B. Cooper, Liverpool — Rotary engines. 

11. E. B. West, 24, Longford-terrace — Processes of making 

worts and washes in brewing and distilling. 

Dated January 3, 1861. 

!2. P. A. Moore, Penge— Improved feet for levelling clocks 
and other articles. 

13. C. Stevens, 1b, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square — Appa- 

ratus for stopping run-away horses. 

14. W. C. Fuller, 2, Bucklersbury* J. A. Jaques, Totten- 

ham, and J. A. Fanshawe, same place — Adaptation 
of india rubber and analagous gums, and com- 
pounds thereof, to valves, packing and other parts 
of steam engines. 

15. W. Heywood, Ellesmere-street Works, Manchester — 
Machinery for grinding rollers and cylinders covered 
with card teeth. 

17. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Air or gas engines. 
Dated January 4, 1861. 

21. J. Wright, 42, Bridge-street, Blackfriars — Machines for 
forming the heels of boots and shoes. 

23. W. H. Hore, Liverpool — Apparatus for measuring and 
registering the lengths of woollen, flax, cotton and 
other fabrics applicable to registering lengths. 

25 A. Fairbairn, Leeds — Forging press or hammer. 

Dated January 5, 1861. 

27. L. C. E. Vial, Paris— Manufacture of colouring matters 
and pigments from coal oil. 

29. J. Watson, Glasgow, and C. F. Halle, Manchester — 
Spinning or twisting fibrous materials. 

31. W. E. Gedge, 11, Wellington-street, Strand — Motive 
power. 

33. J. Sugden, J. Midgley, and W. Clapham, all of Keighley 
— covered rollers used in machinery for preparing 
and spinning fibrous materials. 

35. J. Conlong, Belfast, Ireland — Machines or engines em- 
ployed for carding cotton, silk, flax, wool, and other 
fibrous substances. 

37. J. I. Grylls, Murton-street, Sunderland — Anchors. 
Dated January 7, 1861. 

41. W. Taylor, Nursling, near Southampton— A portable 
horticultural and arboretical fruit, flower, and plant 
protector. 

43. W. Bagley and W. Mincher, both of Birmingham— Coat- 
ing metals and alloys of metals. 

Dated January 8, 1861. 

45. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Filters. 

47. H. Hirsch, Berlin — Insulating the conducting wires used 
for telegraphic purposes. 

49. G. Hallett, 52, Broadwall, Lambeth, and J. Stenhouse, 
17, Rodney-street, Pentonville— Manufacture of pig- 
ments for coating surfaces. 

Dated January 9, 1861. 

51. E. Lord, Todmorden, and R. Whitaker, same place- 
Machinery for preparing, spinning, and doubling 
cotton and other fibrous substances. 

57. C. S. Dawson, Thames Ditton — Rotary engines. 

59. W. E. Gedge, 11, Wellington-street, Strand— An improved 
buckle. 



INVENTIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS 
FILED. 



28. P. Courtais and F. Jammet, both of Port Vendres, 
Pyrenees Orientales— Manufacturing of paper and 
pasteboard waterman. 

69. B. B. Hawse, Vermont, United |States— Machine either 
for supporting clothes or other articles to be dried. 

93. J. Gibbs, Brentford— Constructing submerged works. 

3105. C. Stevens, 1b, Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square — An 
improved cooking stove. 

3153. W. J. Gibbons, Birmingham — Stereoscopes and their 
cases. 

3193. B. N. de Buffon, 28, Rue des Saints Peres, Paris- 
Apparatuses for clarifying and purifying water and 
other liquids. 






-Yf^jT/rf"' 



DESIGNED BY 

M R C. B. RENN I E , M. I.C. E . 



1 evel pf Water wlh al 51 Class 8 ! 




HVi-l FLO ATOM S D S ! K 

D E S I C N £ D Br 
M? C.B. RENN I E , M.I.C. E. 




48 

3079, 
3081. 

3083 

3084 

3085 
3086 
30*7 
3088 
3089 

3092 

3094 
3095 

3097 
3098 
3101 
3102 

3103 

3106 

3107 

3109 

3110 
3111 

3115 

3114 
311! 
31H 

.511 

311: 

311 

312 
312 

312 
315 

3i: 
3i: 

31 
31 
31 

3; 

3 



THE ARTIZAN. 

No. 219.— Vol. 19.— MABCH 1, 1861. 



PRACTICAL PAPERS FOR PRACTICAL MEN.— No. I. 



ON THE STRENGTH OP GIRDERS. 

The object of the present paper is to call the attention of practical engi- 
neers to some considerable errors in formulae calculated by certain mathe- 
matical authors. In the following remarks we shall not confine ourselves 
entirely to algebraical notations, but shall test the practical value of our 
results by arithmetical calculations. We will first detail the erroneous 
formula? above referred to. The case under consideration is that of a 
flanged girder, the web of which is neglected in the calculation of horizontal 
strain. 

Let d = the depth of the girder, 

d' = the depth within the flanges, J- all in inches. 

b = breadth of the flanges, 

s = the greatest strain per square inch direct 

k = the distance of the outer fibres from the neutral axis of the girder=irf. 

M = moment of resistance. 

m = moment of strain. 

W= total load. 

Then, for reasons well known, 

W 

m= ~r- s P an °f girder, for a central load, 
4 



,}, 



w 



. span of girder, for an uniformly distributed load, 



h 12 l 5 ' 

which is the expression to be simplified. 

_ The method adopted to effect this is, when the material is thin and the 
girder deep, to assume 

s = 1, or d' — d; 
a 

in the works to which we refer this substitution is immediately made 
wherefore, 



M = L . JL 
d 12 



{&-*'*}, 



= - .«. b. ^d- d'^ . id+ d'\, 
but b |<2 - d' j = area of flanges = k, 

.•.M = I.,t..tJ«i+ a' J = i . *. *. d. 

We will now show the method we adopt as being more correct than the 
above, commencing with 



d 12 



^3_ d r 3 l 



we first replace the area by k, then 

M = 6^ ' *' *' l d2 + dd ' + d,i ] ' 
then, making d = d', we obtain 

M = I . s. Jc. d, 

2 ' 

or half as much again as by the above formula. 

The first expression involves a considerable error in deficiency of the 
truth the latter a slight error in excess; and it now rem it 
ascertain the amount of error in each formula. 



We might obtain an algebraical equation for the ratio of the error to 
the strength, but think it will be more satisfactory to our readers if we 
restrict ourselves to plain figures. 

We will select a beam whose depth is 7 ft. 6 in., the flanges being 1£ in. 
thick and 2 ft. wide ; then putting these dimensions into inches, and taking 

4 tons per inch as the greatest direct strain, we have s = 4, ri! = 90, d' = 87, 

5 = 24, h = 45 ; therefore, 



M = 



£rf3 _ d 'i j = Jl . 24 £ 7 290O0 - 658503 j 



and 



M = — s. Jc. d. 
3 



the error of the latter being 



= 12,532'8 

= — . 4 . 72 . 90 

3 
= 8,640 
= 3892-8, 



a deficiency of nearly half the strength, calculated by this formula, or nearly 
one-third of the true strength. 

We will now apply the new formula to the same case, thus : — 



M 



■ s. Jc. d. 



the error in this case being 



= 1 . 4 . 72 
= 12,960 
= 427-2, 



an excess of something under one-thirtieth of the calculated value by our 
formula, or less than one-twenty -ninth of the true value of the strength of 
the girder. 

If we take that view of the case which is least favourable to our formula, 
we find that the error involved by it is about one-tenth of that involved 
by the old formula ; and taking the other view of the case, we have an 
error of only one-fifteenth the amount of that produced by the use of the 
old formula. 

We will now consider the utility of these expressions when applied to 
small girders. 

Let d = 15, d' = 13, b = 8, * = 4, then 

M=i.l jrf3_d'3} = i_.! f 3375 - 2197 1 
/( 12 ' t ) 75 12 C ■> 



M 



M 



416-71 



s. Jc. d = - . 4 . 16 . 15 = 320, 
3 



s. I: d = - . 4 . 16 . 15 = 480. 



The error in the case of the old formula is about one-fourth of the true 
value, or one-third of that by this formula ; and that involved by the new 
formula about one-eighth of the calculated, or one-seventh of the true value. 

Before taking leave of the subject we will explain the manner in which 
this new formula may be conveniently applied in practice. 

In the method we have adopted, the results obtained are the same as 
those which we arrive at by considering any small rectangular flange or 
element as a single layer of fibres, and obtaining its moment by multiplying 
its direct resistance by its distance from the neutral axis. 

Results yet more accurate may be obtained by measuring the depth of 
the beam from the centre of gravity of one flange to that of the other, 
instead of taking the extreme depth, as we have done in our examples ; and 
it is evident that if the flange be thin we shall thus obtain results very 
closely approximating to the truth, for if we take the extreme depth of 
the girder, our results are in excess of the truth, but they are m deficiency 
if we measure the depth between the flanges. Because the moment of 
resistance of the girder must be equal to the moment of strain if the forces 
be in equilibrium, or, 



M 

W? 
4 



- i. s.Jc.d 



50 



Floating Pontoon or Dock. — Conversion of Iron into Steel. 



L 



The Aetizait. 
March 1, 1861. ' 



when the load is in thef centre I, being the span of the girder. If; is in feet, 
d must be in feet also ; but if lis in inches, d must be in inches. 



Hence, if we know the span and depth of tbe girder, the weight to be sup- 
ported, and the strain per square inch on the metal, we can immediately 
by the above formula find the sectional area of the two flanges requisite 
to satisfy the necessities of the case. 

If the flanges are equal, the area of each will be 



Wl 
4. s. d. 
and if the load is uniformly distributed- 

WZ 
8. *. d. 



Jc; 



= h 



will give the area of each flange. 

_ If the dimensions are given, and we wish to ascertain the load which the 
girder will bear, we have for a centre load, 



W = 



4. .s. fc. d 
I 



and for a distributed load 



W 



8. s. 1c. d. 
I 



We will take a practical case as an example of the application of the above 
formula. Suppose that two girders are required to support a single lir.e of 
railway, the span being 80ft., and the depth of the girders 7ft. 6in. The 
load will be about P75 tons per foot run, and the greatest direct strain 
upon the metal 4 tons per square inch. Then 

W = T75 x 80 = 140, and 



Wl 



140 x 80 



h ~- 8. s. d. ~ 8x4x7-5 = 46 ' 6 square inches - 

This resnlt is the area of the top flanges ; and as there are two girders, th< 
area of each flange of each girder will be, 

= 23i 



G. B. RENNIE'S PATENT FLOATING PONTOON, OR DOCK. 
(Illustrated by Mate No. 188.) 

Our Plate represents five views of a novel description of Iron Floating 
Pontoon, or Dock, designed and patented by Mr. G. P>. Rennie, of the 
firm of Messrs. G. Rennie and Sons, who has devoted a considerable amount 
of time and attention to this subject, with a view to determine as to the 
form and arrangement of a Floating Dock best adapted to meet the 
frequent requirements for their use ; and Mr. Rennie appears to have been 
very successful in hitting upon an arrangement well calculated to ac- 
complish this. The Floating Dock we now represent is being constructed 
by Messrs. G. Rennie and Sons, for the Spanish Government. 

One of the chief features in these Floating Docks is, that fixed or 
moveable ends, gates, or caissons, for tbe purpose of enclosing the vessel, 
are dispensed with, as the water in which the vessel has floated, and which 
water would, in the case of using gates, &c, have to be pumped out, or 
otherwise discharged, will, in Mr. Rennie's Dock, leave the vessel during 
the time the dock and vessel are being raised ; the floatative power of the 
bottom, or basement, when the water is forced or drawn out by pumps, or 
otherwise discharged, being made sufficiently ample to support the weight 
of the structure, and also of the largest and heaviest vessel which can be 
placed within it. 

The method of constructing such Floating Pontoons, or Docks, is as 
follows :— An iron water-tight hollow platform is formed of rectangular 
shape, arid of suitable depth and capacity ; this hollow platform is divided, 
by means of longitudinal and transverse bulkheads, into any convenient 
number of chambers. On the upper part, and at each side ot the hollow 
platform, a hollow iron water-tight longitudinal chamber is carried from 
end to end, and having an internal capacity sufficiently great, that with 
the upper part divided from the lower, by means of a horizontal division 
or floor, sufficient floatative, balancing, and suppoxting power is obtained 
to enable the greatest degree of immersion of the whole structure to be 
effected. The lower part of each of these hollow longitudinal chambers is 
provided with valves, for the admission and exit of water, according as the 
Dock is lowered or raised. The hollow walls or longitudinal chambers as 
well as the basement or hollow platform, being divided into separate 
chambers by water-tight bulkheads, the water may be let out from or 



admitted to several of the chambers, to enable the base of the Dock to be 
in a horizontal or level position. 

The whole structure is strengthened internally by means of diagonal 
bracings, trellis work, and truss girders of iron. On the top of the hollow- 
side walls steam-power is placed for the purpose of working the pumps, or 
discharging the water from the basement portion of the Dock, and for 
performing various other works in connection therewith ; such as raising, 
lowering, hauling, or removing materials, and other similar operations. 
Sheds, or small workshops, or similar erections are also (as shown in tha 
engraving) provided. The various sluice cocks are so arranged that they 
may be readily worked from the Deck formed on the top of each of the 
hollow side walls ; and either one, or any greater number of chambers, 
may be filled or discharged at pleasure, and thus any irregularity in the 
disposition of the load, or any inequality in the stowage of the weights of 
the ship which is being docked, may be compensated for. 

On reference to our Plate, Fig. 1 is a central longitudinal sectional 
elevation of one of these floating docks, and adapted for docking a first- 
class ship (shown in position by dotted lines). Fig. 2 is the top plan, the 
series of pipes and valves in the basement portion of the structure being- 
in this case shown by dotted lines. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional 
elevation, taken through the basement portion, and the centre of one of 
the longitudinal side chambers. Fig 4 is a transverse section taken through 
the centre of the length of the dock. Fig. 5 is a half-end elevational view. 
The mode of docking a vessel in this Floating Pontoon or Dock is 
as follows :— Supposing the basement, or hollow platform, as well as the 
lower part of the side walls, to contain no water, and the valves in com- 
munnication with the water in which the structure floats be closed, the 
structure would then have an immersion depending on the amount of 
water displaced by its weight alone. 

The valves in communication with the water are now opened, and the 
dock allowed to sink to the depth necessary, and according to the class of 
vessel to be worked ; the valves are then closed, the vessel hauled into the 
dock and shored up, the engines and pumps set to work, and the water 
pumped out of the different chambers of the basement or hollow platform, 
so as to preserve its level, and raise the dock and vessel until the keel of 
the vessel is well out of the water, the structure being so arranged that 
the top, or floor, of the basement portion shall be a convenient height 
above the level of the water when floating and supporting the largest and 
heaviest vessel for which it is adapted. 

Should, however, the valves in communication with the outside water be 
kept open by accident or neglect, the dock would always in such cases be 
prevented from sinking by means of the permanent or floating air 
chambers on the upper part of the hollow walls, which are constructed so 
that their floating power is sufficient for this purpose. 

The dimensions of the dock now being constructed by Messrs. George 
Rennie & Sons, at their Ship-building Yard, Greenwich, are as follows : — 
Length over all, 320ft.; breadth, 105ft.; height outside, 48ft.; height inside, 
36ft. 6in. The pumps are to be worked with two pair of engines of 24 horse- 
power each pair. 

The time required to raise a first-class vessel is about 30 minutes. The 
floatative power of the basement or lifting chambers is about 11,000 tons. 
This dock is so constructed as to enable the docking of a vessel to 
resemble as nearly as possible the mode of doing so in graving docks ; and 
from its form, which is of great strength, it is not liable to injure or 
strain the heaviest vessel in being docked. Mr. G. B. Rennie has also a 
plan for a float or basin which may be used in connection with the above, 
by which and the works of construction on shore, vessels may with great 
facility and without risk of being strained or injured, be placed high and 
dry at any convenient level, in such position as will enable them to be 
readily examined and repaired without involving the exclusive use of the 
Pontoon or Floating Dock during the time such repairs are in progress. 
Of this invention we hope to give an illustration and description, and 
details of the mode of employing it for docking vessels, in a future number. 



CONVERSION OF CAST IRON INTO STEEL* 
By the Baron de Rostaing. 

Amongst the valuable information contained in the Lettres sur Sheffield, 
which were published in the last numbers of the Presse Scientifique des 
deux Mondes, I noticed with peculiar interest the explanations given de 
visu by M. Gustave Maurice, on Mr. Bessemer's process. 

This publication hastened my determination to break a long-continued 
silence, which it was my desire to keep still longer, before speaking of my 
own experiments, which have been the object of my pursuits for these last 
two years or more ; namely, converting cast iron into steel, a question 
which has been growing more and more important since the last commer- 
cial treaty took place between France and England. 



*A communication to the Cercle de la Presse Scientifique, Paris, on their meeting, 3rd 
December. 1860. 



The Artizak,"] 
' March i, lsei. J 



Conversion of Cast Iron into Steel. 



When I first communicated to the Cercle de la Presse Scientifique, 
October, 1858, my method of pulverizing metals by submitting them 
when in fusion to the action of centrifugal force, I then confined myself 
to the mere description of the mechanical parts, setting forth the double 
physical and chemical action which resulted from this mode of division, 
and producing samples obtained by operating on lead, in order to show 
what extreme degree of tenuity can be attained with a metal which is 
not readily pulverised. 

At that time I left to chemists, and others skilful in the art, the care of 
deducing consequences from this economical mode of division, which is 
applicable to great quantities, thus leaving them the liberty of introducing 
that into trade practices, which was hitherto kept closed to them. Save 
a short mention of the facility, procured by pulverization, for converting 
a metal into oxydes or salts, I did not then describe any important applica- 
tion of my process to metallurgy. This I merely presented in a summary 
way, thus : — " Division, by centrifugal force, of all solid bodies, which can 
be brought previously by fusion into a liquid state." 

Meeting, however, on my way, an agent of so great a power, applicable 
in sundry cases and to many bodies which I never dreamed of before, I 
still had in view, from the commencement, a special subject, to the fostering 
of which I had been early prepared by a whole year's residence at a high 
furnace foundry (in Vienne, Dauphine, France), which, at the time alluded 
to, belonged to the great company's iron works, La Loire and l'Isere 
(Prance). 

My object was exactly the same as has been pursued since by Mr. 
Bessemer ; and if, in 1858, I remained silent, it was, perhaps, because I 
foresaw the attacks which await all innovators, and I did not feel disposed 
to undergo the first onset. 

M. Gustave Maurice, in his Lettres swr Sheffield, informed us how 
trying a time this first onset was for Mr. Bessemer ; but as the latter still 
went on well, in spite of his opponents, it is now likely that less prejudice 
may be encountered in following the same track. 

Let the oldest methods of working iron be gone into, and the most im- 
proved modern processes be examined ; let the theories upon which patents 
stand ever since the existence of patent laws be explored, yet you will see 
that this short word " aie," or, more correctly, " oxygeu," will ever stand 
up before you as being the only agent. 

It is by the oxygen of the air, as supplied by blast engines, or the 
oxygen resulting from the decomposition of water when this is injected on 
■cast iron, brought to a white heat, that the whole ancient and modern 
system of metallurgy has ever been worked, or is actually working ; 
it is by opposing, at a high temperature, carburet of iron, or cast iron, to 
bodies more or less saturated with oxygen — -such as the oxides of iron, the 
chlorates, or azotates of potash, &c. ; or by injecting, as Mr. Bessemer does, 
by powerful mechanical means, films of air, not only on the surface of, but 
through a mass of melted iron, that innovators are trying now-a-days to 
eliminate carbon by an addition of oxygen. 

This idea is old — as old as iron ; and I am quite convinced that the idea 
which has many times been taken up, and thrown aside again, carried on 
energetically, will ultimately succeed. 

I will now describe by what means different from those of my prede- 
cessors I have succeeded in supplying cast iron with the amount of oxygen 
necessary to its decarburation to the degree required for its conversion 
into steel. 

My process comprises three different operations : — 
1st. Division or pulverisation of a portion of the cast iron, an operation 
producing simultaneously the combustion of a portion of the carbon, and 
a commencing oxydation of the cast iron thus divided. Such division or 
pulverisation is obtained by means of centrifugal force. 

2ndly. Completion of oxydation by the wet process, or by moistening 
the pulverised cast iron obtained in the first operation, and leaving it 
afterwards exposed for a certain time to the action of atmospheric air. 

3rdly. Melting in a crucible, or rather, a reverberatory furnace, a 
mixture of cast iron, in varying quantities, in the state it comes out from 
the blast furnace, or cupola, with that portion of the cast iron which has 
been undergoing the previous operations above described. 

In my first operation (division) it will be easily perceived that my 
method of proceeding is exactly opposite to Mr. Bessemer's. He injects 
air into the metal, whilst I project metal into the air. 

In my next operation, I use for obtaining oxydation, and also the puri- 
fication of cast iron, a treatment unknown until this day, and which I will 
describe hereafter. 

In my third operation — melting — I somewhat followed, though with 
different preparations, the process of M. Mushat, who, so far back as 1800, 
took out a patent in England for obtaining steel from cast iron shavings, 
which were re-melted and mixed together with oxydized ones. 

In the same nanner, but with new means and considerable modifications, 
I somewhat follow the processes of M. Breant, Uchatius and others, who 
always used oxydized cast iron, natural oxides and ores as decarburating 
fluents. 

I do not pretend to claim the direct transformation of cast iron into 



steel, but only wish it to be understood that my method of proceeding 
will prove more practical and economical, independently of the operator's 
skill, than any other method or process heretofore employed or described. 

When I examine Mr. Bessemer's process, I find that our starting point 
is the same ; we both take cast iron in the liquid state, as it is issuing 
from the furnace (first or second fusion) ; but the immense difference of 
penetrability of the mediums we have both to encounter, sufficiently shows, 
what advantages are likely to result from my process in avoiding the 
immense waste of power which occurs in Mr. Bessemer's. 

His process requires powerful blast engines for the purpose of raising, 
by air pressure, the layer of metal placed above the slags on the conduit 
pipe during the injecting process. Such layers must be higher and heavier 
in proportion to the mass of cast iron that is to be acted upon, and in this 
respect he must necessarily be confined to a limit which is not to be 
exceeded. 

My injection of a continuous jet of cast iron through the air — the melted 
iron dropping freely upon a disc, the diameter of which is not required to 
be more than 8in. for acting upon several thousand pounds weight in a few 
hours — will not require, if the disc be made to turn say 2000 revolutions 
a minute, more than about a man's power, provided this power be maintained 
for four or five minutes, which is the time required for casting 200 lbs. of 
metal. The rotary motion being once imparted, the disc willact as ally-wheel, 
and continue to rotate for some time after it is first set going. The disc 
throws off instantaneously to its circumference, and from thence into the 
surrounding air tangentially to its circumference, all the metal that it 
receives on its central portion ; consequently it does not support any other 
load besides its own w T eight, and that of the vertical shaft with which it 
rotates, and a moveable metallic layer less than 1 line thick, extended over 
its whole surface, so that barely one pound more force is required while 
spreading the metal than when the disc is made to turn empty. 

Hence, as I require so little power for my process as compared with Mr. 
Bessemer's method, I cannot possibly see any superiority in the latter pro- 
cess over mine as to the point to be attained, viz., the greatest amount of 
cast-iron surfaces to be brought in contact with atmospheric air during the 
operation. 

I hold that, on looking at my pulverised cast-iron, I have some difficulty 
in granting Mr. Bessemer not only any superiority, but even equality. 

Should it be argued that with his process the operation lasts from 20 
to 25 miuutes (the time named by Gustave Maurice), whilst my process at a 
high temperature can hardly be rated as to its duration, so rapidly passes 
cast iron treated by my dividing process from the liquid into the solid state, 
— I beg to reply that such rapid solidification is quite correct, but it only 
proves the energy with which the surrounding air has absorbed the caloric 
from the metal, or, in other words, that the greatest possible amount of 
contact has taken place. 

Mr. Bessemer causes the mass in fusion to be exposed to the action of 
about twenty small jets of air ; but even supposing the mass of melted iron 
has been exposed to the action of these jets for, say even 20 or 25 minutes, 
it still remains to be ascertained if each particle of the metal has been ex- 
posed to the action of the injected air (which is certainly not very 
probable), as unless this is the case, the action of the jets of air cannot 
accomplish the desired object. Whereas, by my process, from the detached 
manner in which each particle of the finely divided metallic mass is col- 
lected after having been exposed to the centrifugal force, evidently proves 
its thorough subdivision, and that every particle has been brought in con- 
tact with the surrounding air. 

Moreover, if any doubts upon this point could still exist, I beg to observe 
that in my system such division is but preliminary, whilst Mr. Bessemer's 
consists alone in the injection of air into the midst of the metal. 

In reference to this one only operation constituting Mr. Bessemer's pro- 
cess, and in order to remove a first impression which might possibly be pro- 
duced upon comparison with my three distinct operations, — it is necessary 
to refer to a subject of the highest importance in manufacturing produc- 
tion, for it touches to the quick the financial side of the question — I mean, 
the loss to which the raw material, i.e., the cast-iron, is subjected during its 
conversion into steel by Mr. Bessemer's process. 

M. Gustave Maurice did not allude to this fact in his * Letters," but I 
now gather, from the description he gives us of the operation he witnessed, 
and also by his quotations from the papers read in 1859 by Mr. Bessemer, 
before the' Institution of Civil Engineers, sufficient information to enable 
me to understand how metallurgists, both theoretical and practical, and 
by no means hostile to Mr. Bessemer's process, had arrived at the conclusion, 
after witnessing his experiments, that the great proportion of the metal 
carried off from the apparatus in the state of oxyde by the force of the 
current of air, did really and practically constitute the weak side of 
the process. I shall not here endeavour to estimate even approximately, 
the loss which I was told resulted therefrom, but if such statement is 
true, it bids fair to give to my process a considerable superiority, parti- 
cularly in a financial view. 

Now, in my process, as regards the question of loss, I cannot have any 
but such as results from fusion of a metal already refined and from the 



52 



Conversion of Cast Iron into Steel. 



["The Aetizak, 
L March 1, 1861. 



eliminating of carbon ; for in the two previous operations, not only is 
there no loss, but even an excess in weight owing to oxydatiou. In short, 
the loss by my process, which varies according to the nature of the ma- 
terial used, never reached yet 5 per cent, since I have abstained from using 
any addition of flux. 

How could the metal by my process be subjected to any loss by being 
projected into the air, since at the works now actually in construction 
this projection will take place within a circumscribed space, giving access 
to the external air only through the bottom, and communicating by means 
of large conduits on the top with another space, or upper chamber into 
which will be deposited the impalpable particles ascending with the gases 
and the rarefied air from one chamber to the other ? And it is to be 
observed tbat these particles are to actively conduce in my system to the 
final object to be attained, and that with these particles shall be mingled 
other products of the division, their oxydation being completed by the 
wet process, unless I can contrive for them a more profitable application. 
I will now proceed to describe what I have previously termed my second 
operation, although I may appear to be rather ambitious in denominating 
as a distinct operation in connection with my process the mere act of 
pouring some few bucketfuls of water on a heap of cast iron reduced into 
powder, spreading, some hours after, this same heap over the ground in 
order to facilitate its oxydation, and also causing the excessive moisture to 
be more readily vapourized. 

But, however simple in itself this manipulation may appear, the conse- 
quences are important as to the chemical action that this addition of 
water will produce, whicb action I hav6 already said is not to be ob- 
tained by any of the processes heretofore employed. I am not so bold 
as to ground my remarks upon theory alone, but will here extract from 
one of our chemical illustrations an explanation of the phenomenon pro- 
duced in the formation of rnst on iron when exposed to damp atmospheric 
air. '.' Whilst water and oxygen, when taken separately," says M. Dumas, 
' exert in a cold state no action upon certain metals, they have, on the con- 
rary, when united, a very powerful action thereon." 

After admitting that oxygen, water, and the metal constituted themselves 
into an electrical state which determined the first spot of rust, the learned 
chemist adds : "An oxide is always negative as regards the metal it contains ; 
consequently, the small portion of oxide and the remaining iron (let it be well 
understood that I am alluding to the first rusty spot) will produce a gal- 
vanic element ; and practice has demonstrated that this element is alto- 
gether more energetic than that resulting from the contact of water with 
the metal. The presence of oxides renders the metal still more positive ; 
this attracts the oxygen with more force, and oxydation is more rapidly 
effected. This new action is even so rmwerful as to decompose water, 
When a paste or mixture is made with aerated water and iron filings, there 
is an instant when the decomposition of water is effected in the cold state 
so rapidly as to yield in a very short time a considerable quantity of 
hydrogen." 

It appears to me that these remarks, coming from so eminent an 
authority, tend very materially to confirm the opinion I have just 
expressed, as to the important results arising from oxydation by the wet 
process, particularly when it is considered that I act upon large masses, 
and not, as in a chemist's laboratory, upon a few grammes, or even kilo- 
grammes, of iron filings, which, of course, renders electrical action more 
powerful. If this electric action causes a decomposition of the air or water 
in contact with pulverized iron, a separation should take place between 
the hydrogen and oxygen of the water, on the one hand, and on the other 
between the oxygen and azote of the air ; hence, may not some idea be formed 
of the combinations to be realized by the union of these gases in the 
nascent state with sulphur, phosphorus, or arsenic which may be 
contained in cast iron ? and which combinations will tend to the purifica- 
tion of the metal. 

But, apart from these conjectures, if we inhale the odour of a flask, the 
contents of which are cast iron, pulverized and moistened with distilled 
water, the acrid odour emitted therefrom will clear up this question better 
than anything I could further add. I know, by my own experience, that 
this odour varies sensibly, according to the nature of the material 
employed. The sample which I presented before the " Cercle " was ob- 
tained with cast iron of the finest quality ; whereas, in my first experi- 
ments, I had operated upon a lot of cast iron which I happened to pick up 
among the refuse of a foundry, and an odour still more acrid was evolved, 
from it by oxydation. 

After the detailed manner in which I have been examining the 
subject of the division and oxydation of metal as preliminary operations, 
it remains for me now to treat of fusion in a crucible, or in a reverbera- 
tory furnace ; as, by giving a short description of my first attempts in this 
direction,it may perhaps save others the disappointments I had to encounter. 
In my first essay of fusion, I confined myself to merely filling a crucible 
with cast iron, pulverized and oxydized without any addition of flux, the 
crucible being raised previously to a white heat. After three hours of 
continued heating in a forced air-furnace, I had the disappointment to 



have my metal taken off from the furnace not quite exactly in the 
state it was thrown in, but agglomerated, as it were, and showing not the 
least appearance of fusion. 

_ Whether such resistance to fusion was the result of too large a propor- 
tion of carbon having been taken away from the metal in the preliminary 
operation of division, or whether this result was to be attributed to the 
very extreme state of division, or if it could be attributed to the layer of 
oxide adhering to acid interposed between the metallic particles, still it 
is quite evident that the necessity for a flux must be obvious. I therefore 
had recourse to a whole series of fluxes ; all, or nearly all, giving as a 
result a complete fusion in the course of half or three-quarters of an hour j 
but I still experienced I had another difficulty to overcome. For although 
the ingots obtained would, as it were, seem to be a success — for on being 
broken they showed a compact grain, sometimes of shining appearance, 
and assumed under the action of the hammer the form of a bar — still, 
however, the steel thus obtained was crude, and rather difficult to work. 

It was, therefore, upon my ascertaining losses of 10, 12, and even 14 
per cent, in my fusions (when employing fluxes) that I was led to believe 
that fluxes attracted the greater proportion of the oxides to their own 
benefit, but to the detriment of cast iron to be decarburetted. 

Inventors are generally aware of what patience and tenaciousness 
are required for such experiments. Before being enabled to ascertain 
what was my weak side, I had to try many an experiment which it would 
be needless to mention ; one of them, however, I shall relate, on account 
of its curious results. 

The following mixture was submitted to fusion : — 

Pulverized cast iron, unoxydized, but in the same state 

as after being divided 5 oz. 

Red, impalpable oxyde 1J „ 

Borax . § „ 

Slag from a steel manufactory in the department of 
Isere (France), and containing a considerable 
amount of metal 6 „ 

Total 13 „ 

about half of which were metal, if I sum up the 5oz. of unoxydized 
powder, together with the metallic portions contained in about ljoz. of 
oxyde, and the 6oz. of slag. 

After the cooling and breaking up of the contents of the crucible, the 
result gave a description of glass, without the slightest trace of metallic 
dross or grain, all the metal having apparently disappeared. 

Seeing, then, the impossibility on the one hand of melting my pulverized 
iron by itself, and on the other hand the well-proved inconvenience of 
fluxes, I thought of mixing together, after Mushat's and Breant's pro- 
cesses, one portion of cast iron in its natural state with another portion 
divided and. oxydized, with the hopes that the fusion of the carburetted 
portion would determine the reaction, and finally the fusion of the oxydized 
portion. 

The experiment proved fully successful, and I obtained in addition 
thereto, another unexpected result which I will mention ; it has reference to 
the proportions of the mixtures. In the Letters sur Sheffield we read 
the following passage concerning the counter, by means of which Mr. 
Bessemer states he can ascertain exactly and precisely the desired degree 
of decarburation : — 

"I have underlined in Mr. Bessemer's communication a sentence 
relating to the degree of precision which is attainable by the use of 
the " counter " in the production of the quality of the steel, because 
it does not seem to me to have been proved that such degree of precision 
as announced has yet been attained. What induces me to think so 
is the suppression of the said " counter," or at least the circumstance of 
its being employed during the whole time I was present; for in the 
operation I witnessed, the degree of decarburation was ascertained not 
from the amount of injected air, but from the time elapsed (20 or 25 
minutes), and from the colour and length of the flames emitted from 
the retort." 

The remarks I have just quoted do not seem to prove that Mr. Bessemer's 
expectation has been fulfilled. W hatever it may be, I have learned from . 
a series of experiments that I have no more reason to puzzle myself abou' 
the mechanical counter any more than about the attendant's sharpness. 

A mixture by equal parts of cast iron from Bia (Pyrenees Orientales) 
one portion of which consisting in fragments of pig iron, and the other 
portion divided and oxydized, yielded a good product. 

By trying another description of iron, termed Marquise (Pas de Calais), 
I naturally at first effected the mixture by equal parts, but thought at 
first the operation had not succeeded so well when, after a longer time 
than usual, having elapsed, I remarked that I could not obtain a 
thorough fusion. My retort contained, floating upon the surface of the 
melted iron, small masses of apparently granulated particles or scoria?, 
I cast the liquid portion into a mould, expecting to find again in my retort 
the floating stuff alluded to, but instead of which I could only collect 



The Abtizas,"] 
March 1, 1861. J 



Conversion of Cast Iron into Steel. — Expansion of Steam. 



53 



some dust, which may still he utilised a second time; and it contains so 
little dross that it is wholly attracted hy the magnet' As to the 
metal cast into the mould, and which I feared was not completely decar- 
buretted, it produced a steel of quite as good quality as that resulting 
from the Ria cast iron. 

Various other fusions in which I successively made use of the same de- 
scription of iron as above, viz., Marquise and Ria, after weighing exactly 
first the pig iron and the mixed powders, the resulting product invariably 
yielded. With the Ria cast iron an absorption of 100 parts in oxydized 
powder by 100 parts in pig fragments, whilst the proportion of powder 
absorbed by Marquise cast iron was only 51 to 56. 

Some experiments with cast iron from Berry (France) led to different 
proportions, though nearly constant, notwithstanding the excess in powder 
thrown into the mixture, which excess is always found again intact when 
the metal is run off ; hence, I feel justified in concluding that, after a first 
experiment with any given description of cast iron, and provided the pro- 
portion of oxydized powder be increased, it is easy to ascertain precisely 
the proportions of the mixture. It is merely a question of weights. Since 
I have mentioned the products resulting from the use of cast iron termed 
Marquise, I shall add a few words more about a small block or anvil which 
I presented to the Cercle, as a specimen of what can be expected not only 
from this description of cast iron, but also from my process for the cheap 
manufacturing of a number of tools and implements which do not require 
very superior qualities. This block was formed, or cast, at once into a 
mould, and its lower unpolished surface still bear vestiges of its origin ; 
its upper surface alone was slightly acted upon by hammer, after a heating 
which has some similitude to that made use of for malleable cast iron. This 
annealing process I do not deem indispensable ; it may, however, be of use 
in some cases. The upper surface or table, which was tempered and polished, 
shines like a mirror. The block weighs a little more than 1| pounds, 
from which it ensues that similar blocks sold for about Id. (75 cents) would 
represent steel at, say, £2 per cwt. ; and as the raw material, though 
of a comparatively high price for cast iron, only costs about 7-s. per cwt., 
it is easy to perceive that a considerable reduction may yet be effected in 
the selling price of Id. a piece. 

(To he continued in our next.) 



EXPANSION OF STEAM. 

By Me. Louis Koch, of New York. 

(Continued from page 40.J 

It only remains to investigate, if under a different pressure the relations 
will be the same : we will, therefore, take the same cylinders and strokes, 
with a pressure of 36 lbs. 

1st. The mechanical effect of full stroke will be 
36 lbs. per square inch, or 7200 lbs. per 200 square 
inches: 6ft. stroke = 13,200 lbs. lifted one foot. 

Deducting for friction 2J lbs. per square inch 
= 500 lbs., or 3000 lbs. lifted one foot, and atmo- 
spheric pressure 14f lbs. per square inch = 
29501bs., or 17,700 lbs. lifted one foot =20,700 „ „ 

Leaving a clear effect of = 22,500 „ „ 

or 52'083 per cent. 

2nd. The mechanical effect of cutting off at 
one-half stroke will be 36 lbs. per square inch, or 
7200 lbs. per 200 square inches : 3 ft. stroke = 21,600 lbs. lifted one foot. 

26'5131bs. mean pressure per square inch, or 
5302'6 per 200 square inches : 3 ft. stroke = 15,907 - 8 „ „ 

Adding, we have 37,507-8 „ „ 

Deducting friction and atmospheric pressure... = 20,70O'O „ „ 

Leaving a clear effect of = 16,807'8 „ „ 

or 38 - 905 per cent, with one-half the amount of 
steam, and 33-615'61bs. lifted one foot, or 77'810 
per cent, with full steam. 

3rd. The mechanical effect of cutting off at 
one-third stroke will be 36 lbs. per square inch, or 
7200 lbs. per 200 square inches: 2 ft. stroke = 11,100 lbs. lifted one foot. 

23'48 lbs. mean pressure per square inch, or 
1696 lbs. per 200 square inches : 4 ft. stroke = 18,784 „ „ 

Adding, we have 33,184 „ „ 

Deducting friction and atmospheric pressure... =20,700 „ 

Leaving a clear effect of 12,484 

or 28'9 per cent, with one-third the amount of 
steam, and 37,452 lbs. lifted one foot, or 867 per 
cent, with full steam. 



4th. The mechanical effect of cutting off at 
one-quarter stroke will be 36 lbs. per square inch, 
or 7200 lbs. per 200 square inches: lift, stroke... = 10,800 lbs. lifted one foot. 

22'0178 lbs. mean pressure per square inch, or 
4403-56 lbs. per 200 square inches : 4§ ft. stroke = 19,816 „ 

Adding, we have 30 616 

Deducting friction and atmospheric pressure... = 2o',70O " 



9,916 



Leaving a clear effect of 

or 22'95 per cent, with one-quarter the amount of 
steam, and 39,661 lbs. lifted one foot, or 91-81 per 
cent, with full steam. 

The same per centage exists under the same pressure, whatever the diameter of 
the cylinder or length of the stroke may be. 

In the foregoing calculations, condensation in the cylinder has not been 
taken into consideration ; it will, of course, be greater in proportion to the 
cut-off being smaller, but the difference to me seems to be trifling, and will 
cause but little alteration in the above calculations of per centage. 

And now, having arrived at a point from which we are enabled to deduce 
certain elements, the subjoined are submitted : — 

1st. The pressure of steam in the cylinder at the end of the stroke, when 
cut off at any point during the stroke, is smaller than the proportion to the 
full pressure ; and this difference becomes greater, first, with the increase 
of pressure, and secondly, with the decrease of cutting oft'. 

2nd. The per centage of mechanical effect between that of full stroke 
and that of cutting off at any point of the stroke, remains the same, the 
cylinder being large or small, the stroke long or short, as long as the 
pressure is the same. 

3rd. The greater the pressure the greater the per centage of mechanical 
effect in high pressure engines, under all circumstances. (The relations 
seem to be different in low pressure engines, which I propose to discuss at 
a future time.) 

4th. The greater the pressure, the greater the relative per centage 
between the full stroke and the cut-off system. 

5th. There is no such thing as a greater mechanical effect in the same 
cylinder and at the same pressure, when cut-offs are used instead of full 
steam during the whole stroke ; but, on the contrary, there is a pro- 
portionate and not inconsiderable falling off of mechanical effect when the 
former is used, notwithstanding all that has been or may be said to the 
contrary, and this difference becomes greater with a lesser pressure. 

6th. The same amount of steam, under the same pressure, in the same 
cylinder, used with cut-offs instead of following full stroke, will produce a 
greater mechanical effect, but it requires a greater space of time ; it being 
in the same proportion as the relative per centage between full stroke and 
cut-offs, or vice versa. During the same space of time, when cut-offs are 
used, and using a proportionate increase of pressure representing a greater 
volume of steam, the same mechanical effect will be obtained as that in 
following full stroke with a lesser amount of steam ; or during the same 
space of time, and with the same amount of steam at a proportionate 
higher pressure, a greater mechanical effect will be obtained in using cut- 
offs as in following full stroke. 

And now, allow me to remark, that here we have a full explanation of 
what has been asserted, that the mechanical effect in changing the full 
stroke to any part of the cut-off, during the working of the engine, was 
found to be greater in the latter case than in the former. 

Suppose we have the same engine as that from which we drew our 
first deductions — i. e., 200 square inches area, 6ft stroke, and 601bs. pres- 
sure. Then we will have, as shown, a clear mechanical effect of 51,3001bs., 
or 7li per cent, of the power exerted by the steam. I have further 
shown, that when the feeding of steam is cut off at one half stroke, we 
have a clear mechanical effect of 41,7091bs., or 57 - 93 per cent., or with the 
same amount of steam used at full stroke, 83,4181bs effect, or 115-86 per 
cent. The fire or the production of heat not being changed in using the 
cut-off, it is evident that with each stroke of the engine, 4£ cubic feet of 
steam will be used less than before, the production remaining the same : 
and now let us take the steam space at 100 cubic feet, and the engine 
running only 12 revolutions per minute, and we have the startling result 
that, in less than one minute, the pressure in the boiler will be found to 
be at lOOlbs. per square inch, provided the safety valve be loaded to that 
amount; and its clear effect will be 83,3001bs. lifted one foot, or 115-69 
per cent., instead of 71i per cent, when full stroke was used. But when 
the safety valve remains loaded with 601bs. in working order, and its 
orifice is proportionate to the production of all the steam, then, gentle- 
men, there is no such thing as the engine beginning to jump, or 
attempting to "runaway;" but, on the contrary, its speed will fall off 
almost immediately, until not more than 57"93 per cent, of the former 
7li per cent, will remain. 

7th. From the above deductions, drawn from calculation, we now arrive 
at the conclusion that a much greater mechanical effect is attained in 
using cut-offs instead of following full stroke, when the same volume of 
steam is used, or the same effect is attained with a lesser volume of 



54 



Expansion of Steam. — Cartridges and Projectiles. 



("The Abtizan, 
L March 1, 1861. 



steam : the consequence is, that the production of a lesser volume of steam, 
requiring a lesser quantity of heat, the same mechanical effect, in using 
cut-offs instead of following full stroke, is attained with a lesser amount 
cf coal, all conditions heing otherwise equal. Therefore, let me add, go 
a-head, busy inventors, and give us an improved cut-off, that will answer 
our purposes well, and give satisfaction to all. 



AMERICAN GOVERNMENT EXPERIMENTS ON THE EXPANSION 
OP STEAM. 

In the U.S. Steamer Michigan, a series of experiments — for the sake of 
comparing the actual saving by expansion of steam in the cylinder with 
the calculated results — has been carried out by Government. 

The results of the experiments for the first twenty-four hours, which we 
give below, have, however, not been very satisfactory on the point of 
economy in fuel ; for it will be observed in the subjoined table, that while 
the experimental results show a constant increase in the expenditure, as 



the amount of expansion is increased, on the contrary, the calculated (or 
theoretical) results show a constant decrease. Now, this is very natural, 
as is shown on considering the particulars of the engine. First, there is 
no superheating apparatus attached to the boiler ; second, there are no 
steam-jackets round the cylinders. "When these two material points are 
left out, a high degree of expansion must always be followed by a con- 
siderable loss of power and fuel. Thus far these experiments coincide 
entirely with the experiments made here in England at different times by 
eminent engineers, as far back as we can recollect, and they still teach us 
this lesson, that it is rro use to carry out a high degree of expansion 
unless we first introduce steam jackets and moderately superheated steam 
— viz., steam superheated thus far, that it arrives in the cylinder in a perfectly 
gaseous state of the same initial pressure as it was generated in the 
boiler. 

In the following table we give the average quantities of the first twenty- 
four hours' experiments ; the last column, however, is not quite to be 
depended upon. 



Number of engines running 

Pressure of steam in boilers 

Inches of vacuum in condenser 

Pounds of vacuum in cylinder 

Height of bai-ometer ! 

Back pressure on pistons 

Mean effective pressure on pistons 

Revolutions per minute 

Speed of pistons, in feet, per minute 

Horse-power developed on the pistons 

Pounds of coal per hour 

Pounds of coal per hour per square foot of grate 

Pounds of coal per hour per horse-power 

Pounds of water evaporated per hour as per tank, per horse-power 

Per centums of steam evaporated as per tank, not accounted for by indicator 

Pounds of water evaporated from a temperature of 100° per pound of coal, as per tank 

Cost of power, full stroke being unity, as per water evaporated 

Cost of power, full stroke being unity, as per coal burned 

Cost of power, full stroke being unity, as usually calculated by engineers 

Number of times the calculated must be multiplied to obtain the experimental cost .. 



Point of Cutting off. 



Full 
Steam. 



One 
20 lbs. 
25-9 
11-5 
29-57 
3-2 lbs. 
30-2 lbs. 
13-59 
217 
201 
1100 
12-24 
5-46 
42-7 
13-33 
8-08 
1-00 
1-00 
1-00 
1-00 



Two 
Thirds. 



One 

20 lbs. 
25-9 
11-5 

3015 
3-2 lbs. 
28-4 lbs. 

14-31 
229 
200 
976 

10-84 

4-89 

37-9 

16-17 
8-02 
0-88 
0-89 
0-77 
1-15 



Four 
Tenths. 



Two 

20-7 lbs. 

25-5 

11-15 

30-09 

3-6 lbs. 

20 lbs. 

193 

309 

379 

2066 

22-9. 

5-4 
41-8 
36-5 

7-9 
0-97 
0-98 
0-55 
1-78 



One 
Third. 



One 

20 lbs. 
255 
11-5 

29-71 

3-2 lbs. 
20-5 lbs. 
11-3 
176 
111 
650 
7-22 
5-85 
43-3 

41-05 
7-77 
1-01 
1-07 
0-52 
2-05 



One 

Fourth. 



Two 

21 lbs. 

24-8 

10-74 

29-45 

3-7 lbs. 

15-8 lbs. 

15-49 

248 

240 

1430 

15-9 

5-95 

46-75 

47 

8-12 

1-09 

1-09 

0-43 

2-53 



One 
Sixth. 



20 lbs. 

26 
11-76 
29-90 
2-9 lbs. 
13-2 lbs. 
9-04 
144 
587 
404 
4-5 
6-64 
54-25 
56-88 
8-41 
1-27 
1-21 
0-37 
3-27 



One 
Twelfth. 



Two 

21 lbs. 

25-8 

11-78 



8-48 lbs. 
11-8 
188 
100 
720 
8 

7-2 
58 

8-32 
1-35 
1-31 
0-29 
4ol 



KRUTZSCH'S IMPROVEMENTS IN CARTRIDGES AND 
PROJECTILES. 

These improvements relate to a novel description of cartridge or case 
for holding the charge, whether for small arms or ordnance ; also to the 
mode of combining therewith a projectile; and to a novel mode of com- 
bining metal small shot for use in small arms, for sporting and other 
purposes. 

Instead of employing paper or metallic tubes or cases for holding a 
charge of powder, wooden cylinders are substituted, being bored up to the 
requisite extent internally, and turned at one end to suit the bullet or 
shot, and at the other end to suit the character of the chamber or breech 
of the gun from which the charge is intended to be fired, and whether 
such arm or piece be loaded at the muzzle or at the breech. 

For sporting purposes with small arms, is made a novel description of 
bullet by combining a number of small metal shots with a mixture of soap, 
and compressing the same by means of moulds into the shape required, for 
the purpose of forming a solid mass whilst they remain in the bore of the 



piece, or until after they are projected therefrom, when the soap mixture 
admits of the disintegration of the mass without injury to the form of the 
individual shots, — so that whilst a greater flight is obtained, due to the form 
and compactness, the advantage of the full charge of shot is also obtained. 
The form of the case or cartridge for containing the powder is also some- 
what modified to suit this description of bullet, and instead of forming the 
conical projection and shoulder B (Figs. 1 and 4) at the end which receives 
the bullet, the end B (Figs. 2 and 3) of such cartridges, when they are 
intended for sporting purposes are shaped into a sort of cup-form, forming 
a cavity, into which is placed the conglomerated bullet formed as described. 
Figs. 1 and 2 are sectional elevations of the improved cartridges intended 
to be used with that description of breech-loading piece known as the 
"needle-gun." The cartridge in Fig. 1 being adapted to receive the 
ordinary conical rifle bullet ; and Fig. 2 showing a cartridge formed to 
receive a conglomerated bullet to be used for sporting purposes. 

Figs. 3 and 4 are sectional elevations of the improved cartridges 
adapted for use in muzzle-loading pieces. Fig. 3 shows the cartridge of a 
slightly increased diameter, and formed to receive a spherical conical 



The Artiza 

March 1, 1861 



"•] 



Apparatus for Paying-out Submarine Cables. — Steam. 



55 



bullet, intended to be. used for sporting purposes. The cartridge proper 
in Fig. 4 is formed in the same manner as that in Fig. 1, and is adapted to 
receive the same description of bullet as is shown there. 

In Figs. 1 and 4, B is the tapered shoulder piece at the extremity of the 
cartridge, to which the bullet C is attached, the cavity in the base of the 
ball being so formed us to allow of the tapered shoulder piece fitting 
accurately therein, whilst sufficient distance is left between it and the 
bullet to allow of its being driven thereinto, and expanding it when the 
piece is discharged. In Figs. 2 and 3, B is the extremity of the cartridge, 
having the cupped recess or cavity adapted to receive the bullet C, to be 
used for sporting purposes. 



Fig. 1. 




Fig-. 3. 



Fig. i. 




E (Figs. 1 to 4) is the powder ; G (Figs. 1, 2, and 3) is a small cap piece 
of paper, leather, or thin metal inserted in the base of the cartridge, pre- 
vious to filling in the powder, applied for the purpose of uniformly dis- 
tributing the explosive force of the contained powder when the piece is 
discharged. In Figs. 1 and 2, H is the fulminating mixture placed in the 
base of the paper or other cup piece just described in such manner that, 
when the piece is discharged, the needle or pricker is caused to pierce the 
fulminating cap H, causing the ignition of the powder and consequent 
discharge of the projectile. In Fig. 4, the cup piece C is removed. 



LOEWENSTEIN'S IMPROVEMENTS IN APPARATUS FOR 
PAYING-OUT SUBMARINE CABLES. 

The object of this invention is to prevent the breaking of the cable by 
any sudden strain, and is effected by regulating the rate of paying out the 
cable according to the strain upon it caused by the various motions 
of the vessels. 



Fig. 1 exhibits an end view ; Fig. 2 a side elevation of the improved 
apparatus. 

The cable is paid out over an ordinary grooved wheel or drum (a), over 
which also in a separate groove passes a break (6), one end of which is con- 
nected to a heavy pendulum (c), mounted on bearings, and the other to 
the axletree of a break wheel (d). 

In acting with the motion of the vessel, the pendulum always retains 
its perpendicular position ; when the stern of the vessel falls, the break is 
caused to bear with greater strain upon the drum, slowing its motion, and 
thereby decreasing the rate of paying out the cable. 

When the stern rises, the motion of the pendulum causes the reverse 



action, decreasing the strain of the break upon the drum, and allowing the 
cable to be paid out more freely. 

The inventor states that the great merit of this invention consists in the 
self-acting or working of the machinery, and the consequent increase or 
decrease of the rate of paying-out the cable being entirely controlled by the 
motion of the vessel. 



STEAM. 

THE MECHANICAL THEORY OF HEAT. 

By D. K. Claee. 




An important and interesting inquiry relative to steam and its operation 
in the steam engine, is that which traces the connection between the heat 
expended and the dynamical effect, or work, produced. The method of 
separate condensation, and the application of the force of expanding steam, 
changed to an important extent the accepted relations of heat to power, and 
added remarkably to the dynamical effect of the fuel ; and though the 
steam engine has been progressively improved by the continual elaboration 
of small economies, there is yet good reason to believe that the field of 
improvement is wide, and that the labourer in that field has the prospect 
of a good return. The inquiries of scientific men on the subject of the 
relation of heat to mechanical effect, have resxdted in the establisliment of 
the principle that heat and mechanical force are identical and convertible 
and that the action of a given quantity of heat may be represented by a 
constant quantity of mechanical work performed. " Motion and force," 
says Professor Rankine, "being the only phenomena of which we 
thoroughly and exactly know the laws, and mechanics the only complete 
physical science, it has been the constant endeavour of natural philoso- 
phers, by conceiving the other phenomena of nature as modifications of 
motion and force, to reduce the other physical sciences to branches of 
mechanics. Newton expresses a wish for the extension of this kind of in- 
vestigation. The theory of radiant heat and light having been reduced to 
a branch of mechanics by means of the hypothesis of undulations, it is the 
object of the hypothesis of molecular vortices " — oscillation or vibratory 
motion — " to reduce the theory of thermometric heat, and elasticity also, 
to a branch of mechanics, by so conceiving the molecular structure of mat- 
ter that the laws of these phenomena shall be the consequences of those of 
motion and force. This hypothesis, like all others, is neither demonstrably 
true nor demonstrably false, but merely probable in proportion to the ex- 
tent of the class of facts with which its consequences agree." It must, 
however, be remarked that, whether the hypothesis of molecular motion be 
probable or improbable, the theoretical and practical results arrived at in 
regard to the mechanical action of heat remain unaffected, being deduced 
from principles which have been established by experiment and demon- 
stration. From these principles, Professor Rankine announced the specific 
heat of air before it was otherwise known, — -the accuracy of hi3 deductions 
having since been verified to within less than 1 per cent, by the experi- 
ments of Regnault. The best experiments, previous to those made by 
Regnault, in regard to the specific heat of air, were those of Delaroche 
and Berard, from which they deduced a specific heat of '266 ; but, arguing 
from the mechanical theory of heat, Professor Rankine declared that this 
value must be erroneous, and that the specific heat of air could not exceed 
•240. It has been found accordingly, by Regnault, since the statementwas 
made, as the result of a hundred experiments, that the specific heat of air 
was - 238, and that it is constant for all pressures from one to ten atmo- 
spheres, or at least differs almost inappreciably. This coincidence of theo- 
retical prediction with experimental evidence, it has been well observed, 
should have something like the same tendency in strengthening our belief 
of the theory upon which Professor Rankine's estimate was based, as the 
discovery of an unknown planet, previously indicated by Le Verrier and 
Adams, had in confirming our faith in the science of astronomy. 

The principle of the dynamical or mechanical theory of heat, as already 
stated, is that, independently of the medium through which heat may be 
developed into mechanical action, the same quantity of heat converted is 
invariably resolved into the same total quantity of mechanical action. For 
the exact expression of this relation, of course, units of measure are esta- 
blished :— in terms of the English foot, as the measure of space ; the 
pound avoirdupois, as the measure of weight, pressure, elasticity ; and the 
degree of Fahrenheit's scale, as the measure of temperature and heat. 
Work done consists of the exertion of pressure through space, and the 
English unit of work is the exertion of lib. of pressure through 1 foot, or 
the raising of lib. weight through a vertical height of 1 foot : briefly, a 
foot-pound. The unit of heat is that which raises the temperature of lib. 
of ordinary cold water by 1 degree Fahr. If 21b. of water be raised 1 
degree, or lib. be raised 2 degrees in temperature, the expenditure of heat 
is, D equally in both cases, two units of heat. Similarly, if lib. weight be 
raised through 1 foot, or 21b. weight be raised through 2 feet, the power 
expended, or work done, is equally in both cases two units of work, or two 
foot-pounds. From these definitions, then, the comparison lies between 



56 



Steam. 



("The Atrizax, 
L March 1, 1861. 



the unit of heat, on the one part, and the unit of work, or the foot-pound, 
on the other. 

M. Clapeyron, in his treatise on the moving power of heat, and M. 
Noltzman, of Manheim, in 1845, who availed himself of the labours of M. 
Clapeyron and M. Carnot in the same field, grounding their investigations 
on the received laws of Boyle, or Marriotte, and Gay Lussac, which express 
the observed relations of heat, elasticity, and volume, in steam and other 
gaseous matter, concluded that the unit of heat was capable of raising a 
weight, between the limits of 6261b. and 7821b., 1 foot high ; that is to 
say, that one unit of heat was equivalent to from 626 to 782 foot-pounds. 
By this mode of investigation, they suppose a given weight of steam, or 
gaseous matter, to be contained in a vertical cylinder formed of non-con- 
ducting material, in which is fitted an air-tight but freely-moving piston, 
which is pressed downwards by a weight equal to the elasticity of the gas. 
Now, the weight, initial temperature, pressure, and volume being known, 
a definite quantity of heat from without is supposed to be imparted to the 
vapour ; and the result is partly an elevation of the temperature of the 
vapour, and partly a dilation or increase of volume, or, in other words, an 
exertion of pressure through space — the elasticity remaining the same. 
But the result may be represented entirely by dilation, so that there shall 
not be any final alteration of temperature ; and for this purpose, it is only 
necessary to allow the vapour to dilate without any loss of its original or 
imparted heat until it re-acquires its initial temperature. In this case, the 
ultimate effect is purely dilatation, or motion against pressure ; and the 
work done is represented by the product of that pressure into the space 
moved through. 

Mr. Joule, of Manchester, in 1843-47, proceeded, by entirely different, 
independent, and, in fact, purely experimental methods, to investigate the 
relation of heat and work : — 1st, By observing the calorific effects of mag- 
neto-electricity. He caused to revolve a small compound electro-magnet, 
immersed in a glass vessel containing water, between the poles of a power- 
ful magnet : heat was proved to be excited by the machine, by the change 
of temperature in the water surrounding it, and its mechanical effect was 
measured by the motion of such weights as by their descent were sufficient 
to keep the machine in motion at any assigned velocity. 2nd, By observing 
the changes of temperature produced by the rarefaction and condensation 
of air. In this case, the mechanical force producing compression being 
known, the heat excited -was measured by observing the changes of tem- 
perature of the water in which the condensing apparatus was immersed. 
3d, By observing the heat evolved by the friction of fluids : — a brass pad- 
dle-wheel, in a copper can containing the fluid, was made to revolve by 
descending weights. Sperm oil and water yielded the same results. 
Mr. Joule considered the third method the most likely to afford 
accurate results ; and he arrived at the conclusion that one unit of heat 
was capable of raising 7721b. 1 foot in height ; or, that the mechanical 
equivalent of heat was expressible by 772 foot-pounds for 1 unit of heat, — 
known as " Joule's equivalent." 

The following are the values of Joule's equivalent for different thermo- 
metric scales, and in English and French units : — 

1 English thermal unit, or 1 degree of Fahr. in 1 pound \ »*„ . . , 

of water ) "^ u a " 

1 centigrade degree in 1 pound of water 1389'6 „ 

(or nearly 1390). 

1 French thermal unit, or 1 centigrade degree in a kilo- ") 423'55 kilogram- 
gramme of water 5 metres. 

The mechanical theory of heat rests upon a wide basis, and proofs in 
verification of the theory are constantly accumulating. When the weight 
of any liquid whatever is known, with the comparative weight of its 
vapour at different pressures, the latent heat at the different pressures is 
readily estimated from the theory ; and this method of estimation agrees 
with the best experimental results, as may afterwards be shown ; and when 
the latent heat is also known, the specific heat of the liquid can be deter- 
mined by means of the same theory : in other words, the quantity of work, 
in foot-pounds, may be determined, which would, by agitating the liquid or 
by friction, be required to raise the temperature of any given quantity of 
the liquid by, say, one degree, altogether independently of Joule's experi- 
ments. The theory enables us to discover the utmost power it is possible to 
realize from the combination of any given weight of carbon and oxygen, or 
other elementary substances, with nearly as much precision as we can 
estimate the utmost quantity of work it is possible to obtain from a known 
weight of water falling through a given height. It is not difficult to com- 
prehend, then, that the theory of the mechanical equivalent of heat proves 
of great practical utility. 

According to the mechanical theory of heat, in its general form, heat, 
mechanical force, electricity, chemical affinity, light, sound, are but differ- 
ent manifestations of motion. Dulong and Gay Lussac proved, by their 
experiments on sound, that the greater the specific heat of a gas, the more 
rapid are its atomic vibrations. Elevation of temperature does not alter 
the rapidity, but increases the length of their vibrations, and in consequence 
produces "expansion" of the body. All gases and vapours are assumed 



to consist of numerous small atoms, moving or vibrating in all directions 
with great rapidity ; but the average velocity of these vibrations can be ' 
estimated when the pressure and weight of any given volume of the gas is 
known, pressure being, as explained by Joule, the impact of those numerous 
small atoms striking in all directions, and against the sides of the vessel 
containing the gas. The greater the number of these atoms, or the greater 
their aggregate weight, in a given space, and the higher the velocity, the 
greater is the pressure. A double weight of a perfect gas, when confined 
in the same space, and vibrating with the same velocity — that is, having 
the same temperature — gives a double pressure ; but the same weight of 
gas, confined in the same space, will, when the atoms vibrate with a 
double velocity, give a quadruple pressure. An increase or decrease of 
temperature is simply an increase or decrease of molecular motion. The 
truth of this hypothesis is very well established, as already intimated, by 
the numerous experimental facts with which it is in harmony. 

When a gas is confined in a cylinder under a piston, so long as no 
motion is given to the piston, the atoms, in striking, will rebound from the 
piston after impact with the same velocity with which they approached it, 
and no motion will be lost by the atoms. But when the piston yields to 
the pressure, the atoms will not rebound from it with the same velocity 
with which they strike, but will return after each succeeding blow, with a 
velocity continually decreasing as the piston continues to recede, and the 
length of the vibrations will be diminished. The motion gained by the 
piston will, it is obvious, be precisely equivalent to the energy, heat, or 
molecular motion lost by the atoms of the gas. Vibratory motion, or heat, 
being converted into its' equivalent of onward motion, or dynamical effect, 
the conversion of heat into power, or of power into heat, is thus simply a 
transference of motion ; and it would be as reasonable to expect one 
billiard-ball to strike and give motion to another without losing any of its 
own motion, as to suppose that the piston of a steam engine can be set in 
motion without a corresponding quantity of energy being lost by some 
other body. 

In expanding air spontaneously to a double volume, delivering it, say 
into a vacuous space, it has been proved repeatedly that the air does not 
fall appreciably in temperature, no external work being performed : but, 
on the contrary, if the air, at a temperature, say of 230° Pah., be expanded 
under pressure or resistance, as against the piston of a cylinder, giving 
motion to it, raising a weight, or otherwise doing work, "by giving motion 
to some other bodv, the temperature will fall nearly 170° when the volume 
is doubled, that 'is, from 230° to about 60°; and, taking the initial 
pressure at 40 lbs., the final pressure would be 15 lbs. per square inch. 

When a pound weight of air, in expanding, at any temperature or 
pressure, raises 130 lbs. 1 foot high, it loses 1° in temperature ; in other 
words, this pound of air would lose as much molecular energy as would 
equal the energy acquired by a weight of 1 lb. falling through a height of 
130 feet. It must, however, be remarked, that but a small portion of this 
work, 130 foot-pounds, can be had as available work, as the heat which 
disappears does not depend on the amount of work or duty realised, but 
upon the total of the opposing forces, including all resistance from any 
external source whatever. When air is compressed, the atmosphere 
descends and follows the piston, assisting in the operation with its whole 
weight ; and when air is expanded, the motion of the piston is, on the 
contrary, opposed by the whole weight of the atmosphere, which is again 
elevated. Although, therefore, in expanding air, the heat which dis- 
appears is in proportion to the total opposing force, it is much in excess of 
what can be rendered available ; and, commonly, where air is compressed, 
the heat generated is much greater than that which is due to the work 
which is required to be expended, the weight of the atmosphere assisting 
in the operation. . 

Let a pound of water, at a temperature of 212° Fah., be injected into a 
vacuous space or vessel, having 2636 cubic feet of capacity— the volume 
of 1 pound of saturated steam at that temperature— and let it be evapo- 
rated into such steam, then 893'8 units of heat would be expended in the 
process. But, if a second pound of water, at 212°, be injected and 
evaporated at the same temperature, under a uniform pressure of 14-7 lbs. 
per square inch due, to the temperature, the second pound must dislodge 
the first, by repelling that pressure, involving an amount of labour equal 
to 55,800 foot-pounds (that is, 14-7 lbs. x 144 square inches x 26-36 cubic 
feet), and an additional expenditure of 72"3 units of heal (that is, 55,800 
-^772), making a total for the second pound of 965"1 units. 

Similarly, when 1408 units of heat are expended in raising the tempera- 
ture of air at constant pressure, 1000 of these units increase the velocity of 
the molecules, or produce a sensible increment of temperature ; while the 
remaining 408 parts which disappear as the air expands, are directly 
expended in repelling the external pressure. 

Again, if steam be permitted to flow from a boiler into a comparatively 
vacuous space, without giving motion to another body, the temperature of 
the steam entering this space would rise much higher than that of the steam 
in the boiler. Or, suppose two vessels, side by side, one of them vacuous, 
and the other filled with air at, say two atmospheres, a communication 



The Artizan,") 
March 1, 1861. J 



Steam : — General Relations of Gaseous Bodies. 



57 



being opened between the Teasels, the pressure would become equal in the 
two vessels ; but the temperature would fall in one vessel and rise in the 
other; and although the air is expanded in this manner to a double 
volume, there would not on the whole be any appreciable loss of heat, for 
if the separate portions of air be mixed together, the resulting average 
temperature of the whole would be very nearly the same as at first. It 
has been proved experimentally, corroborative of this argument, that the 
quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a given weight of air, 
to a given extent, was the same, irrespective of the density or volume of 
the air. Regnault and Joule found that, to raise the temperature of a 
pound weight of air, 1 cubic foot, or 10 cubic feet in volume, the same 
quantity of heat was expended. 

In rising against the force of gravity, steam becomes colder, and partially 
condenses while asoending, in the effort of overcoming the resistance of 
gravity, by the conversion of heat into water. For instance, a column of 
steam weighing, on a square inch of base, 250'3 lbs., that is, a pressure of 
250 - 3 lbs. per square inch, would, at a height of 275,000 feet, be reduced to 
a pressure of 1 lb. per square inch, and, in ascending to this height, the 
temperature would fall from 401° to 102° Pah., while, at the same time, 
nearly 25 per cent, of the whole vapour would be precipitated in the form 
of water, if not supplied with heat while ascending. 

If a body of compressed air be allowed to rush freely into the atmo- 
sphere, the temperature falls in the rapid part of the current, by the con- 
version of heat into motion, but the heat is almost all reproduced when 
the motion is quite subsided ; and from recent experiments, it appears that 
nearly similar results are obtained from the emission of steam under 
pressure. 

When water falls through a gaseous atmosphere, its motion is constantly 
retarded as it is brought into collision with the particles of that at- 
mosphere ; and by this collision it is partly heated and partly converted 
into vapour. 

If a body of water descends freely through a height of 772 feet, it 
acquires from gravity a velocity of 223 feet per second ; and if suddenly 
brought to rest when moving with this velocity, it would be violently 
agitated, and raised one degree in temperature. But suppose a water- 
wheel, 772 feet in diameter, into the buckets of which the water is quietly 
dropped, when the water descends to the foot of the fall, and is delivered 
gently into the tail-race, it is not sensibly heated. The greatest amount of 
work it is possible to obtain from water falling from one level to another 
lower level, is expressible by the weight of water multiplied by the height 
of the fall. 

The objects of these illustrative exhibitions of the nature and reciprocal 
action of heat and motive power, with their relations are, — first, to 
familiarise the reader with the doctrine of the mechanical equivalent of 
heat ; second, to show that the nature and extent of the change of tem- 
perature of a gas while expanding depends nearly altogether upon the 
circumstances under which the change of volume takes place. 

GENERAL RELATIONS OF GASEOUS BODIES. 

Gases are divided into the two classes, — permanent gases and vapours. 
The former were originally so called, under the impression that they 
existed permanently in the gaseous state, and could not possibly be re- 
duced to the liquid form ; while those which could be so reduced, and 
could be reconverted to the state of gas, were called vapours. It has, 
however, been shown by Sir Humphrey Davy and Mr. Faraday, that by 
the conjoined effects of great pressure, and of a high degree of cold, most 
of the permanent gases may be liquefied. The under-mentioned still re- 
tained the gaseous state at the annexed temperatures and pressures : — 



Hydrogen at 

Oxygen „ 

Ditto „ 

Nitrogen „ 

Nitric Oxide „ 

Carbonic Ozide „ 

Coal-gas ,, 



-166° Fahr. and 27 atmospheres. 



-166° 
-140° 
-166° 
-166° 
-166° 
-166° 



27 

58-f 

50 

50 

40 

32 



assumed to represent that of other gases ; and it may be added, the most 
exact measure of real temperature is to be found in the expansion of air, 
or any other perfect gas. By real or absolute temperature is signified the 
measure of the whole of the heat of a body ; and at the absolute zero point 
of the scale, all gases would cease to have elasticity or molecular motion. 
As the expansion of air under constant pressure is found experimentally to 
be uniform for uniform increments of temperature, it is inferred, conversely, 
that it would contract uniformly under uniform reduction of tempera- 
ture, until, on arriving at a temperature 461° below zero of Fahrenheit's 
scale, or, exactly — 461 - 2°, the air would be in a state of collapse, without 
appreciable elasticity. This point has, therefore, been adopted as that of 
absolute zero, standing at the foot of the natural scale of temperature. 
For example, let a volume of air, 673 cubic inches in bulk, at a tempera- 
ture of 212° Fahr., be confined at a constant pressure in a cylinder, under 
a piston movable without friction. If the gas be cooled 10°, the piston 
will descend through 10 cubic inches ; if cooled 100°, the piston will de- 
scend, and the air will contract through 100 cubic inches ; and so on, in 
the same ratio ; so that, by lowering the temperature 673°, the air would 
not possess appreciable volume ; and 673 — 212 = 461° below the artificial 
zero of Fahr., would, therefore, be arrived at as the point of absolute zero. 
Again, if a given weight of air at 0° Fahr. be raised in temperature to 
461° under a constant pressure, its volume will be doubled by expansion ; 
and, if heated to 461 x 2 = 922°, its volume will be trebled ; in short, 
for every increment of one degree of temperature, its volume will be en 
larged by equal increments uniformly 7 ^r part of the volume at 0°. 

The following, then, are the established relations of the properties of 
permanent gases : — 

With a constant temperature, the pressure varies simply as the density, 
or inversely as the volume. This is known as Boyle's or Marriotte's law. 
With a constant pressure, expansion is uniform under a uniform accession 
of heat or rise of temperature, at the rate of jfo part of the volume at 
0° Fahr. for each degree of heat. If, then, 461° be added to the indicated 
temperature by Fahrenheit's scale, the sum, or absolute temperature, 
varies directly as the total volume, expanding or contracting, and inversely 
as the density. This is known as the law of Gay Lussac. 

With a constant volume, or density, the increase of pressure is uni- 
formly at the rate of -^ part of the pressure at 0° Fahr. for each de- 
gree of temperature acquired. Adding 461° to the indicated temperature, 
the sum, or absolute temperature, varies directly as the total pressure. 

In brief, 1st, the pressure varies inversely as the volume when the tem- 
perature is constant ; 2nd, the volume varies as the absolute temperature 
when the pressure is constant ; 3rd, the pressure varies as the absolute 
temperature when the volume is constant. 

The foregoing enunciation of the relations of temperature, pressure, and 
density, should be qualified by the remark, that the more easily conden- 
sible gases, as they approach the liquefying point, become sensibly more 
compressible than air ; and that they do not strictly conform to the re- 
lations of pressure and volume belonging to the permanent gases. It has 
been found that, as far as 100 atmospheres, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, 
nitric oxide, and carbonic oxide, follow the same law of compression as at- 
mospheric air, these being amongst the incondensible gases ; and that 
sulphurous acid, ammoniac gas, carbonic acid, and protoxide of nitrogen — 
proved to be condensible — commence to be sensibly more compressible 
than air when they have been reduced to one-third or one-fourth of their 
original volume. Carbonic acid, for example, in place of following the 
simple ratio of the pressure and density for a constant temperature, in- 
creased in density in a greater ratio than the pressure, as indicated in the 
following table, showing, in the third column, the volume of carbonic acid 
and increasing pressures relative to that of air, which is expressed by 
unity : — - 

Table of the Compressibility of Carbonic Acid, as referred to Air. 
Temperature, 10° Cent., or 50° Fahr. 



Several of the liquefied gases are further capable of being reduced to the 
solid state. Thus, sulphurous acid becomes solidified at — 105° ; sulphu- 
retted hydrogen at — 122° ; carbonic acid at — 72° ; ammonia at — 103°. 
The difference, then, between the permanent gases and vapours is merely 
one of degree, and depends upon the temperature at which the change from 
the fluid to the gaseous state occurs. Those which exist in the fluid state 
under ordinary temperatures and pressures are called vapours ; those which 
require strong pressure and extremely low temperatures to reduce them to 
the liquid form, are called permanent gases. 

Steam, as the elastic vapour of water, is amenable to the laws of gaseous 
fluids j and according to these laws, the pressure, the density, or the volume, 
and the temperature, bear fixed relations to each other. The influence of 
temperature on the expansion of permanent gases under constant pressures 
is such, that, for equal increments of temperature, the increments of 
volume by expansion are also equal, and they are nearly the same for 
different gases. The expansion of air by increase of temperature may be 



Pressure. 


Theoretic 


Compressibility of 


Volumes, 


Carbonic Acid. 


Atmospheres. 




Air = 1-000. 


1 


1000 


1-000 


2 


500 


1-000 


4 


250 


1-000 


5 


200 


•989 


6-67 


150 


•980 


10 


100 


•965 


15-38 


C5 


•934 


20 


50 


•919 


25 


40 


•880 


33-3 


30 


•80S 


40 


25 


•713 


45 




• Liquefied. 



5S 



Steam : — General Relations of Ordinary or Saturated Steam. 



[The Artizait, 
March 1, 1S61. 



The deviations from unity in the last column express the deviations from 
the law of Boyle, as applicable to dry air at a constant temperature ; and 
they show that, under a pressure ,of 40 atmospheres, carbonic acid, near 
the condensing point, occupied rather less than three-fourths of the volume 
which would have been occupied by air under the same circumstances. 
This accelerated density, or incipient condensation characteristic of carbonic 
acid and other condensible gases, in approaching the point of liquefaction, 
foretells the approaching change. It is, nevertheless, established that all 
gases, at some distance from the point of maximum density for the pres- 
sure, do virtually follow the law of Boyle, according to which the pressure 
and the density vary directly as each other when the temperature is con- 
stant ; and, on such conditions, they rank as perfect gases. 

THE GENERAL RELATIONS OF ORDINARY OE SATURATED STEAM. 

The accelerated reduction of volume and increase of density, observable 
in the condensible gases as they approach their condensing points, hold 
likewise with steam. Steam produced in an ordinary boiler, over water, is 
generated at its maximum density and pressure for the temperature, what- 
ever this may be. In this condition of maximum density, steam is said to 
be saturated, being incapable of vaporizing or absorbing more water into 
its substance, or increasing its pressure, so long as the temperature re- 
mains the same. Nor, on the contrary, will steam be generated with less 
than the maximum constituent quantity of water, which it is capable of 
appropriating from the liquid out of which it ascends. It stands both at 
the condensing point and at the generating point ; so that a change in 
any one of the three elements of pressure, density, or temperature, is ne- 
cessarily accompanied by a change of the two others. One density, one 
pressure, and one temperature, unalterably occur in conjunction : the same 
density is invariably accompanied by the same pressure and temperature. 

If a part of the heat of saturated steam be withdrawn, the pressure will 
fall, and also the density, by the precipitation of a part of the steam in 
the liquid form. 

If, while the temperature remains constant, the volume of steam over 
water be increased, then, as long as there is liquid in excess to supply 
fresh vapour to occupy the increased space opened for its reception, the 
density will not be diminished, but will, with the pressure, remain con- 
stant — the maximum density and pressure due to the temperature being 
maintained. 

If, when all the liquid is evaporated, the fire or source of heat be re- 
moved, the pressure and density diminish when the volume is increased, 
as in permanent gases ; and, if the volume be again reduced, the pressure 
and density increase until the latter returns to the maximum due to the 
temperature — that is to say, reaches the condensing point ; and the effect 
of any further diminution of volume, or attempt to further increase the 
density at the same temperature, is simply attended by the precipitations 
of a portion of the vapour to the liquid state, — the density remaining the 
same. 

On the contrary, if, when all the liquid is evaporated, the application of 
heat be continued, the state of saturation ceases, the temperature and 
pressure are increased, whilst the density remains the same : the steam is 
said to be superheated, or surcharged with heat, and it becomes more 
perfectly gaseous. And were it, whilst in this condition, to be replaced 
in contact with water of the original temperature, it would evaporate a 
part of the water, transferring to it the surcharge of heat, and would 
resume its normal state of saturation. 

Further, let the space for steam over the water remain unaltered, then, 
if the temperature is raised by addition of heat, the density of the vapour 
is increased by fresh vaporization, and the elastic force is consequently 
increased in a much more rapid ratio than it would be in a permanent 
gas by the same change of temperature. Conversely, if the temperature 
be lowered, a part of the vapour is condensed, the density is diminished, 
and the elastic force reduced more rapidly than in a permanent gas. 

An account of the special results of M. Begnault's experiments, and of 
the investigations and deduction, of himself and others based upon them, 
is given in detail in the following sections. 

BELATION OE THE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE OE SATURATED STEAM. 

The admirable investigations of the constants relating to the economical 
employment of steam as a motive agency, conducted by M. Begnault, may 
be fairly considered as affording conclusive data of all the phenomena in- 
cluded within the range examined, until some new discovery in science of 
a fundamental character shall offer additional facilities of research. The 
direct methods of trial and observation may, in the meantime, be regarded 
as exhausted, and to have yielded the full measure of accuracy of which 
they are susceptible. It, therefore, only remained to give effect to the 
results obtained by reducing them to rules of calculation, of ready appli- 
cation, and the most simple of which the relations admit. 

One of the most important of those relations is that subsisting between 
the temperature and the pressure, or elasticity of the steam in contact 
with the fluid from which it is generated. As yet this relation has only 



been expressed approximately, and by empirical formulas. The true law 
of connection has hitherto eluded analysis ; and one is compelled to rely 
in most important calculations on rules which represent the law more or 
less distinctly, and usually over a very small portion of the curves graphi- 
cally representing the pressures. There are many such rules, and some of 
them represent very exactly the data on which they are founded j but as 
these data are much less complete than those obtained from the elegant 
and extended researches of Begnault, it becomes necessary, even supposing 
the forms the most convenient, to lay aside the constants they contain, 
and to derive them anew from the more recent data. 

There are two qualities required in a formula of this kind,— accuracy 
and simplicity. The first is obtainable by such a form of equation as that 
suggested by Laplace, which expresses the expansive force by a series 
arranged according to the ascending powers of the temperature. This 
suggestion was afterwards modified by Biot, whose form has been adopted, 
hi the main, by Begnault, as the basis of his principal and most ap- 
proved and exact formulas. The general form given by Begnault is the 
following : — 

LogF = o A + b B e + cC e + 

in which 6 is a function of the thermometrical temperature j the other 
literal quantities are constants, to be determined from the series of experi- 
ments which the formula is intended to represent. 

Egen's formula is also susceptible of accuracy. It is, in some measure, 
the inverse of that of Biot, and expresses the temperature by a series 
arranged according to the ascending powers of the logarithms of the 
elasticity. 

Formulas according to these models may include any number of points 
of the curve of pressures, and may therefore be made to express any re- 
quired degree of exactness. But such formulas become exceedingly un- 
wieldy and inconvenient for the ordinary purposes of calculation, and they, 
moreover, do not admit of direct inversion. The formula of Dr. Thomas 
Young, on which those of Creighton, Southern, Tredgold, Mellet, Coriolis, 
the Commission of the French Academy, the Committee of the Franklin 
Institute, and others are founded, is comparatively simple in form ; but it 
does not admit of very great exactness over any considerable extent of the 
curve. The expression in its most general form is 

F = {a + bt) m 

This equation passes the curve through three given points, and when these 

are taken at no great distance apart, it may be employed to interpolate ; 

but it cannot with safety be extended to any considerable distance beyond 

the assumed limits. 

Another class of formulas is founded on that proposed by Professor Boche 

in 1828, from theoretical considerations. It expresses the elasticity by a 

constant number multiplied by a second constant raised to a power of which 

the exponent is a fraction, having the temperature in the nominator, and 

some function of the temperature hi the denominator, thus — 

t 

7 + t 
F = <r A 

This form has been virtually adopted by August and Strehlke, Von Wrede, 
Magnus, Holtzmann, and Shortrede. It is greatly superior, as a formula 
of interpolation, to that of Dr. Young in extent and accuracy, and to that 
of Biot in point of simplicity. It approaches more nearly to the double 
condition of accuracy and simplicity than any other expression which has 
yet been proposed ; and, in fact, as a practical formula applicable to calcu ■ 
lations relative to the steam engine, leaves little to be regretted that it is 
not absolute. The most simple and convenient form to which this expres- 
sion is reducible is, for the elastic force, 



LogF = A- 



B 

t + C 



and the inverse formula for finding the temperature, when the pressure is 
given, is, accordingly, 

t B_ _ c 

* ~ A - log F 
The late Mr. W. M. Buchanan, of Glasgow, adopted this general equation 
as the basis of his formula, of which he published an account in 1850 in the 
Practical Mechanic 's Journal, and he tested it by a number of very careful 
determinations of the constants, from the graphic curve of pressures con- 
structed by Begnault to represent the mean results of his experiments. He 
was led to conclude that no three points of that curve, which can be taken 
as data for the values of the constants, render the expression satisfactory 
throughout the entire range, experimentally represented. That range, 
however, extends over a space of 262° of the Centigrade scale, equal to 
471'6° of Fahrenheit's thermometer — namely, from 25 - 6° below 0° Fahren- 
heit, at which the pressure is less than 0'0061b. on the square inch of surface, 
to 446° Fahrenheit, at which the pressure is over 4001bs. on the square 



The Aktizan,! 
March 1, 1861. J 



Steam. » — Constituent Heat of Saturated Steam. 



59 



inch. Both extremes of this range are at present much beyond the limits 
at which a practical formula is required for calculations relating to the 
steam engine. The lower limit, especially, is obviously of no moment for 
such an object, however important it may be for other scientific purposes. 
Bearing in mind these considerations, Mr. Buchanan adopted a temperature 
of 120° Fahrenheit as the lower limit of temperature at which it is prac- 
tically necessary to consider the elasticity of steam as a motive-power, and 
he determined the constants from that limit to the higher extremity of the 
given curve for the results obtained, both by the air and the mercurial 
thermometer. The values of these constants are arranged in the following 
statement : — 

When the elasticity of the steam is") CK = 5-0324128 for the air ther- 

expressed in atmospheres of 29'9212 f ., } mometer. 

inches of mercury = 14-68728 lb. on C luen 1 = 4-8988483 for the mercurial 

the square inch of surface J V. ditto. 

When the elasticity is expressed") rA = 5-0312707 for the air ther- 

in atmospheres of 30 inches of f ,, \ mometer. 

mercury = 14-726 lb. on the square ( tnen 1 = 4-8977061 for the mercurial 

inch J C. ditto. 

When the elasticity is expressed") r A = 6-5083919 for the air ther- 

in inches of mercury of specific gra- I .■> 1 mometer. 

N vity 13-59596, which corresponds to f 1 = 6'3748274 for the mercurial 

N the density at 32° Fahr J (_ ditto. 

f A = 6-1993544 for the air ther- 

When the elasticity is expressed in ") ,-. \ mometer. 

lbs. on the square inch ) 1 = ' 6-0657899 for [the mercurial 

L ditto. 

For the air thermometer B = 2938-16. 

„ mercurial thermometer B = 2795 - 97. 

„ air thermometer C = 371'85. 

„ mercurial thermometer C = 358'74. 

The formulas for p lb. pressure on the square inch by the two modes of 
measuring the temperature are, therefore — 

For the Air Thermometer. 

2938-16 
Lo gi > = 6-1993544 - fT 37 r gj; 

_ 2938-16 _ _ „ 71 . 85 

r ~ 6-1993544 - logjj 

For the Mercurial Thermometer. 

Log p = 6-0657899 - 2795 " 97 ; 
° r t r + 358-74 

t ™™ - 358-74. 

1 ~~ 6-0657899 - log p 

Mr. Buchanan observes, that "the indications by the air thermometer 
are greatly more to be relied upon than those of the mercurial. The air 
thermometer is not only more sensitive, but likewise admits of the employ- 
ment of a relatively larger volume of the expanding fluid, compared with 
the volume of the glass envelope in which it is enclosed. The errors arising 
from the different expansibilities of different qualities of glass are, in con- 
sequence, much reduced relatively in amount ; and, besides, the expansion 
of the fluid is very nearly uniform for equal increments of temperature. It 
is, however, the mercurial thermometer which is ordinarily employed in 
the measurement of temperatures, and accordingly it is of importance that 
the indications of the ordinary instrument should be represented by an 
appropriate formula. This formula, it is true, cannot possess more than an 
average approximation to the measurement by any particular instruments j 
for all thermometers made from different qualities of glass, and even when 
the usual fixed points are exactly and accurately determined, differ from 
one another at the higher temperatures. This is fully illustrated by the 
comparisons given by M. Regnault in his memoir on the measurement of 
temperature, which has been justly characterized as one of the most elegant 
and successful examples we possess of the combination of experimental 
adaptation with inductive application of the results obtained. Let us take 
a single line of one of the many tables furnished; it compares four of the 
mercurial thermometers used with each other, and with the temperature 
indicated by the standard air thermometer. Take the temperature of 250° 
C. by the standard : in the medium having that temperature, the mercurial 
thermometer of 

Choisy-le-Roi crystal, indicated 253'00 C. 

Ordinary glass 250'05 

Green glass 251 - 85 

Swedish glass 251'44 

At 100° higher, namely, 350° C, by the air thermometer, the first of 
these four thermometers gave 360-5°; and the second 354° as the tempera- 
ture of the same medium. In this, it is to be remarked, that the deviations 
of the ordinary glass thermometer are the least ; and this is true through- 



out the whole extent of the table — a circumstance which ought to attract 
the attention especially of the makers of these instruments. The wide 
differences thus shown to exist among thermometrical instruments of the 
very best description, render it little surprising that there should have 
existed very considerable discrepancies among the results obtained by 
different experimenters, in investigations involving the measurement of 
temperature. Both Regnault and Magnus have fortunately avoided this 
source of uncertainty in their researches relative to the elasticity of gaseous 
fluids, and accordingly their results agree with remarkable nearness." 

The formulas employed by Regnault to connect the temperature with 
the pressure of steam in a state of saturation, chiefly constructed on the 
model of Biot's equation, though greatly more laborious, do not appear to 
be much, if in any degree, more exact than those constructed on Professor 
Roche's model. The wide range over which Buchanan's rules extend, based 
on Roche's model, and the great accuracy which they exhibit within the 
limits for which they are determined, seem to indicate that they contain at 
least the first terms of the absolute law. This supposition is further coun- 
tenanced by the circumstance referred to by Mr. Buchanan, that the same 
form expresses, better than any other the tension of the vapours of some 
other liquids, as ether and alcohol ; and he suggests that the formula ought 
to contain higher powers of the temperature than the first ; that it ought 
to take some such form as the following : — 



F = • 



os A a + j8 t + y i 2 + 

M. Bary applied the formula in this form, continued to the third power of 
t, to vapours. 

Professor Rankine, of Glasgow, in 1849 published a formula for vapours 
in general, as follows : — 



Logi> = a— Y" 



in which log p represents the logarithm of the pressure of vapour at satura- 
tion ; t, the absolute temperature ; a, b, c, three constants, to be determined 
from three experimental data for each fluid. When the pressure is ex- 
pressed in inches of mercury and the temperature in degrees of Fahrenheit, 
the values of these constants for steam are as follows :— 

a = 6-426421; log & = 3-4403816; log c = 5-5932626. 
The inverse formula, for calculating the temperature from the pressure. 



V 



a — log j? b 2 b 
~c + 4c 2 2c' 



in which — = 0-0035163, jr4 = 0-000012364. 
2 c '4 c- 

The operations of this formula are considerable, but in point of accuracy 
it is generally very satisfactory. Extending from — 22° to 446° of Fahren- 
heit's scale, it is the most exact of all the formula? hitherto proposed for the 
same width of range. It is, however, much more tedious, especially in the 
inverse form, and is at least not more exact than Mr. Buchanan's formula 
between the same limits. 

CONSTITUENT HEAT OF SATUBATED STEAM. 

The relation of the sensible temperature measured by the thermometer 
and the pressure of saturated steam having been approximately determined 
and formulated, the next stage of the inquiry is the relation which the 
sensible temperature bears to the total heat of saturated steam. The total 
heat of steam comprises the latent heat, in addition to the sensible heat or 
temperature ; that which is not directly measurable by the thermometer, 
and therefore called latent, together with that which is directly sensible 
to and measurable by it. The total heat of steam would appear at first 
sight to be in some way related to, if not identical with, total or absolute 
temperature. The.latter is, however, a speculative quantity, employed in 
the consideration of gaseous bodies, for the convenient expression of their 
known properties. The total heat of steam, according to the general 
acceptation, as defined by M. Regnault, is that quantity of heat which 
would be transferred to some other body in condensing the steam at the 
same temperature and pressure as those at which it was generated, and in 
cooling the condensed steam or water down to the freezing point. That 
is to say, conversely, if water be supplied at the freezing point of tempe- 
rature, 0° Centigrade, or 32° Fahrenheit, for evaporation into steam, the 
total quantity of heat applied to the water and consumed in generating 
steam of any pressure and temperature from it, is said to be the total heat 
of the steam of the given pressure and temperature ; and in general, what- 
ever may be the actual temperature of the water from which the steam is 
generated, the total heat of the steam is reckoned from the freezing point. 
The adoption of the freezing-point as the zero for total heat, as well as for 
that of the sensible temperature in the case of the Centigrade thermometer, 



60 



Steam : — Constituent Heat of Saturated Steam. 



TThe Aetizatt, 
L March 1, 1861. 



Is not done, of course, with any pnrpose of fixing an absolute datum or totalf 
constituent heat ; but for convenience, being situated sufficiently low in 
the scale of temperature to underlie all the ordinary calculations about 
steam. 

It was determined experimentally by Eegnault, that the latent heat of 
saturated steam at 0° C. was 606-5° C. ; so that the latent heat of 1 lb. of 
steam at 0° C. would raise the temperature of 606 - 5 lb. of cold water through 
1°. The total heat of steam of 0° C. is the same as the latent heat, namely, 
606-5° C. ; and it was found that the total heat of saturated steam increased 
uniformly between the temperatures of 0° and 230° C. by '305°, with each 
increment of 1° of temperature. The specific heat of ordinary steam is 
thus - 305°, that of water being = 1. The total heat H of saturated steam 
of any temperature t, in Centigrade degrees, isj therefore expressed by the 
equation — 

H = 606-5 + -305 r. 

From this equation it appears, that, whilst the sensible heat or tempera- 
ture rises 1°, the total heat increases only "305°, or less than a third of a 
degree. The latent heat must therefore necessarily be diminished as the 
temperature rises, other circumstances being the same, by as much as -305° 
falls short of 1°, or 1 — "305 = '695° for each degree of temperature ; and 
the decreasing latent heat would be expressed by 606-5° — -695° t. There 
is one slight disturbing element, however — the specific heat of water, which 
is not constant for all temperatures, but is slightly increased by a rise of 
temperature; and by as much as the specific heat of the water is increased, 
the latent heat of the steam is still further diminished, and the true rate 
of reduction is expressed by a higher fraction than "695 t. In fact, if the 
specific heat of water at temperatures between 0° and 30° C. be represented 
by an average of unity, it will be equal to 1-005 between 30° and 120°, and 
1-013 between 120° and 190° C, or 374° Fahr. M. Eegnault embodies this 
slight rate of increase in the formula C = 1 + -00004 t + -0000009 fr, in 
which C is the specific heat of water at any temperature t, that at 0° C, 
the freezing-point, being = 1. The introduction of this element into a 
general formula for the latent heat of steam would complicate it too much 
for general use; and for present purposes, the equation employed by 
Clausius is preferred, namely — 

L = 607 - -708 t, 

in which L • is the latent heat due to the temperature t ; and it may be 
noted that the co-efficient of t is slightly increased above that which would 
be due to a constant specific heat of water, as the deduction due to a slightly 
increasing specific heat. That the results afforded by the simpler equation 
are sufficiently near correctness, appears by the following comparative in- 
stances of its application at different temperatures by Fahrenheit's scale, 
as against the use of Eegnault's correct but more complicated process : — 





100° 


200° 


212° 


300° 


400° F. 


By Clausius ... 


...L = 1044-4 


973-6 


965-1 


902-8 


832 


Bv Regnault... 


...L = 1044.47 


974 


965-7 


902-9 


829-84 



In estimating the latent heat of steam at 100° C, or 212° Fahr., Eeg- 
nault found, that on account of the slight variation of the specific heat of 
water, 100 - 5 Centigrade units, or 180 - 9 Fahrenheit units of heat were re- 
quired to raise the unit of water from 0° to 100° C, or through 180° Fahr. ; 
and he found that the total heat of steam at 100° C. was 636-67° C. From 
this deduct 100-5°, and the difference, 636-67 - 100-5 = 536-17° C, repre- 
sents the true latent heat of steam at 100° C. But as, in the compilation 
of his tables, Regnault started with the integral number 637°, the latent 
heat of saturated steam at 100° C, or 212° Fahr., is estimated by him at 
536-5° C. = 965-7° Fahr. 

To modify the formula for the total heat of steam, in terms of Fahren- 
heit degrees, 606-5° C. x 9 + 5 = 1091-7° Fahr., is the total heat at 32° 
Fahr. ; and as t represents the indicated temperature, the total heat would 
be expressed by 1091-7 + -305 (t — 32), or, in a more general form, by 
(1123-7 - 32) + (-305 t - 9-76) = (1113-94 - 32) + -305 f. The first 
element in this expression should be reduced to 1113-4, in order to produce 
exact conformity with the observed total heat at 212° Fahr., Regnault's 
starting point; and the formula for the total heat, in terms of Fahrenheit 
degrees, becomes, 

H = (1113-4 - 32) + -305 t ; or, 
H = 1081-4 + -305 t. 

By this equation, the total heat of steam generated at 212° Fahr. is equal 
to 1113-4 - 32 + (-305 x 212) = 1146° Fahr. ; and this represents what 
would be consumption of heat in generating the steam, if the water were 
supplied at 32° Fahr. By means of the same form of equation, the total 
expenditure of heat consumed in raising steam from water supplied at 
ordinary temperatures may be calculated, by substituting for 32 in the 
formula, the initial temperature of the water supplied for evaporation, sub- 
ject to an allowance, if deemed sufficiently important, for the slight increase 
specific heat of the water of higher temperature. Thus, when the water 
supplied at 62° Fahr., the average temperature of cold water, the extra 



specific heat may be neglected, and the heat expended in generating steam 
from the water is expressed by the equation, 

Hj = (1113-4 - 62) + -305 t ; or, 
Hi = 105\L-4 + -305 f. 

If, as in condensing engines, the water be supplied at, say 100° Fahr., the 
heat expended in generating steam from jit, again neglecting the specific 
heat, is expressed as follows : — 

Ho = (1113-4 - 100) + -305 t ■ or, 
H 2 = 1013-4 + -305 t. 

Again, if the water be supplied at a boiling temperature, 212° Fahr., the 
specific heat of the water at 212°, as already noted, would be -9 unit or 
degree of heat in excess of that at 32°, and 212 + -9 = 212'9° should be 
substituted. Hence for an initial temperature of 212° Fahr., the expen- 
diture of heat in generating steam would be 

H3 = (1113-4 - 212-9) + -305 t ;~or, 

H 3 = 900-5 + -305 t. 

To "convert Clausius's formula for the latent heat of steam, namely, 
L = 607 - -70S t, into Fahrenheit's measure, 607° C. + 9 -J- 5 = 1092-6° 
Fahr., and for t° C. substitute (t - 32) Fahr., then L = 1092-6° - -708 
(t —^32) Fahr., or finally, by the Fahrenheit scale, 
L = 1115-2 - 708 t. 

It is convenient to bear in mind that the same figures which express 
in degrees the relations of the constituent heat of steam, as ratios simply, 
not as absolute quantities, express also positive values — inunitsof heat — when 
applied to lib. weight of steam, in accordance with the definition of the heat 
unit, or the thermal unit. Now, to trace the appropriation of all the heat 
which contributes to the formation of a pound of steam, in terms of thermal 
units, as well as of dynamic units or foot-pounds, take 1 lb. of water at 32° 
Fahr., to be converted into saturated steam at 212°. The first instalment 
of heat is provided to elevate the temperature to 212°, through 180°; in 
other words, to increase the molecular velocity and slightly expand the 
liquid, which appropriates 1809 units of heat, equivalent to 180-9 x 772 
= 139655 foot-pounds. Secondly, heat is absorbed in overcoming the 
molecular attraction, and separating the particles ; that is, in the forma- 
tion of steam, appropriating 892-8 units of heat = 689,242 foot-pounds. 
Thirdly, in repelling the incumbent pressure, whether of the atmosphere 
or of the neighbouring steam ; that is, to raise a load of 14-7 lb. per square 
inch, or 2116'8 lb. on a square foot, through a cubic space of 26"36 cubic 
feet, which is the volume of 1 lb. of saturated steam : equal to 55,815 foot- 
pounds, or 72-3 units of heat. Strictly, there is the initial volume of the 
original pound of water to be deducted from this total volume ; but it is 
relatively small, and need not be further considered. The second of the 
above proportions of heat is formed by subtracting the sum of the first and 
third, which are both arrived at by direct observation, from the total heat. 
The first is the sensible heat, and the second and third together constitute 
the latent heat. With respect to the third constituent proportion of heat, 
it is simply an expression of the necessary mechanical labour of disengaging 
26-36 cubic feet of steam, and forcing its way into space against a pressure 
of 2116-8 lb. per square foot ; and these quantities being multiplied toge- 
ther and divided by 772 are equivalent to 72-3 units of heat. 

The proportions of the heat expended in generating saturated steam at 
212° Fahr., and at 14 - 7 lb. pressure per square inch, from water supplied 
at 32°, may be exhibited thus : — 

Mechanical 
Equivalent 
in foot-pounds. 
The Sensible Heat : — 

1. To raise the temperature of the water 
from 32° to 212°, through 180° 180'9 or 139,655 

The Latent Heat : — 

2. In the formation of steam 892'8 „ 689,242 

3. In resisting the incumbent pressure 
14*7 lb. per square inch, or 2116'8 lb. 
per square foot 72'3 „ 55,815 



Units of 
Heat. 



Latentheat 965'1 



Total heat 1146'0 



745,057 

884,712 



Supposing, however, that 1 lb. of water, at 32° Fahr., were injected into 
a vacuous space or vessel, having 26-36 cubic feet of capacity. If heat 
were applied to evaporate this water into steam of 212°, and 14*7 lb per 
square inch pressure, so as to fill the whole space with saturated steam, 
the expenditure of heat would consist only of the sensible heat, to raise 
the temperature of the water 180-9 units, plus the latent heat for the for- 
mation of the steam, 892-8 units, = 10737 units, as in this case there would 
be no incumbent pressure to resist, and no extraneous work. But, again, 
let a second pound of water be injected into the same vessel, already full 
of steam, to be evaporated into steam of 14-7 lb. pressure per square inch, 
so that the vapour of the second pound of water must expel the first, a 



The Artizan,"] 
March 1, 1861. J 



Dimensions of American Steamers. 



61 



uniform pressure of 14 - 7 lb. per square inch being maintained within the 
vessel. The expenditure of heat in the generation of the second pound 
will be 72'3 units in excess of that required for the first pound, being the 
additional quantity required to repel the incumbent pressure ; and the 
total expenditure will be 11 16 units. The 72 - 3 units excess of heat ex- 
pended on the second pound of steam disappears, or rather it does not 
appear as heat, but is transformed into the work of expelling the first 
pouud of steam ; and, after its production, the second pound contains just 
the same quantity of heat as the first, namely, 1073 - 7 units, which may be 
proved by condensing them both into water of 32° Fahr. 

The latent heat of steam, then, is not, as is sometimes supposed, an ex- 
pression of the total work or energy in the steam ; but is the work ex- 
pended in overcoming the attraction of the particles, forcing them asunder, 
together with the work expended in repelling the external pressure under 
which the steam is generated. As the temperature rises, the ' centrifugal 
velocity, or vibratory motion of the minute particles is accelerated, 
the liquid expands, and the attraction of the particles is consequently 
diminished. Hence that part of the latent heat, or work, expended in 
effecting an entire separation of the articles, diminishes as the tempera- 
ture rises. When water is evaporated at a low temperature, it is obvious 
that the particles are held together by a greater force than if it were 
evaporated at a higher temperature, after heat has been expended in ac- 
celerating the velocity of the particles, and expanding the liquid ; and 
less work is expended in effecting their separation. At high temperatures 
the particles are already in part separated ; they have a less hold on each 
other, and consequently an entire separation is more easily completed at 
higher than at lower temperatures. On the contrary, the second, but 
inferior portion of latent heat expended in repelling the external resist- 
ance — the product of increasing pressure into diminishing volume — in- 
creases slowly as the temperature rises ; but the increase in this respect is 
less than the decrease in respect of the chief duty of the latent heat. In 
this manner it is to be explained, that though the total constituent heat of 
steam slowly increases as the temperature rises, in consequence of the com- 
parative rapidity with which the sensible heat increases, the latent heat 
slowly diminishes as the temperature is elevated. — From the Mncyclopcedia 
Britannica. 



DIMENSIONS, ETC., OF AMERICAN STEAMERS. 
The Steamer " Hankow." 

Hull built by Thomas Collyer, Engine by Morgan Iron Works, New York. 
Dimensions. — Length on deck, 212ft. ; do. at load line, 211ft. ; breadth of 
beam (molded), 30ft. 6in. ; depth of hold, lift. 4in. ; depth of hold to spar deck, 
lift. 4in. ; area of immersed section at load draft of 7ft., 190 square feet. Ton- 
nage of hull and engine room, 717 tons. 

Engine.— Vertical beam engine ; return tubular boilers ; diam. of cylinder, 
48in. ; length of stroke, 12ft. ; diam. of paddle-wheel over boards, 29ft. ; 26 paddle- 
floats— length, 7ft. 6in. ; depth, 2ft. ; 2 boilers— length, 20ft. ; breadth, lift. ; 
height of do. exclusive of steam chest, 9ft. ; 2 furnaces, breadth, 4ft. 9in. ; 
length of grate bars, 7ft. ; 64 tubes in each boiler ; 10 flues ; internal diam. of 
tubes, 5jin. ; do. flues, 8 of 12fin., two of 15^in. ; length of tubes, 14ft. ; do. 
flues, 7ft. lOin. ; diam. of smoke pipe, oft. 4in. ; height, 45ft. ; draft, fore and aft, 
7ft. ; grate surface, 102'09ft. ; heating surface, 3216 sq. ft. ; point of cutting off, 
variable. 

Description. — Frames (molded), 14in. ; sided, 7in., 27Jin. apart from centres, 
and strapped with diagonal and clinch-laid braces, 3 \ x fin. ; depth of keel, 4in. ; 
1 independent steam, fire, and bilge pump, and boiler ; 2 masts, schooner rigged ; 
paddle-wheel guards extend fore and aft; enclosed forecastle; intended service, 
coast of China. 

The U.S. Screw Steamer " Seminole." 

Hull built by U. S. Government, Engines by Morgan Iron Works, New York 

Dimensions. — Length at load line, 200ft. ; breadth of beam (molded), 28ft. ; 

depth of hold to spar deck, 14ft. ; length of engine room, coal bunkers, &c, 48ft. ; 

area of immersed section at load draft of 10ft., 264ft. Tonnage of hull and 

engine room, 755 tons. 

Engines. — Two horizontal steeple engines ; vertical tubular boilers ; 2 C3 T lin- 
ders, 50in. diam. ; length of stroke, 2ft. 6in. ; two-bladed screw ; diam. of screw, 
9ft. 6in. ; pitch, do., 18ft. ; 2 boilers— length, 22ft ; breadth, 10ft. 6in. : height, 
exclusive of steam chest, 10ft. 3in. ; 12 furnaces — breadth, 3ft. ; length 
of grate bars, oft. 6in. ; 3685 tubes ; internal diam. of do., 2in. ; length of do., 
2ft. 7iin. : diam. of smoke pipe, 6ft,; height. 42ft.; draft, fore and aft, 10ft.; 
maximum pressure of steam, 501b. ; point of cutting- off, half-stroke ; maximum 
revolutions at above pressure, 80 ; speed in knots, 9. 

Description. — One independent steam and bilge pump, and 1 donkey ; 3 
masts, bark rigged ; 2 bulkheads ; capacity of coal bunkers, 220 tons; date of 
trial, May, 1860. 

The Steamer " Zouave." 
Hull built by John Enghs,, Engines by Morgan Iron Works, New York. 
Dimensions. — Length on deck, 220ft. ; breadth of beam (molded), 30ft. 8in. ; 
depth of hold to spar deck, 12ft. 3in. ; area of immersed section at load draft of 
6ft. 6in., 175 sq. ft. Tonnage of hull and engine room, 800 tons. 

Engine. — Vertical beam engine ; return flue boiler; diam. of cylinder, 50in.; 
length of stroke, lift. ; diam. of paddle-wheel over boards, 31ft. ; 27 paddle-floats 



—length, 7ft. : depth, 2ft. ; 1 boiler— length, 27ft. ; breadth (front), 13ft.; height, 
exclusive of steam chimney, lift. 3in. ; 2 furnaces — breadth, oft. 9Jin. ; length 
of grate bars, 7ft. 6in. ; 10 flues below, 2 of 22£ft., 4, each ] 5 and 17in. ; 20 flues 
above, 10, each 8J- and 9£in. ; length, above, 20ft. 8in., below, 14ft. ; diam. of 
smoke pipe, 52in. ; draft, fore and aft, 6ft. Bin. ; point of cutting off, one-half. 

Description. — Frames (molded), llin. ; sided, 6in. ; 24in. apart from centres, 
and strapped with diagonal and double-laid braces, 4 x fin. ; 1 independent 
steam, fire, and bilge pump : 2 masts, schooner rigged; one bulkhead ; promenade 
deck, with saloon, cabin, and state rooms ; date of trial, November, 1860. 
The Steamer "New Brunswick." 
Hull built by John Englis, Engine by Morgan Iron Works,|New York. 
Dimensions. — Length on deck, 224ft. ; breadth of beam (molded), 30ft. 8in. ; 
depth of hold to spar deck, 12ft. ; area of immersed section at load draft of 6ft. 
6in., 175 sq. ft. Tonnage of hull and engine room, 815 tons. 

Engine. — Vertical beam engine ; return flued boiler ; diam. of cylinder, 48in.; 
length of stroke, lift. ; diam. of paddle-wheel over boards, 31ft. ; 27 paddle-floats 
—length, 7ft.; depth, 1ft. loin.; I boiler— length, 26ft. 2in.; breadth (front), 13ft.; 
height, exclusive of steam chest, lift. 6Jin.; 2 furnaces, length of grate bars, 7ft. 
6in. ; breadth, 5ft, 9fin. ; 6 flues above, 10 below ; internal diam. above, 1ft, 5iu. ; 
do. below, 2 of 223ft., 4 eac h 15 and 17in. ; length, above, 18ft. 6Jin. ; do. below, 
13ft. 2in. ; diam. of smoke pipe, 4ft. 4in. ; draft, fore and aft, 6ft. 6in. ; point of 
cutting off, variable. 

Description. — Frames (molded), llin. ; sided, 6in. ; 2 tin. apart from centres, 
and strapped with diagonal and double-laid braces, 4 x Jin. ; independent steam, 
fire, and bilge pumps ; 2 masts, schooner rigged ; 1 bulkhead ; promenade deck, 
with saloon, cabin, and state rooms ; date of trial, October, 1860 ; intended ser- 
vice, Portland to St. John's, N.B. 

The Steamer " Daniel Drew." 
Hull built by Thomas Collyer, Engines by Neptune Iron Works, New York. 
Dimensions. — Length on deck, 251ft. 8in.; do. at load line, 214ft, ; breadth of 
beam (molded), 3tift. 6in. ; depth of hold to spar deck, 9ft. 3in. 

Engine. — Vertical beam engine; return flue boilers ; diam. of cylinders, 60in.; 
length of stroke, 10ft. ; diam. of paddle-wheel over boards, 29ft. ; 24 paddle-floats 
— length, 9ft. ; depth, 2ft. 2in.; 2 boilers— length, 29ft. ; breadth at furnace, 9ft.; 
do. at shell, 8ft. ; height, exclusive of steam chest, 9ft. 4iu. ; 2 furnaces ; 
length of grate bars, 7ft. ; 14 flues above, 10 below ; internal diam. above, 9-jin. ; 
below, 2 of 13 2 in., 1 of 13in. ; 1 of llin., 1 of 7Jin. ; length, above, 22ft. ; diam 
of smoke pipes, 4ft. ; height, 32ft. ; draft, fore and aft, 4ft, 6in. ; heating surface, 
3350 sq.ft.; maximum pressure of steam, 351b.; point of cutting off, one-half ; 
maximum revolutions at above pressure, 26. 

Description. — Frames (molded), lofin. ; sided, 4in. ; 30in. apart from centres; 
depth of keel, 3ft. ; one independent steam, fire, and bilge pump ; date of trial, 
May, 1860 ; intended service, New York to Albany. This steamer has been built 
to attain very high speed, having a very easy and a very superior model. The 
velocity of the periphery of her water-wheel blades is 27 miles per hour. 
The Steamer "Fire Dart." 
Hull built by Thomas Collyer, Engine by Neptune Iron Works, New York. 
Dimensions.— Length on deck, 200ft. ; do. at load line, 200ft. ; breadth of 
beam (molded), 30ft. ; depth of hold, lift. ; depth of hold to spar deck, lift. 3in.; 
area of immersed section at load draft of 5ft. 6in., 143 sq. ft. Tonnage of hull 
and engine room, 650 tons. _ t , 

Engine. — Vertical beam engine ; return flue boilers ; diam. of cylinder, 463111.; 
length of stroke, 12ft. ; diam. of paddle-wheel over boards 28ft. ; 24 paddle-floats 
—length, 8ft. ; depth, 2ft. ; 2 boilers— length, 27ft. ; breadth at furnace, 9ft. 9in., 
do. at [shell, 8ft. 9in. ; height, exclusive of steam chest, ;8ft. 9in. ; 2 furnaces 
in each boiler ; breadth, 4ft. 3in. ; length of grate bars, 7ft. ; 14 flues above, 
10 below ; internal diam. of do. above, 7in. ; below, 6 of 12in., 2 of 14m., 2 ot 
16in. ; length above, 19ft. 6in. ; do. below, 14ft. ; diam. of smoke pipe, 6ft. ; 
height, 42ft. ; draft, fore and aft, 5ft. 6in. ; grate surface, 120 sq. ft. ; heating 
surface, 3259 sq. ft. ; point of cutting off, variable. 

Description.— Frames (molded), 14in. ; sided, 5in. ; 26in. apart from centres, 
and strapped with diagonal and double-laid braces, 3|in. x ^in. ; depth of keel, 
4in. ; 1 independent steam, fire, and bilge pump ; two masts, schooner rigged ; 
paddle-wheel guards do not extend forward, but are continued aft for half-width, 
and sponsoned ; enclosed forecastle ; date of trial, November, 1860 ; intended 
service, coast of China. 

The Steamer "Primeira." 
Hull built by Webb & Bell, Engine by Novelty Iron Works, New York. 
Dimensions.— Length on deck, 130ft.; do. at load line, 128ft. ; breadth of 
beam, 28ft. ; depth of hold, 10ft.; depth of hold at ends, 9ft. 6m ; area ot im- 
mersed section at load draft of 6ft., 140 sq. ft. Tonnage of hull and engine 
room, 320 tons. ,. - v ■, „„• 

Engine.— Vertical beam engine; drop flue boiler ; diam. of cylinder 32m ; 
length of stroke, 8ft. ; diam. of paddle-wheel over boards 16ft. ; 14 paddle-floats 
-length, 6ft. 7in.; depth, 2ft,; 1 boiler- length, 21tt.; breadth, 8rt 4m.; 
height, exclusive of steam chest, 8ft, 4in. ; 1 furnace-length of grate bars, 
5ft. 4m.; 5 flues above fire, 5 in centre, 4 below ;; .internal diam. ot do above, 
lft. 3|in. ; in centre, 1ft. 3in.; below, 2 of 21, 2 of lifts. ; length above, lift. 4m ; 
do. in centre, 8ft, 9in. ; do. below, 10ft. lOin. ; diam. of smoke pipe, 40im; height^ 
38ft; draft/fore and aft, 6ft,; grate surface, 34 sq.ft.; heating surface, 900 
sq. ft. ; point of cutting off, variable. 

Description. -Frames (molded), 13im; sided, ton. ; 24m. apart fiom 

centres; depth of keel, 6in.; date of trial, October, 1860 ; intended I service , at 

Rio Janeiro. The first of three ferry-boats tolply m the harbour of Rio Janeiro. 

The Steamer " John P. King." 

Hull built by J. A. Westervelt & Sons Engine by Allaire Works, New York. 



62 



Institution of Civil Engineers. — Association of Foremen Engineers. 



("The Astizan, 

L March 1, 1861. 



Dimensions.— Length on deck, 235ft. ; do. at load line, 233ft. ; breadth of 
heam (molded), 36ft. 4in. ; depth of hold, 13ft. 3in. ; depth of hold to spar deck, 
20ft. 9in. ; area of immersed section at load draft of 12ft., 371 sq. ft. Tonnage 
of hull and engine room, 1740 tons. 

Engine. — Vertical beam engine; return flue boilers ; diam. of cylinder, 7lin.; 
length of stroke, 12ft. ; diameter of paddle-wheel over boards, 28ft.; 24 paddle- 
floats — length, 10ft. ; depth, 1ft. 9in. ; two boilers— length, 26ft. ; breadth, 
12ft. 2in.; height, exclusive of steam chest, 12ft. Sin. ; 5 furnaces in each 
boiler ; breadth, 3ft. ; length of grate bars, 7ft. 3in. ; 18 flues above, 15 below ; 
internal diam. of do. above, 8 of 13in., 8 of llin., 2 of lOin. ; do. below, 1ft. 3in. ; 
length of do. above, 19ft. 4in. ; do. below, 12ft. 7in. ; diam. of smoke pipe, 7ft. ; 
height, 60ft. ; draft, fore and aft, 12ft. ; grate surface, 225 sq. ft. ; heating sur- 
face, 5422 sq. ft.; maximum pressure ot steam, 301b.; point of cutting off, 
variable. 

Description. — Frames (molded), 15in. ; sided, 14in. ; 30in. apart from centres; 
depth of keel, llin. ; 2 masts, schooner rigged ; launching draft, 7ft. 8|iii. ; 
date of trial, October, 1860 ; intended service, New York to Charleston, S.C. 
The Screw Steam Tow-boats "Resolute" and "Rel-iance." 
Hulls built by B. C. Terry, New Jersey ; Engines by Cobb & Fields, Jersey City. 
Dimensions. — Length on deck, 93ft. ; do. at load line, 93ft. ; breadth of beam, 
16ft. ; depth of hold to spar deck, 7ft. 6in. ; area of immersed section at load 
draft of 8ft., 65 sq.ft. Tonnage, 100 tons. 

Engines. — Vertical direct engines, with return tubular boiler ; diam. of cy- 
linders, 17in.; length of stroke, I7in. ; 4 blades of screw — diam., 7ft. Sin. ; length, 
5ft. 6in. ; pitch, 14ft. ; 1 boiler — length, 15ft. ; breadth, 6ft. 8in. ; height, exclu- 
sive of steam chest, 8ft.; 2 furnaces — breadth, 3ft. 4in.; length of grate bars, 
6ft. Sin. ; 58 tubes, 6 flues ; internal diam. of tubes, 4in. ; do. flues, 2 of lOin., 
4 of 6in. ; length of tubes, 10ft. 4in. ; do. flues, 6ft. lOin. ; diam. of smoke pipe, 
3ft. 2in. ; height, 12ft. ; draft, forward, oft. ; aft, 8ft. ; grate surface, 48 sq. ft. ; 
heating surface, 2500 sq. ft. ; consumption of fuel per hour, fton ; maximum 
pressure of steam, 1001b. : average do. 751b. ; point of cutting off, half-stroke ; 
average revolutions at above pressure, 95 ; speed in miles with tide in 61 minutes, 
17'5 ; do. against, in 61 minutes, 12'5 ; weight of engines, 20,160lb. ; do. boilers, 
without water, 18,0001b. ; do. with water, 29,1801b. 

Description. — Frames (molded), 8in.; sided, Sin. ; 12in. apart from centres ; 
depth of keel, 12in. ; date of trial, September, 1860 ; intended service, New York 
Harbour. 

The Steam Ferry-boat "John P. Jackson." 

Hull built by O. Burtis, Engine by Win. Birkbeck, Jersey City, N.J. 

Dimensions. — Length on deck, 210ft. ; do. at load line, 210ft. ; breadth of 

beam (molded), 33ft. ; depth of hold, 13ft. ; depth of hold to spar deck, 13ft. ; 

area of immersed section at load draft of 5ft. 6in., 140 sq. ft. Tonnage of hull 

and engine room, 858 tons. 

Engine. — Vertical beam engine : drop flue, round shell boiler ; diam. of cy- 
linder, 45in. ; length of stroke, lift. ; diam. of paddle-wbeel over boards, 21ft. ; 
18 paddle-floats— length, 9ft.; depth, 2 of 12in. ; 1 boiler— length, 30ft.; breadth, 
10ft. ; height, exclusive of steam chest, 10ft. ; 2 furnaces — length of grate 
bars, 6ft. ; 6 flues above, 6 in centre, 4 below ; internal diam. of do. above, lo^in. ; 
in centre, 15in. ; below, 1 of 23in., 1 of 14in. ; length, above, 18ft. ; in centre, 
15ft. lOin. ; below, 17ft. 10m. ; diam. of smoke pipe, 4ft. 6in. ; height, 48ft. ; 
draft, fore and aft, 5ft. 6in. 

Description. — -Frames (molded), 14in. ; sided, 6in. ; 12in. apart from centres; 
depth of keel, llin. ; date of trial, October, 1860 ; intended service, New York to 
New Jersey. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 
January 22, 1861.— George P. Bidder, Esq., President, in the Chair. 



ON THE RISE AND FALL OF THE RIVER WANDLE : ITS SPRINGS, 
TRIBUTARIES, AND POLLUTION. 

By Mr. Frederick Braithwaite, M. Inst. C.E. 

This history was compiled from a survey of the River Wandle, made early in 
the spring of the year 1853, from its rise at Carshalton, and at Croydon, 111 feet 
2 inches and 123 feet 10 inches respectively above Trinity high water-mark (T. H. 
W. M.), to its outfall in the Thames at Wandsworth. In the course of the survey, 
special notes were taken of the several springs, tributaries, and sewerage from 
drains, which swelled the amount of the water. The levels of the successive 
falls of the river from its spring-heads, through the numerous mills, were care- 
fully taken ; also, a complete set of gaugings of the water from the numerous 
springs and tributaries. 

The branch of the river rising at Carshalton was said to be supplied from three 
principal springs, the Grotto Springs, the Hogs' Pit Pond, and the Ordnance 
Pond, which together yielded, when the gaugings were first taken, 13,246,020 
gallons, and on a subsequent occasion 12,670,610 gallons daily, or every twenty- 
four hours. The head of water at the lake in the grounds attached to the 
Ordnance School, varied 4 or 5 inches, according to the rainfall. When the lake 
was emptied, it was refilled from the springs in thirty hours. This branch was 
also supplied from the Town Ponds and other springs. Five mills were situated 
on it, driven by wheels, having a united power of 71 H.P. The general cha- 
racter of the water was brilliant and pure, with the exception of that from the 
paper mills, and where the road drainage was discharged into the river, after 
heavy rains. The water contained about 16° of hardness, and a small quantity 
of sulphate of lime. 

The Croydon branch derived its principal flow of water from a stream called 
the Bourne Brook, which rose in Marden Park, about 8 miles south of Croydon. 



The supply from this source was, however, very precarious, as it did not flow 
more than once every five or seven years, when the rainfall was excessive, and 
then only lasted for a limited period ; though it was in evidence, that the Bourne 
did run for two entire years in 1841 and 1842, a period of great rain. Two other 
streams united with the Bourne about 2 miles south of Croydon, which, with 
springs rising in the Garden Pond and elsewhere at Croydon, brought up the 
total quantity to, from 16,158,780 to 17,625,600 gallons daily. Other springs, 
issuing principally in the Lands Ponds, contributed, about 1,458,000 gallons every 
twenty- four hours ; so that, when all the streams had united to form the eastern 
branch of the AYandle, 123 feet 10 inches above T.H.W.M., the river flowed at 
more than the rate of 19,000,000 gallons every twenty-four hours The springs 
at Wadden Mill, and from land drainage, produced about 1,200,000 gallons, and 
the river was constantly increased from similar sources, so that, when united with 
the Carshalton branch, at the Oil and Felt Mills, above Hack Bridge, the gaug- 
ings, which represented the entire flow of the Wandle in one stream, when first 
taken showed 63,488,520 gallons, and, on the subsequent occasion, 52,750,980 
gallons, every twenty-four hours. The mills on this branch were four in number, 
but three only were in occupation at the time the survey was made, using water 
power equal to 25, 25, and 12 H.P. respectively. Above Hack Bridge the soil con- 
sisted of a mixture of chalk and gravel ; but below the bridge it was wholly gravel 
or sand, though there was clay close underneath. 

The Paper then proceeded to notice the different mills situated on the main 
stream, giving a statement of their power, height above T.H.W.M., in many cases 
the quantity of water used at each, and other details. The operations carried on at 
some of these works, such as rinsing silk goods, washing skins, &c, and the 
chemicals employed, which when used were discharged into the river, tended ma- 
terially to contaminate the stream. Indeed, it was generally remarked, that the 
water below all the print works was much coloured when any print- washing was 
going on. The colour did not appear to settle, it only became largely diffused. The 
water used for cleaning the blocks was also sent into the river. In clear weather, 
the contrast between the water at the Carshalton springs and that at Mertcn 
bridge was very marked ; proving to the sight alone, how unfit the water had 
become for drinking purposes, during its progress through so many works dis- 
charging impurities, and over such a soil, and receiving such drainage. In dry 
seasons this would be still more striking. There were twenty-five mills on the 
main stream, using 545 H.P. 

Mention was also made of the amount of drainage water flowing into the 
Wandle from the surrounding land, one stream alone, on the eastern side of the 
river, at Mitcham common, contributing 4,172,760 gallons daily. The Pickle, a 
dirty stream, joined the main river at Merton Bridge, and the Graveney, a consi- 
derable tributary, which had also a dirty appearance when the water in the 
itself was comparatively clear, entered the river at Mi-. Payton's leather works. 
The average gaugings at Garratt's oil mills showed 83,469,060, 76,316,950, and 
62,343,000 gallons, every twenty-four hours. The gaugings of the river 
Graveney, during the same period, showed from 6,291,000 to 1,458,000 gallons 
daily; These quantities referred to a period when the river.its bed, and adjacent soil 
had been fully saturated with heavy rains, and afforded no criterion of the 
quantity due to dry seasons. The water in gravelly districts at such times was 
much wasted. Then that stratum not only refused to part with it freely, but 
eveu deprived the river itself of water, which flowed down from a district less 
influenced by evaporation. It might, therefore, be concluded, that in periods of 
drought, the true source of the supply to the Wandle would be found at Wadden 
and at Carshalton only ; for the Bourne Brook became dry, and the Croydon 
springs were polluted. At present the supply from Wadden and Carshalton was 
found to amount to 32,941,800 gallons daily ; but when the land springs and 
other drainage waters were exhausted, there only remained 18,367,920 gallons 
daily available for water supply, supposing the flow from the chalk to continue 
uniform. But when the river reached Wandsworth, much of the water had been 
evaporated and filtered into the gravelly soil, and much had been filtered and 
carried away as sewerage, or been consumed in the works, so that probably not 
more than 10,000,000 gallons could be relied upon, and that must necessarily 
be polluted. 

In an Appendix a table was given, showing the rainfall daity during the months 
of September, October, November, and December, 1852, over that portion of 
the district, the nature of the soil of which was not absorbent, viz., the tract of 
land drained by the river Graveney and the Collier Brook, having an area of 4900 
acres. The available water-shed area of the Wandle, in addition to this, 
amounted to 12,935 acres, and the length of the river, from Croydon to Wands- 
worth, was rather less than 9i miles. The entire details of the survey were also 
given in a tabular form. 



LONDON ASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN ENGINEERS. 

On the 2nd ult., the ordinary monthly meeting of this association took place 
at their rooms, St. Swithin's-lane, City. Mr. Joseph Newton, of the Royal Mint, 
President, occupied the chair. Mr. John Briggs read his paper on the " Resist- 
ance of Cast Iron to Internal Pressure." He commenced the subject b}' stating 
that he considered cast iron to be the most deceptive of all metals, for in addition 
to its liability to unsoundness in the process of casting, and fracture from un- 
equal expansion, it was affected injuriously from a variety of other causes. Pig 
iron was iron in its most impure state, for it was contaminated by all the 
impurities which were capable of combining with it in its primitive form as ore, 
and which chemical affinity prevented its parting with in the process of smelting. 
Frequently, indeed, it was found that the same charge yielded iron of totally 
different qualities. It had occurred to the reader of the paper that some of the 
impurities which thus interfered with the character of cast iron were actually 
other metals, and modem chemistry supported the theory. Many mineral pro- 
ductions, which were formerly considered simple substances, had been proved to 
have metallic bases, from which had been obtained metals; for example — 



TitE Aetizajt,"] 
March 1, 1861. J 



Revieios and Notices of Neic Books. 



G3 



aluminium, barytum, magnesium, calcium, and silicum. Then, again, man- 
ganese, which abounded in the Bowling and Low Moor irons, and which gave 
them their superiority for solidity and strength, and caused them to be largely 
used iu the manufacture of heavy guns, might be mentioned. There were 
several other elements, such as carbon, sulphur, and phosphorus, which more or 
less affected the character of cast iron. The first -named gave fluidity and soft- 
ness to the iron, while sulphur and phosphorus were the greatest enemies it had 
to contend against. 

These were the primary points which those who employed cast iron in the 
construction of cylinders intended to resist great internal pressure — whether in 
the shape of pieces of ordnance, or of hydraulic presses — had to deal with ; and 
perhaps no one had laboured more zealously to comprehend and explain them 
than had one of their own members, when employed at Woolwich Arsenal. The 
existence of the various substances and elements he had named, was doubtless 
due to the peculiarities of the localities in which the ore was obtained. In 
addition, however, he must be permitted to say that the constitution of cast iron 
was materially affected by the manner of smelting it. It was necessary to 
exercise great care in this operation, and in making proper selections of different 
kinds of iron for particular purposes. The judgment of the ironfounder must be 
largely relied on in this case ; and it was well when that judgment was not at 
fault. Without detaining the meeting further, he should now reiterate the 
assertion that cast iron was the most deceptive of all metals, and required to be 
dealt with accordingly. 

There was a limit to the pressure which should be put internally to cast iron, 
and there was, he was bold to assert, a limit also to the thickness of metal to be 
used for the cylinders of hydraulic presses. Such a statement might, at the first 
blush, appear to be irrational. The general opinion would undoubtedly be that 
the thicker the iron, the greater its resistance to pressure where the bore 
remained the same size. This he believed not to be the case, and Mr. Joseph 
Bramah had held long ago the same opinion. At the time that one of the 
press cylinders employed in raising the tubes of the Britannia-bridge had burst 
asunder, a workman, once in the employment of Messrs. Bramah, thus wrote to 
a weekly mechanical journal (Sept. 29th, 1819) : — " At Bramah's we never found 
presses in constant work stand more than three tons (67201bs.) on the square 
inch, and the greatest pains were taken to obtain the most approved kinds of 
iron — mixed qualities— to cast the cylinders from. I have seen press cylinders 
stand 7000 and even 8000lbs. on the square inch under proof for a short time ; 
but we never could trust them to work with so much, and cast iron then was 
far superior to that of the present day. Increasing the thickness of the metal 
in press cylinders teas seldom, successful. I have known metal seven inches 
thick stand as well as that 10J inches, for presses with rams 10 inches diameter. 
The thicker the metal, the greater appeared to be the difficulty in getting it 
equal and homogeneous throughout." The writer of the foregoing had assisted 
in the construction of upwards of 100 hydraulic presses at Bramah's, and his 
remarks came with all the weight, therefore, of authority based on experience. 
For himself, he must say that his own experience, though more limited in extent, 
confirmed him in a like opinion. He, indeed, almost thought that the error at 
present consisted in making such cylinders too thick. If the metal were used 
thinner, there would be more certainty of obtaining castings of greater density 
and uniformity, and therefore better calculated to sustain pressure. There were 
next adduced some instances of fractured cylinders, and referred to a list which 
he had, in a former paper, laid before the meeting. Experiment and experience, 
then, alike induced him to believe that there should be a limit to the thickness 
of all cylinders intended to resist high pressures. 

Some examples touching the maximum of pressure to be employed were 
adverted to, and much information of a practical nature was given in relation to 
this part of the subject. The general conclusions were that three tons per 
circular inch were to be the bursting pressure of press cylinders. The maximum 
thickness of metal, when all due care had been exercised in its composition, 
should not be more than the radius of the bore of the cylinder. Two tons per 
circular inch was a safe pressure to work up to, and this was pronounced to be 
the standard. With these deductions, and with the announcement that at the 
next monthly meeting he would pursue the questions as to how the pressure is 
distributed, the commencement of fracture, the line of fracture, the direction of 
the forces within the cylinders, and introduce the opinions of the late Mr 
Robert Stephenson, Mr. Briggs brought his valuable remarks to a close. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



The 'Economy of Steam Power on Common Soads in relation to Agriculturists, 
Railway Companies, Mine and Coal Owners, Quarry Proprietors, Con- 
tractors, §c, with its History and Practice in Great Britain, by Chables 
Fbedebic T. Young, C. E., Mem. Soc. Engineers; and, its Progress in the 
United States, by Ales. L. Holley, C.E., and J. K. Fisheb, Engineers, 
Kew Yorlc Illustrated with Enqravinqs by J. H. RiltBATJiT (444 pp. 8vo. 
12s. 6d.) London : Atchley & Co.' 

(Third Notice.) 
Having given an interesting account, interspersed with engravings, of 
the working of the different steam coaches that for several years were suc- 
cessfully used in the metropolis and various parts of the country, the 
author proceeds to consider the subject of "Concentrated Weight," as he 
terms it, by which he means, carrying a heavy weight on an ordinary 
wheel, without anything between the wheel and the surface of the ground. 
He objects strongly to the employment of this system for general use, or 
where the ground or roads are not solid, on account of the want of ad- 
hesion for drawing a load, and the damage caused to the road or ground 
under such circumstances ; and to show that this is found to be really the case 



in practice, he summons to his aid a few of the plans gathered from the 
the patents of those who have found this to be so in using steam engines, 
which certainly do show that the author's views are correct on this sub- 
ject. We may remark, however, in confirmation of the views he has taken, 
that on hard ground, or roads, the system does work and do no harm to 
the surface, so long as the wheels are not provided with teeth, or do not 
slip round and tear it up. In all such cases we do not see any necessity 
to seek for a better system than that of a wide wheel bearing 'on a hard 
road ; but it becomes of great and serious importance to have a proper and 
well -constructed engine, one fit for the work, and not a " blown together " 
affair, which tumbles to pieces after a few days' use, and exhibits°neither 
design, workmanship, or any of the numerous points needed in a really 
efficient and useful engine. It is to be lamented, however, that so few 
engineers have of late years turned their attention to the designing and 
making of these engines, as a vast field is open in this direction°to enter- 
prise and perseverance'; hut it is possible that the want of practical 
knowledge amongst engineers on this peculiar subject, arising chiefly from 
the neglect with which they have treated all attempts at progress in this 
direction, accounts for it. Having shown the damage done by the svstem 
of " concentrated weight," where used without due regard to the require- 
ments of circumstances, given some interesting remarks on friction, 
resistance, causes of failure, supported by the evidence of facts, and also 
by the observations of well-known scientific men, the author concludes the 
section by commending the Traction Engine of Taylor and Co., of Birken- 
head, a description and illustration of which will be found in The Agtizan 
for July, 1859. 

The next section is that of " Distributed Weight," or the plan of 
interposing between the wheel and the ground a hard, unyielding substance 
covering a large area of the surface on which the wheel rests, thus dis- 
tributing the weight, and reducing its mischievous effects by preventing it 
becoming concentrated " on any one spot." We here have a list of 
the various means by which those persons who had found the inefficiency 
of the other system, tried to carry this out, and a chronological list down 
to the year 1859, of these attempts, together with the names of the 
inventors, and short remarks on the inventions. The next section of the 
work describes Boydell's Traction Engine and Endless Railway, and gives 
a description of its working which is very interesting. We must however 
remark, that the want of a proper design, and the construction of these 
engines by fit and proper mechanics, seems as yet to he a desideratum. 
This is very evident in the accounts given by the author, where we find 
frequent remarks as to " faulty pump valves," weak waggons, &c. In fact, 
the want of skilled management in the designing and making of these 
engines is very manifest ; and we feel sure that until these, or any engine, 
for traction or other purposes on common roads, are taken in hand by fit 
and proper men, whose experience and knowledge enable them to overcome 
the difficulties which are only to be discovered in practice, and are known 
to those whose pursuits and experience lead them to go into the matter, 
nothing but failure can be looked for, and the subject must remain in the 
hands of mere speculators and commission seekers. This is surely not the 
position a subject of such vast utility and importance should remain in; 
and it becomes evident that all who intend using steam power on common 
roads, should entrust their orders and wishes to the scientific professional 
man, who is capable of having the work properly designed, and seeing it 
properly executed ; in fact, until this principle is acted on, we do not 
expect to see much progress made in the use of steam on common roads. 

The next section treats of the most important part of the whole subject, 
viz., Cost of Working ; and we feel we cannot do better than make an 
extract or two from this portion of the work : — 

In order to show the great saving that arises from the use of steam, no plan can be 
more satisfactory than the case of the conveyance of a given number of tons per day, a 
given distance, by horses and steam ; and as the horses could not do, say twenty-five 
miles per day, six 'days per week, we will limit them to a load of one ton each, oyer that 
distance, the load to be moved each day being twenty tons net weight, horses going four 
days a week, and the engine taking twenty tons per day, also four days per week. 

if we set down the capital to commence, with twenty carts, horses, and harness, at 
£1200, we shall not be far off the mark ; for the steam engine and five 4-ton waggons, we 
will say £1500— or one-fourth more for steam— bearing in mind, however, that the same 
expenditure for steam would as easilv move 30 tons as 20 tons, if required. In the esti- 
mates of cost of working nothing is charged for turnpikes, as they ought, in these vaunted 
days of progress, free trade, and liberalism, to be, and will be, ere long, at least equal. 

Here the great advantage of steam begins to show itself, inasmuch as whether these 20 
horses are working or not they must eat, and it docs not appear that the cost or them 
can be less than £20 per week, or 3s. per day; when not working equal to £3 per day, or 
three days at £3, equal £9. , , ,, , ., 

If we give each driver two carts, and each man 2s. per day wages, we shall have £1 per 
day for men, and £3 per day for the horses, or £1 per day, so that seven days per week at 
£4 equals £23 as the cost of moving 80 tons per week 25 miles, by horse power. 

The daily expense of moving 20 tons 25 miles per day by steam will stand thus :— 

Engine, including'coal, wear and tear, oil, grease,! &<>•> pe r 

25 miles 3 

Wages of driver, steersman, and breaksman 12 

£3 12 
So we have £3 12s. per day as the etpense of taking 20 tons 25 miles by steam, or 6 
days at £3 12s., equal £21 12s. per week; there being no work done on the Sunday, and 
deducting the cost of steam the two days the engine is not working, but reckoning the 



64 



JRevietDS and Notices of New Booh. 



[The Artijsas, 
March 1, 1861. 



wages of the men, it will be £21 12s. less £6, equal £15 12s., as the cost of drawing 80 
tons per week over 25 miles — a saving in working expenses equal to £12 8*'. per week, as 
compared with horse labour, or say £580 per annum, which we will call £500. The wear 
and tear of waggons is not included in this, as it may be considered that it could not in 
any ease equal that of the horse-power arrangement, even if two-horse waggons were 
used instead of one-horse carts ; but at any rate we may call them equal. 

The cost of haulage by these engines on common roads has been found, after nume- 
rous experiments and continued working, with an average nett load of 20 tons, not to 
exceed 3d, per ton per mile. The first trip in which an account of coal, &c, was kept, so 
as to give some certain data for calculation, was that of Mr. M'Adam, from Thetford to 
London, a distance of 85 miles. In the account of this journey, no particulars as to the 
nett weight, or "load," are given, but it will be assumed'that it was 17 tons nett, which 
the engine would easily have brought, including the weight of the vehicles, at a trifling 
addition to the present cost of the journey. 

AVe find that there were three men to the engine and one man to the train ; their cost 
will be — driver, 4s. Gd.; steersman, 3s. Gd.; man for train, 3a. ; odd man, 3s. per day — 
14s. per day wages ; this journey occupied three days; we have £2 2s. for wages. The 
coal burnt was 43cwt., which, at Is. per cwt. ; equals £2 3s. ; wear and tear on 85 miles, at 
Is. Gd. per mile, equal to £6 7s. Gd. ; the consumption of oil and grease was stated to 
have been great. Mr. Lamerton, in his journey of eight days' actual working, used 2 
gallons of oil and 251bs. grease ; so, if his consumption be doubled, it will give a liberal 
allowance, and will stand thus— 4 gallons oil at 5s. per gallon, equal £1 ; -J-cwt. grease at 
10s. per cwt., equal 5s. The total cost of the journey will therefore be : — 

£ s. d. 

Wages for 3 days 2 2 

Coal 2 3 

Wear and tear 6 7 6 

Oil and grease 15 



£11 17 6 

or say £12, as the cost of drawing 17 tons over 85 miles ; equal to, say 14s. 2d. per ton on 
85 miles, or 2d. per ton per mile. 

By horses this would have cost, at the minimum rate of Gd. per ton per mile, £36 2s. 6d. ; 
if at 9d. per ton per mile, £54 3s. 9d. ; and, at Is. per ton per mile, £72 5s. ; taking it at 
the sum of 6d., there is a nett saving of £24 2s. Gd. by the use of steam; and if we double 
the cost of the steam, making it £24, we still have a saving of £12 in its favour — no 
inconsiderable sum, where a large amount of tonnage has to be moved. 

The next journey was that of Mr. Lamerton, from Thetford to Woolwich, a distance in 
round numbers of 100 miles. It is seen that the train consisted of:— 

tns. cwt. qrs. 

Engine 15 

Five logs of oak timber 18 7 

Four timber carriages 6 10 

One van, coals, tools, men, &e 4 10 



Deduct engine 



Deduct van, waggons, men, &c, say 



Total 



Gross load 



43 18 
15 







28 18 
S 18 







Xettload 20 

We find that there were three men to the engine and two to the carriages, and, at the 
wages in Mr. M'Adam's journey, gives 17s. per day for wages. As this train was nine 
days on the road, we have the sum of £7 13s. as the amount of wages for the trip. The 
coals used amounted to 106 cwts., which, at Is. per cwt., gives £5 6s. ; wear and. tear, at 
Is. Gd. per mile, £7 10s. : oil, 2 gallons, at 5s. ; equal 10s, ; grease, at 10s. per cwt., equal 
2s, 6</. ; therefore the total cost will stand thus : — 

£ s. d. 

Wages, at 17s. per day, 9 days 7 13 

Coals, at Is. per cwt., 106 cwts 5 6 

Wear and tear, 100 miles at Is, Gd 7 10 

Oil and grease 12 



£21 1 6 
Or say £22 for the trip, or a fraction over 2\d. per ton per mile; in this case, horses at 
Gd. per ton per mile, would have cost, for the 20 tons, £50 against £22 by steam ; a saving 
of no less than £28 on the journey. 

The following are the average results of the working of the engine and train to the 
collieries near Manchester ; but as there was only a load one way, the results are not so 
good as if we had loaded both u-ays. The journey to the pit— 8 miles — was performed in 
3 hours and 5 minutes, including'l2 to 15 minutes' stoppage for water. The five waggons 
weighed 12J tons. The return journey, with 4i tons of coal in each waggon, equal 22} 
tons coal ; waggons, 12J tons, equal say 35 tons, was performed, including 12 to 15 
minutes' stoppage for water, in three hours 10 minutes. The coal burnt was J cwt. per 
mile ; oil, less than J pint ; grease. Jib. ; wear and tear, at Is. Gd, per mile. 
This gives the cost of working the engine and train as follows : — 

£ s. d. 

Wear and tear, 16 miles at Is. 6d. 14 

Coals, at Id. per cwt. 7 

Grease, 4Ibs., at 10s. per cwt 4i 

Oil, 1} pints, at 6s. per gal. 1 \\ 

Wages — Driver, steersman, and breaksman 0110 



£2 3 6 
Now, the above shows the cost of moving 22 tons over S miles, to be at the rate o 
58. o\d. per mile for the whole load, or a fraction under 3d. per ton per mile. When 
compared with the present price of 3s. 4</. per ton, as shown by Mr. Gibson to be at 
present charged for horses, or 3s, lid., if we deduct the toll, it is evident that even under 
the disadvantage of having to go 8 miles one way without a paying load, there is still a 
very considerable economy in the use of steam as compared with horses for this purpose. 
I The trip from Manchester to Liverpool, via Warrington, 3S miles, stopping the night 
at the latter place, occupied two days ; and the load behind the engine of the waggons, 
carts, spare gear, coke, &c, was equal to 19 tons, 15 cwt. on leaving Manchester. The 
coke used on the journey of 38 miles, including getting up steam, was a little under 
1 ton ; this gives a trifle over -J- cwt. per mile, the road being pretty level, and in a good 
and dry condition. The oil used did not exceed J gallon on the 38 miles, or less than § of 
a pint per mile. A small quantity of grease was used, which helped the oil. 

Having thus shown us what has been found to be the cost of the engine in 
actual working, the author gives us a short sketch of the progress of steam on 
the roads of the United States, furnished to him by Messrs. Holley and Fisher ; 
from which we learn that the want of progress of this system in that country is 
attributed to the conduct of the English engineers as a body, who, without 



giving the subject any attention, were loud in their condemnation of it, and 
thus it was not carried out in that country, further than as a moderately suc- 
cessful experiment. He next treats on conveying passengers on common roads 
by steam, giving us a description and engravings of the locomotives of the 
Marquis of Stafford and Lord Caithness, and showing that public attention is 
now being seriously attracted to the subject. 

Under the head of " Why Steam Traction is not more general 9" he is very 
severe in his remarks on the absurdity of taking a thing for granted without 
trying it ; and having giving some notice to the cause of the use of traction 
engines and steam carriages being so limited, he shows what attempts have been 
made to facilitate their employment, mentions the Locomotive Bill now before 
the public, and gives some amusing remarks on the opposition the bill experienced 
during the last session. 

In conclusion, he gives some good advice to both purchasers and users of these 
engines ; and having invoked the aid of " all hands " to assist in liberating the 
system from its present incubus, of the existence of which we have a most con- 
vincing proof in the List of Tolls at the end of his work, the author concludes 
one of the most interesting and practical works we have for a long time seen. 

"We may remark that it possesses great interest for the general as well as the 
practical and scientific reader, more particularly as a bill for regulating these 
extraordinary tolls is now before Parliament, and of the existence and exor- 
bitance of which we ai - e sure few, whether in or out of the House, are aware. It 
gives us great pleasure to commend Mr. Young's work to the serious attention 
of our readers as being plain, practical, and highly instructive. 



Useful Information for Engineers; containing experimental Researches on the 
Collapscof Boiler Fives and the Strength of Materials, andlectureson popular 
Education, and various Subjects connected with Mechanical Engineering, Iron 
Shipbuilding, the Froperties of Steam, S;c. By William Fairbairn, LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c. Second series, 325 pp. London : Longmans, 1860. 

In the volume before us we have a detailed account of the modus operandi 
and the results obtained from the numerous experimental researches conducted 
by the author, into the question of the strength and power of resistance to collapse 
possessed by tubes or flues of boilers, and also of glass vessels, when subjected 
to heavy pressures. 

The results of the inquiry into the strength of tubes were brought before the 
public at the Royal Society in 1858, and those on glass at the same place in 
1859. The experiments appear to have been very carefully conducted, and the 
details given in the work are exceedingly interesting and instructive to all 
those who have in any way to do with such matters. 

The second portion of the work consists of lectures on popular education ; on 
the machinery employed in agriculture : on the rise and progress of engineering 
down to the present century ; on its progress during the present century ; on the 
construction of iron ships, &c, — -all of which possess great interest both for the 
scientific and general reader — read before the Polytechnic Institute in Liverpool, 
and again iu 1860 at the opening session of the Institute of Naval Architects in 
London. 

The lecture " On the Strength ot Iron Ships," however, calls for a few remarks 
from us, more particularly as we have not yet seen any attention directed to what 
we now purpose to mention. 

In seeking to find if a " more judicious distribution of the material" used in the 
construction of iron ships cannot be attained, we find Mr. Fairbaim advancing in 
the year 1860, and claiming principles of construction which, as it appeals to us, 
are not new, inasmuch as they, we believe, are to be found described in the 
patent obtained by Mr. Richard Roberts, the well known Manchester engineer, 
in the .year 1852. 

We do not for a moment suppose that Mr. Fairbairn could have been aware of 
this, for from the fact of Mr. Roberts not being a shipbuilder, it is not very probable 
that much attention would be given by those engaged in that pursuit to the per- 
formances of such " outsiders" as may have turned their attention to the subject. 
However, be that as it may, we find, on referring to the specification above named, 
that Mr. Roberts says, "Instead of the ordinary wooden bulwarks, the plates 
forming the sides of the vessel are continued above deck to admit cabins, and to in- 
crease the strength of the vessel. The bulwarks are'eovered by strong plates of iron, 
which are united to other strong plates. The plates dividing the coal bins are con - 
tinned up to and connected with the plates at the top of the bulwarks, which are 
attached to and support the shrouds, whereby a clear passage is left for the crew 
outside the shrouds. By forming the bulwarks in the manner above described, 
great additional strength is given, inasmuch, as is well known, the strength of a 
beam, to which a vessel is analogous, is not directly in proportion to its depth, 
but as the square of its depth. The decks are made of iron, still further to 
strengthen the vessel (covered with wood where that is necessary), and for the same 
purpose the partitions are made of iron, and secured to the bulkheads and decks." 

Our readers will do well to compare the above with the "new plan" which Mr. 
Fairbairn proposes as his own, and enunciates in the space includedin from p. 244 
to p. 281. At p. 273, we find that constructing the bottom of the hull of 
the vessel in the form of cells is proposed, and its advantages expatiated upon. 
Turning to the Patent Specification before quoted from, we read, " Sixthly, in 
applying two hollow keels to single hulled vessels, and dividing them into cel- 
lular compartments for stowing away goods, and for other purposes. Seventhly, 
in constructing iron vessels with longitudinal and transverse beams under the 
floor, and dividing the space between the floor and the bottom of the vessel into 
cells or compartments for the stowage of goods or water, which cells, being 
secured with watertight lids, afford great strength and security to the vessel." 

We do not in any way desire to detract in the slightest degree from Mr. 
Fairbairn's merits, but simply in a matter of detail to "put the saddle on the 
right horse." If in error, we shall be glad to be corrected. Our readers will find 
that much instruction is to be gained by studying the discussion on Mr. Fair- 



Tke Artizan,"] 
March 1, 1861. J 



Reviews and Notices of New Boohs. 



05 



bairn's Paper in the Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, and also 
the specification of Mr. Roberts. 

Before closing these remarks, we would wish to refer to the system of " chain 
rivetting," as it is termed by Mr. Fairbaim (which he strongly recommends), and 
the remarks on this subject to be found in the work On the Britannia and 
Conway Tubular Bridges, by Edwin Clark, where it is shown that this so-called 
'• chain" rivetting is not by any means so strong as the zigzag rivetting, and 
that, in building those bridges, its employment was abandoned ! As this state- 
ment is a published one, we do not like to see a plan recommended as better than 
any other, when it has been found in practice that such is not the case, more 
especially when it is done by a gentleman holding the position of Mr. Fairbaim, 
and we call his earliest attention to this fact. 

In conclusion, we may say that, notwithstanding these minor defects, the work 
will befound particularly well worthy of perusal and attention ; and we are all 
deeply indebted to Mr. Fairbairn for his great and constant exertions in behalf 
of the advancement of practical science, as well as for the very clear and familiar 
way which he from time to time brings before us the results of his labours. 



A Sectional View of the Lanarkshire Coal Measure. By Ralph Moobe. 
Glasgow : Morrison Kyle. 

This section shows at first sight the stratagraphical position of the various 
seams of coal and ironstone in Lanarkshire. The present edition is also accom- 
panied with a printed detailed section of the thickness of each stratum met with 
in the 730 fathoms which comprise the coal measures in Scotland, and which 
•considerably adds to the value of this edition. The strata are named according 
to the local nomenclature, which will be better understood by those practically 
engaged in the search for minerals ; but the geological names are likewise added. 

The corresponding positions of the valuable minerals in other mineral districts 
are also given ; thus, the well-known Airdrie black-bands, on which the Lanark- 
shire Ironworks are founded, have corresponding positions in these, some of which 
are beginning to be successfully developed. 

The Fleet of the Future : Iron or Wood ? Containing a Beph/ to some Con- 
elusions of General Sir Howard Botiglas, G.C.B., F.B.S., St'c, in favour of 
Wooden Walls. By J. Scott Russell, Esq., F.R.S.. Member of Council of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, and Vice-President of the Institution of Naval 
Architects (pp. 57). London : Longmans. 

The pamphlet before us is most important, convincing, and valuable, and 
also most opportune in its appearance. It contains a complete and satisfactory 
refutation of the dicta of Sir Howard Douglas, who tells us that " ships formed 
wholly, or nearly so, of iron are utterly unfit for all purposes and contingencies 
of war, whether as fighting ships, or as transports for troops." It is rather 
difficult at first to understand on what grounds so sweeping a condemnation of 
iron ships is so dogmatically pronounced by one holding the high position of 
»ir Howard, and to whom that position opens so many ways of arriving at facts 
or at least at correct information in these matters. However, Mr. Russell shows 
as that Sir Howard is in the confidence of the naval authorities, "who assist 
him with every kind of official information," on the subject of the Admiralty 
experiments which were tried on the power of iron to resist the impact of shot 
which experiment, m the words of Mr. Scott Russell in the pamphlet before us 

JJRZ^HlZ a S d made j n s " ch . away,_that the conclusion they desired to arrive at 
might be effectually secured, and mconvement questioners put down 

An old worn-out river-boat, of thin and decayed iron, was accordingly procured • it 
was set up as a target, and fired at with heavy artillery, and triumphantly dLohshed 

This much information was at least obtained, that old iron could be demolished bv 
artillery, and there the matter ended; and the authorities retired from the performance 
justmed in their reluctance to assist in the introduction of a troublesome innovation" 

It is needless, after this, to tell our readers why iron ships have made so little 
progress in gaining favour with our Admiralty ; or to say that they will find in 
Mr. Russell s admirable pamphlet a complete and convincing proof of the entire 
fitness of this material for all purposes of war, if only proper care and attention 
be given to applying it mthe right way, and to the circumstances under which 
it is to be used. 

So far as relates to their powers as fighting ships, so good ; but bearing in mind 
the extended employment ot iron ships as transports for troops duriuo- the 
Crimean war-the purchase of the Himalaya aud other iron ships by Govern- 
ment for this purpose which are now In almost constant employment— we are 
sure it would be needless to point out to Sir Howard the fallacy of his statement 
that iron ships "are utterly unfit for all purposes and contingencies of war," 
Practical 6C1 ^ above > rfs adlmt of no contradiction, either theoretical or 

Bearing in mind the desperate attack made on us some short time since by 
a quasi scientific labourer in the same field as ourselves, because we presumed to 
speak and write m favour of "inclined sides" for armour-cased shipper war it 
gives « great pleasure to find that a gentleman of the well-known talents and 
scientific attainments of Mr. Scott Russell should hold and enundate tbe same 

theltrength of all the smalter clasVnf v«-5=^h a ?', e U ?- t0 ^tribute materially to 
tection tnan their size wffl tarry " " th ° ut loadmg them ^ a heavier pro- 

J^tJ? ba , V 6 ' h ? m A Pr ac ti™ and actual use, the results we claimed for the 
pnnc.ple so strongly deprecated by our scientific friend. We do not say wither 
twill, or will not be, applied by Government; but we do set forth it .ad- 



vantages, and we feel sure that the perusal of Mr. Scott Russell's excellent ami 
practical pamphlet will cause many more to be of the same opinion. 

Haying carefully and plainly shown the advantages of iron over wood in 
building steamships of war, Mr. Bussell proceeds to remark on the future fleet 
ot England, and shows us why the use of iron is so opposed by Government ; how 
they proceeded m order to prove its unfitness for the purposes to lie answered by 
Government vessels ; and, having completely and satisfactorily disposed of this 
part of the question, he shows us how we are to set about constructing the future 
fleet of England. 

This is a most interesting portion of the work before us, and is deserving of the 
most careful attention of every Englishman. We find that, in addition to its 
other advantages, the new iron fleet proposed by Mr. Scott Russell can be more 
economically maintained than our present wooden fleet ; that fewer men will be 
required ; that it would occasion the employment of men of higher attainments, 
and more skill and knowledge in the scientific department of the Admiralty ; and 
that from every point of view, and in every way, the country would be the gainer 
by the substitution of the iron fleet for the wooden one. 

We say that Mr. Scott Russell deserves the thanks of every tax-payer in the 
country for bringing this most important subject so plainly before them, and in 
a way that will prevent any question or loss of time in carrying it into effect ; 
and we take leave ol it by heartily commending it to the careful study of our 
readers, as a work deserving of their most serious attention and consideration. 



The Builder's and Contractor's Price Book for 1861. Revised by Geobge R. 

Btjenell, Civil Engineer and Architect (pp. 286). London : Lockwood and 

Co., Stationers' Hall-court. 

In this work we find the following alterations have been made : — 1st, in the 
revisal of the day-work prices throughout ; 2nd, in the omission of prices for 
goods that are not used often enough to warrant their special notice ; 3rd, the 
partial revision and alteration of the detailed prices of carpenters' and joiners' 
work : 4th, the revision of the prices for ironmongery ; 5th, a similar revision of 
the prices for masons' work ; 6th, the introduction of a new series of prices for 
gas-fitters' work ; and, lastly, the text has been generally condensed. 

All these add much to its utility, and give one a feeling of certainty in its use, 
which it is very desirable all should possess who are called on to employ works of 
this character to assist them in getting out estimates, taking work, &c. 

The work is very nicely printed, the type used is plain and clear, and the 
contents are arranged in a convenient manner, so as to be easy for reference. 

It must find its place on the table of every civil engineer, architect, builder, 
and contractor, as one of the standard works of reference employed by all engaged 
in the above pursuits. 



A Practical Treatise on Coal, Petroleum, and other Distilled Oils. Bj' 
Abbaham Gesneb, M.D., F.G.S., Consulting Chemist, &c. (pp. 134). New 
York : Balliere, Brothers, 440, Broadway. London : H. Balliere, 219, Regent- 
street. 

The author states that the work before us is prepared with a desire to aid the 
manufacturer of oils in his vocation, and that it is more practical than theo- 
retical. In a small compass the author has contrived to embody a great deal of 
useful and practical information, on a subject to which a great amount of atten- 
tion and capital have been, and will be directed. 

He, it appears, has been engaged for several years as consulting chemist in the 
actual working of oil manufactories, and has consequently had much experience 
in all relating to the various processes employed for this purpose ; he has, 
therefore, carefully recorded in the body of the work such information and facts 
bearing on the subject as he has considered useful. 

The recent discoveries of vast reservoirs of petroleum in the Western and 
Southern States of the Union, have received a due share of attention ; and the 
most accurate information that could be obtained, regarding their supplies of 
oil, has been recorded. Engravings of the different plans of apparatus employed 
for the manufacture of the oil have been given, which will be found of great 
utility to those under whose notice this important branch of manufacture may 
be brought, by showing them what is found suited for each description of 
mineral, in regular practical work. 

It seems that there are no less than fifty-six factories for the distillation of oil 
from coal now working in America, which will give some idea of the importance 
it is assuming. One — the North American Kerosene Gas Light Company, whose 
works are at Newton Creek, Long Island — imported in the year 1859 upwards of 
20,000 tons of the Scotch Boghead coal, or Torbane-hill mineral, at an average 
cost of 18 dols. per ton ! The discovery, however, of the numerous strata of 
Cannel coals in the Western States, and of other cheaper substances for the 
production of oils, will„soon render them independent of this country for their 
raw material. . . 

The lowest yield of crude oil per ton of the American coal used is 47 gallons, 
and the highest 170 gallons; whilst from the Cuba bitumen 120 gallons per ton 
are obtained ; and from that of Canada, 118 gallons. 

In conclusion, we must say that we consider the work to be a most valuable, 
practical and plain treatise on a most interesting subject, and as such we have 
great pleasure in strongly recommending it to the attention and careful study of 
our readers. 

Lessons and Practical Notes on Steam, the Steam Engine, Propellers, $c By 
the late W. H. King, U.S.N. Revised by Chief Engineer J. W. King, U.S.N. 
New York : Frederic A. Brady, 24, Ann-street. 1860. 

The author has here presented us with a very useful little work for practical 
engineers, and forsea-goiug engineers in particular. In perusing it carefully we find 
what the author says fully corroborated, that it is an extract from his own private 
pocket-book, or, as he calls it, his Steam Journal ; for we find a collection of notes 
and data that could only be sot from practice ; and thus he gives us a series of cases 
which he has had to encounter during his own practice as a marine engineer. In 



66 



Reviews and Notices of New Boohs. 



TThe Artizan, 
L March 1, 1861. 



addition to this, he gives us a very useful selection of some important theories 
connected with the engine and boiler, which it is quite necessary that every 
practical engineer, in charge of a pair of engines, should know ; hut, we are sorry 
to say, is too often unacquainted with. Before leaving this book, we cannot help 
noticing the superior stamp of the American chief engineers, in comparison with 
the generality of those in similar capacities here in England, who certainly are 
excellent practical workmen, but too deficient, generally, in respect to the theory 
of the steam engine. We commend this book to the careful study and attention 
of our readers. 



Boyd's Marine Viaduct, or Continental Baihvay Bridge, "between England, and 

France. 

This is the title of a pamphlet written by Mr. Boyd, of Barnes, Surrey, in 
which he proposes to connect England and Prance by a railway bridge, consisting 
of, a succession of tubes, 50ft. deep by 30ft. wide, made of wrought iron, and 
ri vetted together ; the tubes, 300ft. above the level of the sea, will rest on 90 
towers, 100ft. diameter each, and contain two or more lines of rails. The total 
expense of the undertaking is estimated at £30,000,000. The idea is grand 
enough in all conscience, and is, judging by the plate illustration accompanying 
the pamphlet, simple enough, and apparently easy of execution ; and the wish 
which on the instant occurs to our mind is, that Mr. Boyd may live long enough 
to see it executed, and that he may never suffer from that curse of authors, "the 
headache," until his project is successfully put into practice. 

If we remember aright, this gentleman is the same who proposed a very useful 
and far more feasible plan for connecting London with the English Channel at 
the South Coast through the Valley of the Adar. 



The Engineer's, Architect's, and Contractor's Pocket-Book for the Year 1861 
(Weale's), roan tuck. London : Lockwood & Co., Stationers' Hall-court. 

This book again comes before us, somewhat reduced in bulk by the omission of 
a good deal of matter of little value to those who generally employ it, though 
still containing, especially in the additions, much that is useful. We must 
however remark that it does not possess the exterior finish, nor exhibit the same 
care in binding that was one of the characteristics of former years ; but this is a 
defect so easily remedied, and at such a trifling cost, that we feel sure attention 
needs only to be called to it to have it remedied. 

We would direct the attention of the compiler of future editions of this work to 
the excellent Bocket-Books of Nystrom and Haswell, both American publications, 
from which he may, we have no doubt, gain some useful hints as to the material 
to be used, and the manner in which it should be worked up. 

Amongst the additions we notice the Memorandum-book of Telford, the well 
known Engineer ; several papers by Mr. Wm. Faii-bairn, including his experiments 
on the collapse of tubes ; a table of sines, cosecants, tangents, &c, and notes to 
these tables ; also memoirs of deceased engineers ; a complete list of the mem- 
bers of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and the Institution of British Architects. 

We may say that the book is considerably improved, and, but for the minor 
defect we have noticed, should have spoken in high commendation. However, it 
is as well deserving as ever of the notice of engineers and architects, and as 
such we commend it to their notice. 

An Essay on the Thermo-Bynamics of Elastic Fluids. By Joseph Gill (pp.97). 

London : John Weale. 

Second Notice. 

The author has given us in his essay the results he has obtained during the 
study of many years devoted to the phenomena of steam and hot air as motive 
agents. 

From these studies he seems to have arrived at the general conclusion, that 

" In the thermodynamical phenomena of vapours and pases, instead of taking the unit of 
thermometric heat as the equivalent of mechanical work, we should distinguish between 
the sensible and latent conditions of the heat— sensible heat being the source of mechanical 
work, and latent heat the sign of work already done; sensible heat is the spring wound 
up, and latent heat the spring unwound; hence the equivalence is not between mechan- 
ical work and thermometric heat, irrespective of its quality or condition, but between 
calorie energy and mechanical work, the energy depending on the quality as well as the 
quantity of heat ; and the conversion of latent heat 'into sensible is correlative to the 
statical force, or the work packed up ; while, conversely, the change of sensible heat into 
latent is the measure of the work done, or given out in the expansion of the elastic 
medium. 

" In developing my views on these points I shall have occasion to sketch briefly my 
general ideas on heat and thermo-dynamics, with the condensed results of experiments 
made during a period of seventeen years in the study, the workshop, and the engine 
room, in my endeavours to reduce theory to efficient practice ; and I hope my labours 
will be found useful towards developing a theory of the mechanical equivalence of heat, 
which will better explain the mysteries of our heat engines, and lead to their improve- 
ment; on correct physical grounds," 

The author concludes his introductory portion of the essay by saying, that he 
" would direct the attention of our practical mechanicians and engineers to the 
importance of a rational investigation of principles, and thence the application of 
sound theory, if they are desirous of ennobling their work by impressing on it 
some stamp of intellect, and of performing worthily each his part towards the 
support and advancement of the high reputation which England enjoys for her 
thermo-dynamic engineering." We will not allude to the numerous cases in 
which these remarks could be shown to he needed, even at the present moment, 
and that, too, where the soundest principles and practice should and would natu- 
rally be expected to be found ; but hoping that the author's essays may fall into 
their hands, we will only here strongly recommend them to study his remarks, 
in order that future practice may show a more thorough comprehension of the 
laws required to be known and acted on whilst dealing with the Thermo-Dynamic 
properties of Elastic Fluids, more especially in the case of steam. 

In the course of his work the author gives accounts of some interesting experi- 
ments bearing on the general subject before us, and also in regard to boiler explo- 
sions and superheating of steam. In the last chapter he describes the practical 
application of moist air as a motive fluid, giving the results of an experimental 



apparatus he used in order to carry out this design, from which he concludes that 
" unlike the steam engine where ^ of the heat in possession is often thrown 
away unavoidably but uselessly at each stroke to prepare for the next, an air 
engine stores up the heat in possession when it is requisite to remove it from the 
motive medium, and again restores a large portion of it to the working fluid ; so 
that the office of the boiler is principally to supply the heat of expansion of the 
elastic medium, which is the true representative and equivalent of the work per- 
formed, and which, with dry air of five to six atmospheres' pressure, corresponds 
nearly to Joule's equivalent of heat, or 772 lbs. raised 1 foot per unit of heat." 
Having shown that the mechanical work usually obtained from a given quantity 
of heat in the steam engine is only Jj of the theoretical equivalent, he says, 
" With such a wide margin for improvement, we should surely endeavour to re- 
form our heat engines ;" and as all steam engines are heat engines, we think- 
there are few who have read this pamphlet but will arrive at the same conclusion ,- 
so, by way of encouraging progress towards the successful carrying out of this 
desirable object, we strongly recommend the essay to the careful study of our 
readers. 

Berpetuum Mobile ; or, search for self-motive Bower, during the \1th, 18th, 

and \%th Centuries. By Henry Dircks, C.E. London : Spon, 1861. 12mo, 

pp. 600. 

Perpetual Motion ! what next ? "A most incredible thing, if not seen," says 
the motto in the title-page, as quoted from the Marquis of Worcester's memor- 
able " Century of Inventions," wherein he makes mention of a wheel which he 
exhibited in the Tower before Charles I., and most of his Court, prior to 1649. 
His wheel is the first machine on record as having been actually exhibited. He 
describes it as having been 14ft in diameter, and moved by forty fifty-pound 
weights, in all two thousand pounds. The next wheel of this nature was invented 
about 1712, in Germany, by Orflyreus, a singularly versatile but unsettled genius. 
Mr. Dircks gives the fullest account of this invention that we have yet seen. And 
these two cases, although the inventors never disclosed the secret of their con- 
struction, are considered to have occasioned doubts in the minds of many able 
mechanicians, and a consequent mental reservation in the declaring of opinions 
adverse to the possibility of attaining self-motive power, and may have influenced 
even many mathematicians. We cannot go into these details here, nor quote as 
we could wish the French and German authorities adduced, respecting Orflyreus. 
The possibility of effecting perpetual motion has been demonstrated by Bernoulli, 
Gravesande, and Professor Airy, all which are here supplied; and it appears, 
according to Dr. Poppe, that " The discovery of such a motion is difficult, but 
not impossible ; as Kiistner, Langsdorff, and other celebrated mathematicians 
have frequently shown" (p. 405). The authorities also quoted at large, but against 
its possibility, are De la Hire, Desaguliers, Parent, Papin, and, in Chapter V,, a 
host of natural philosophers. We next come to consider the various schemes 
themselves, projected by sanguine inventors, and we promise all readers fond of 
mechanical curiosities a rare treat in the perusal. Their variety and interest 
may be imagined from a bare statement of the sources from which they are 
gleaned : there are the works of Bishop Wilkins, Tasnieurus, Fludd, Bettimus, 
and other old authors ; the Royal Society's Transactions, early philosophical 
treatises and journals, British and Foreign encyclopaedias, popular journals, 
&c. To these are added three patents of the 17th century, seven of the 18th, 
and, strange to say, sixty-five of this present century. On this point Mr. Dircks 
remarks: — "The number of patents that are recorded will, no doubt, create 
general surprise ; and yet some may have escaped notice owing to adopting titles 
as little explanatory as possible of the patentees' real object. If invention in this 
department showed any vigour, any signs of progressive improvement, this fact 
would prove a serious drawback. All circumstances, however, considered, it may 
really be acknowledged by many as a great relief from absolute surfeit." And 
so we ourselves really think. It is amazing, in looking over this record, to find 
men of good position and varied information so lost to all prudence as to patent, 
without the least investigation, plans which are not only absolutely useless 1 , but 
in many instances, as here shown, public and obsolete — consequently, valueless as 
patent property ; and when possessing some shadow of originality, rendered useless 
by their cumbrous and complicated character. To all engineers, particularly those 
commencing their career, this work will afford much useful information re- 
specting past and present efforts to disturb the natural operation of the mechanical 
powers, and act as a warning against too readily entertaining schemes merely 
because they oppose difficulties whose solution, however amusing, are too likely to 
end in serious disappointments. 

The number of claimants to the discovery having patents, and those who 
profess to possess the secret is really astonishing. The work has an introductory 
essay, by Mr. Dircks, in which he has fully analysed the subject in its several 
bearings, and states the case with earnestness and candour, favouring neither 
one side nor the other. It is rendered further interesting by above 100 wood en- 
gravings, and an excellent general index, which, from the variety of the subjects, 
occupies 18 pages. We wish the work, as we believe it will have, and deserves, 
every success. 

Notes on Severn Bropulsion : its Bise and Brogress. By W. M. Walker, 

Commander U.S. Navy. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 192, Broadway. 

London : Triibner and Co. (pp. 51). 1861. 

The author informs us that he has reproduced, in a collected form, the series 
of notes (for the Atlantic Monthly) in consequence of the favourable reception 
accorded to them. 

We have failed to discover anything novel or original, which is of practical 
value, in the 51 pp. ; but, as the author writes from an exclusively American 
point of view, and does not rightly understand much that he has read, we are 
not surprised to find a vast number of errors, and several mis-statements. 

The author acknowledges his obligations to the works of Admiral C. Paris, 
Imperial French Navy ; Mr. John Bourne, C.E. ; and M. Dore. We think he 
might have studied the works of Woodcroft, Russell, Nystrom, and others on 



The Artizan,! 
March 1, 1861. J 



Correspondence : — Air Pumps mid Foot Vahes — Steamship Performance. 



67 



the Screw Propeller, and, to use a genial phrase, have " posted " himself "up " 
on the subject from The Aetizan, and other scientific publications ; for, when 
an officer in Commander Walker's position takes up the calling of author, and 
undertakes to instruct others, it would be well to first thoroughly acquaint him- 
self with accurate details upon the subject on which he writes. 



Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects. (Vol. I.) Edited by E. J. 

Reed, M.I.N.A., Secretary to the Institution. 1860. Secretary's Office, 166, 

Fleet-street, London. 

We hail with considerable satisfaction the appearance of the first volume of 
the transactions of this promising institution. The volume, for the vast amount 
of valuable information which it contains, as well as for the admirable manner in 
which it has been got up, reflects great credit upon the secretary and editor, by 
whom it has been produced. 

The sale of the volume to the general public would, we think, be of consider- 
able value in stimulating improvements in 'naval architecture, as well as in- 
creasing the popularity of so valuable an institution, to which we wish every 
success. 

We are glad to find, on perusing some of the papers, that they have been 
materially improved since they were read to the members of the institu- 
tion, and they exhibit evidences of careful attention whilst passing through 
the press. We shall look for the results of the labours of the members of the 
institution at the series of meetings about to take place at the rooms of the 
Society of Arts, in the second volume of the Transactions. 



IIST OP NEW BOOKS. AND NEW EDITIONS OF BOOKS- 

ANDREWS, G.H. — Rudimentary Treatise on Agricultural Engineering. 1 vol. 12mo. 
cloth, 3s., Weale's Series. 'Weale. 

BARROW, Isaac— The Mathematical Works of, edited for Trinity College, by W. Whewell, 
Royal 8vo., Cambridge, pp. 325, cloth, 15s., C. Cox. 

FOWNES, George— A Manual of Elementary Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical. 
Eighth Edition, revised and corrected. 12mo. pp. 780, cloth 12s. 6d., Churchill. 

HULL, Edward — The Coal Fields of Great Britain ; their History, Structure, and Duration, 
with Notices of the Coal Fields of other parts of the World. Post 8vo. pp. 200, cloth, 
6s. 6d., Stanford. 

JINMAN, G. — Winds and their Courses, or a Practical Exposition of the Laws which govern 
the Movements of Hurricanes and Gales; with an Examination of the Circular Theory of 
Storms as propounded by Redfield, Sir W. Reid, Piddington, and others. 8vo. pp. 100, 
cloth, 5s., Philip. 

KIMBER, Thomas — Mathematical Course for University of London. New edit. 8vo. 
cloth, 10s., Longman. 

MILLER, Thomas, Catechism of the Marine Steam Engine, for the use of Young Naval 
Officers, and others. E. and F. N. Spon, Bucklersbury, fcap. 8vo. 6i pp., cloth, 2s. 6s. 

MOORE, R. — Sectional View of the Lanarkshire Coal Measure, showing at a glance the 
StratagraphicafPosition of the various Seams of Coal and Ironstone in Lanarkshire, by 
Ralph Moore. 10s. 6<i, Morrison Kyle, Glasgow. 

VAUBAN'S First System of Fortification, preceded by a Life of Vauban. By Thomas 
Kimber. 3rd edit, royal 8vo. pp.60, cloth, 5s., Longman. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our Correspondents. 

AIR PUMPS, FOOT VALVES, AND THEIR PROPORTIONS. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sie, — In the last December number of The Aetizan I find two letters about 
my foot-valve formulse. To the first letter, from " A Marine Engineer," I have 
to reply that he is perfectly correct ; our difference seems to lie in the tail of 
the decimals. I have sent to you, for " A Marine Engineer "the Russian pamphlet, 
from which he will soon understand the comedy ; and he will find therein many 
thiugs about steam engines which I am sure he did not know before. 

The second letter, from an " Amateur," I consider of great importance, and 
it deserves particular attention, because it bears directly on a real practical 
question of value ; and, for the interest of the engineering profession, I am very 
much obliged to him for his remarks. 

" Amateur " says that I have given in my Pocket-Book a formula, in which the 
capacity of air-pumps and speed of ditto are brought into calculation of the area 
of the foot-valve, but it is not the case in the article in The Aetizan ; and that 
it seems strange to him that the latter can be correct. 

Now, I beg to explain that the nature of the formula? referred to is precisely 
the same in my Pocket-Book as that in The Aetizan ; that the air-pump and 
foot-valve are dependent on one another in both cases, because they are both 
calculated from precisely the same sources. The error lies in applying the foot- 
valve formula to an old air-pump of different proportions. In order to make 
the explanation clear, it will be necessary to repeat the meaning of the letters, 
namely : — 

D = diameter in inches > * ' ,. , , ,, 

S = stroke in feet ) of c y lmder ' double actln S' 

d = diameter in inches ~) r ■ • , 

s = stroke in feet j of air "P um P. single acting. 

A = area of air-pump *) ■ ■ , 

a = area of foot-valve j m Square mches ' 

» = double strokes, or revolutions per minute. 

p = pressure in lbs. per sq. in., or deficiency of vacuum. 

T = temperature of the exhaust steam, Fahr. scale. 

k = specific volume of the exhaust steam. 



From the Pocket-Book we have : — 
d = 



T) 



but as 



0-326 D A /Si8?0+_ 
\/ sk 

d = 1-128 a/^7 

1-128 V AT= 0-326 D A / ~SW> + T) 
\/ sk 



from which A = P'S(890 + T)_ 

11-98 sk 

Ask. 



According to Pocket-Book, a 

100 a */p _ D2 S (890 + T) 



, from which A = 10 ° a ^ p 
100 V p $ n 



consequently 



reducing, we get 



i n 11-98 s k 

D a S n (890 + T) 
1198 k V'p 



In this formula in The Artizan I have brought into calculation the co- 
efficient for the contraction of water passing through the foot-valve, which in some 
cases, where the area consist of a great number of small passages, is very con- 
siderable, and may amount to 50 per cent. In the formula in The Aetizan I 
have assumed this co-efficient m = 0'625 ; and as the stroke S is expressed in 
inches, the numerical division will be : — 



1198 x 12 
0-625 



= 23001-6 and 



D 2 S n i 



+ T) 



23001-6 m k V 



P 



which is the same formula as that in The Aetizan, in which it appears that 
the foot-valve is independent of the air-pump, but we have just arrived at this 
formula, from the proportions of the air-pump; therefore, when "Amateur" 
employed the formula in The Aetizan direct to his engine, he would not get 
into error about the foot-valve; but when he applied the foot-valve formula 
from my Pocket-Book direct to an old air-pump of proportions not calculated 
from my formula, the error is derived from the air-pump, and not from the 
formula. 

The dimensions of " Amateur's " steam engine are : D = 30in., S = 6ft., 
P = 301bs., n — 30 revolutions ; for which he calculated the foot-valve to be 
a = 71 "4 square inches, from which I find that the steam has been cut off at 
half-stroke. Let us now calculate, from the formula in The Artizan, the 
required size of an air-pump for " Amateur's " engine ; we have for 301bs. 
steam expanded one-half T = 235°, and k = 1150, stroke of air-pump piston 
s = 36in., for which the diameter of the air-pump will be 



d = 0-326 x 30 



V 



72 (890 + 235) 
36 x 1150 



13'7 inches. 



instead of 18£, as " Amateur " says is the diameter of his air-pump. 

This is just the very point which I have so many times endeavoured to 
explain — that the air-pumps are generally made too large, and the foot-valve too 
small. When it has been found that a better vacuum is formed by a larger 
air-pump, I believe that that credit is due only to the increased size of the foot- 
valve. 

Let us now make a calculation of the foot-valve from the Pocket-Book 
formula ; we shall have, 

when d = 13 - 7 ; area of the piston A = - 785 x 13 - 7 2 = 147 square inches. 



and foot valve a = 



147 x 3 x 30 
100 ^2-75 



79'8 square inches. 



Should " Amateur," or any other engineer who has the opportunity of making 
a condensing engine from these formulae, be willing to let us know the result of 
it, it might lead to some important results in the construction of air-pumps. In 
the steam-engines I have made, I find the formula; come in very well. 

I shall always be willing to answer any communication, or enter into any 
discussion that will lead to some practical benefit ;— if I am wrong, I am open to 
correction. Yours most obediently, 

John W. Ntstroii. 



STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sie— This subject has received a great deal of attention in England, and been 
discussed in most of the engineering journals, but I believe it is not yet exhausted ; 
therefore a few of mv notions on the same may be found worthy a space in The 
Aetizan. Having' made a slight alteration in the steamship formulse in my 
Pocket-Book, I will explain my reason for baring done so. 



68 



Correspondence — Steamship Performance. 



["The Aktizan, 
L March 1, 1861. 



LETTERS DEMOTE. 

T = displacement of the vessel in tons. 

*■ = greatest immersed section in square feet. 

* = area of resistance in square feet. 

I = length in feet of the vessel at load line. 

b = breadth of beam in feet. 

F = total resistance of the vessel in pounds, moving in smooth water. 

Jc = co-efficient, x = exponent of the vessel. (See table.) 

M = nautical miles, or knots, per hour. 

H = actual porse power required to propel the vessel, or the horse power 

delivered by the engines after the friction and working pumps are 

deducted. 



35 T 



*-%/* 



i 2 



J2 + Jc p 



F = 4 * M* 3 



H = 



*M3 

81 



Exponent x and Co-efficient Jc. 


Ex, x Co-ef. Jc. 


Ex. x. Co-ef. Jc. 


Ex. x. Co-ef. Jc. 


1-00 - o-ooo 


0-74 - 1-28 


0-61 — 1-93 


0-95 - 0-024 


0-73 - 1-35 


0-60 - 1-88 


0-90 - 0-228 


0-72 - 1-43 


0-59 - 1-82 


0-88 - 0-326 


0-71 - 1-51 


0-58 - 1-77 


0-86 - 0-432 


0-70 - 1-59 


0-57 - 1-72 


0-84 - 0-558 


0-69 - 1-64 


0-56 - 1-67 


0-82 - 0-622 


0-68 - 1-71 


0-55 - 1-61 


0-80 - 0-836 


0-67 - 1-77 


0-54 — 1-55 


0-79 - 0-902 


0-66 - 1-84 


053 - 1-50 


0-78 - 0-978 


0-65 - 1-90 


0-52 - 1-44 


0-77 - 1-050 


0-64 - 1-96 


0-51 - 1-38 


0-76 - 1-12 


0-63 - 2-00 


0-50 - 1-32 


0-75 - 1-20 


0'62 - 1-97 


0-49 - 1-26 



Example 1. — The U.S. steam frigate, Niagara, is I = 328 - 9 feet long, 6 = 55 
feet wide ; greatest immersed section y = 855 square feet ; displacement, T = 
5000 tons. Required,. — What horse power is necessary to propel her M = 10 
knots per hour in smooth water ? 



Exponent x = 



35 x 5000 
855 x 328-9 



0-63 nearly. 



See table for exponent 0'63 answers the co-efficient Jc = 2, and the area of 
resistance will be : 

* = 855 ^/ 55 2 +2 5 ^ 328-92 = 104 s 1 uare feet - 

104 x 10 3 
Actual power H = gj = 1284 horses. 

Example 2. — A freight steamer oil = 210 feet, 6 = 34, ■*■ = 480 square feet 
T = 2310 tons, M = 6 nautical miles per hour. Required. — The horse power. ' 

35 x 2310 
x = 480 x 210 = °' 80j for w,licu k ~ °" 836 - 



48 0/ y/ 



342 



H 



84-3 x 
81 



34 s + 0-836 x 210 



224 horses. 



= 84-3 scraare feet. 



In these two examples the quality of performance is considered to be the same ; 
but if brought to the test of Mr. Atherton's formula, they will give quite different 
co-efficients. The following table contains data from a table in the second report 
of the Committee on Steamship Performance presented to the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science ; it is also published in The Aetizan for July, 
1860. The results from the data by my formulas are annexed. 



Name op Vessels. 


Dimensions from Table of the Committee on Steam- 
ship Performance. 


Results given by Nystrom's 
Formulae. 


Remarks. 


1 


6 


T 


T. 


M. 


H. 


H. 


* 


X. 


Jc 


Niagara 


feet. 
328-9 

156 

300 

1765 
257 
332 
232 

254-4 
195 
192 
172 
124 


feet. 
55 

32 

52 

32-7 

30 

39 

29 

30 

30 

30 

18-75 

25 


sq. feet. 
856 

424 

886 

274 

302 

577 

308 

261 

260 

260 

99 

154-3 


tons. 
5075 

1428 

5462 

870 

1345 

3375 

1220 

1300 

810 

700 

280 

294 


knots. 
10-9 

6-9 
13-29 
10-07 
10-4 
12-35 
10-0 
11-5 
10-4 
lO'O 
13-2 

8-0 


indicated 
1955 

240-75 

4044 

428 
1160 
2800 

800 
1088 

600 

500 

790 

157 


actual. 
1600 

312 

3690 

450 

352 

1122 

345 

450 

415 

444 

233 

156 


sq. feet. 
100 

77 

127 

35-6 

25-3 

48-2 

27-9 

23-9 

29-8 

36 

8-2 

24-6 


exponent 
0-63 

0-75 

0-72 

0-63 

0-61 

0-62 

0-60 

: 69 

0-58 

0-49 

0-57 

0-54 


1 

co-ef. 
2 

1-2 

1-43 

2 

1-93 

1-97 

1-88 

1-64 

1-77 

1-26 

1-72 

1-55 


Propeller. 

Propeller. 

Propeller. 

Propeller. 

Paddle-wheels. 

Propeller. 

Paddle-wheels. 

Paddle-wheels. 

Propeller. 

Propeller. 

Paddle-wheels. 

Propeller. 


Massachusetts 

Mersey (H.M.S.) 

Rattler 


Lima 


Tasmania 


Valparaiso 


Mersey (R. M. Co.)... 
Gua3 r aquil 


San Carlos 


John Penn , 


Undine 





This table is not intended to show how closely my formula; agree with the re 
ported data, but to show what reliance can be placed in data given by different 
engineers and reporters, for which we will pick out the worst case, where the 
formula; differ most, namely, for the steamer John Penn. The report gives 
790 indicated horse power for 13'2 knots, while the formula; give only 233 actual 
horses for the same speed. From the indicated power take off about 25 cent, to 
bring it into actual horses = 592, or 2 - 55 times that of the formula;. Let us 
now reduce the speed of the John Penn to that of the Undine = 8 knots, and the 
required indicated power will be :— 



7 90 x 8 3 
13-23 



176 horses. 



The propeller Undine has 33 per cent, more beam, 56 per cent, more immersed! 
section, and more displacement, making the area of resistance three times that 
of the Jo Jin, Penn ; but it requires only 157 indicated horses for 8 knots, while 
the JoJm Penn should require 176 ; and, moreover, the John Penn is a paddle- 
wheel steamer, which ought to give a better result than the propeller Undine. 
How can this be explained ? Are the formulae to be condemned, or the reported 
data ; or is it possible to establish a theory that will agree with such data ? 

The mischief originated from the theory of steamship performance is attributed 
principally to the different ways in which different engineers estimate horse power 
— some giving the speed in statute miles, and others in knots, which are not 
always clearly explained.. Persons not accustomed to handle formulas in connec- 
tion with practice getlhold of reported data, and blindly apply them to fonc-alas, 
and a controversy is raised. Should any one make remarks on my formula^ 



The Abttzan, 
March 1, 1981. . 



Notices to Correspondents. — 'Recent Let/at Decisions. 



please take good care to ascertain the correctness of the given data ; not that I am 
afraid of being exposed, whether the formulae are right or wrong, hut the wrong 
data produce a great deal of mischief to the general interest. For similarly propor- 
tioned vessels the resistance is a function of V M 2 , and the horse power a function 
of 4> M 3 . The displacement of a vessel is a function of the cube of any linear di- 
mension of the same, and the greatest immersed section, T, is a function of the 

square of any linear dimension of the displacement ; consequently, v T is a 

function of any linear dimension, and (<i/ T) 2 = V T 2 is a function of T; there- 

3 

fore the resistance is a function of M 2 V T-, and the horse power is a function 

3 M 3 Tf 

of M 3 V T 2 ; thus we arrive at what is known as Atherton's formula, C = — tt — 

about which so much controversy has existed in your journal. 

My formulae give precisely the same result for similarly proportioned vessels 
as that of Mr. Atherton's, and it will be found that they give different co-efficients 
for different proportions of vessels, as seen in the two examples, where the quality 
of performance is considered to be the same. 



Example 1.— C = 



Example 2.— C = 



10 3 a/5000 2 
1284 

6 3 -% 3 /2310 2 
224 



= 2281 

A 



168 



: Atherton's 
co-efficient. 



The co-efficients are here very small, compared with Mr. Atherton's, on account 
of the different estimate of horse power, but the proportion is the same ; it can, 
however, in neither case be considered a measure of quality of performance for 
different proportions of vessels, neither can it be considered a measure of commer- 
cial value, because the commercial effect produced will be — 



Example 1.= 



Example 2. — 



10 x 5 000 

1284 
i x 2.310 

224 



39 



-= 62 



^Effects. 



which is quite the reverse of the co-efficients. If my formulae are well understood, 
it will be found that they trace a line of justice between the engineer and ship- 
builder, that when the performance is known it shows to whom the praise or 
blame is due. 

In the next edition of my Pocket-Book will be found complete tables of steam- 
ship performance, calculated for vessels of different sizes, and different speeds, 
and the required horse power. 

My reason for having altered formula 2 is that . / i n the former 

editions of my Pocket-Book does not answer for flat bottomed vessels of light 



draft; but in this formula 2 the . / & ^ ^ w \\\ be correct for all propor- 
tions. I believe that many deficiencies in tables and data are caused by the 
trouble of calculation, that persons may not have time or feel disposed to calcu- 
late what may be readily to hand, and therefore dispense with it. Eor my own 
part, I have no such trouble, all my calculations being done by machinery ; I 
manage the calculating machine with my left hand, and pen and paper with my 
right, putting down the results as easy as if copied. Without this instrument I 
should not he able to produce one-tenth of the calculations and tables which I 
am constantlv bringing out. 

JOHN W. NYSTROM. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

A. R. C. (St. Petersburg.) — A paper lias been read, we believe, at the Institution of 
1 , Engineers of Scotland, on the " Different Plans of Surface Condensation," by a Mr. 

Thomas Davison, who is, we believe, the agent for an American Patent Condenser 
(Sewell's). Mr. J. F. Spencer has had his condenser in use for about four years, and he is 
now fitting it in a considerable number of ships. The Surface Condenser of Mr. Scott, 
of Rouen, which has been illustrated in The Artizan, is an admirable contrivance, and 
we believe answers thoroughly. We cannot answer the last of your questions. 
C. Junior.— The name of the inventor is Pougault. We have written to Paris for you. 

B. A. C. — The gentleman died some four months ago. Dr. Williamson, of University 
College, London, abandoned his patent of 8th of January, 1859 (No. 65), for Improve- 
ments in Condensers. We do not know positively whether he depends upon a current 
of air from a fan (instead of water) for the cooling action in the condensers with which 
he is at present experimenting, but we should have thought the learned Doctor was 
too well acquainted with the economic disadvantages of the use of air to have even con- 
templated its use, especially on board of ship. 

Q. — We are not certain whether the book has been published. Professor J. R. Young 
was to have published a course of mathematics, pure and mixed, particularly suited for 
the use of Candidates for Military and Civil Service Examinations. Write to Allen & 
Co., 7, Leadenhall-street, London. 

J. Howarb (New York). — The Black Prince, iron-cased screw frigate, is being built by 
Messrs. R. Napier & Sons, Glasgow, and it is said will he launched on the 27th or 28th 
of February. Her principal dimensions are — length, extreme, about 420ft. ; breadth, 
38ft. ; depth from spar deck, 41$ffc. ; builders' measurement, 6173 tons. Thanks for the 
the information. Mr. Silver is, we understand, now in Philadelphia. 

Steel Wire. — We cannot furnish you with the information. You had better apply to 
Messrs. Smith & Houghton, Silver-street, Warrington. We can speak with confidence 
as to the quality of their wires. The test-strain mentioned was obtained from very fine 
music wire, and was equal to about 110 to 120 tons per square inch. 



i5 conn 7 i" - may tak , e f 3 tons per s ^ uarc i:K ' h as a fair 6train - Fairbaim give* 

12,3201bs. lor cast iron, and 28,0001bs. for wrought iron. We regret we have not space 

to enter upon the subject :— refer to The Artizan for the years 1855-1860. 
C. Cp.aig.— Read The North British Review for February. 
C. S. Stuart.— There is a Scientific Society in Glasgow, whose business it is to deal 

with such questions, Address Messrs. Robert Duncan and Robert Mansel], Secretaries 

to the Scottish Shipbuilders' Association. 
An Engineer (Newcastle).— You had better refer to Mr. Woodcraft's work on Screw 

Propellers, to Bourne on Screw Propellers, and other similar works, which yon v, ill find 

in the scientific libraries in Newcastle. 

G. (Liverpool) —Corrections have been made. There is no work treating on the subject 
exclusively, but, we believe, Sir Howard Douglass's last book contained some informa- 
tion on the subject. 

Lw-Eibach— If you had read attentively The Artizan, vou would not have had 
occasion to write, as you mil find in the hack volumes all" the information jou seek 
Get Nystrom's Engineer's Pocket-Book. Write to Spon, Bucklersbury, and Weale High 
Holborn, London, for a list of books, and their prices. 

A Young Engineer (Burnley).— In a few more years you may be in a better position to 
judge of such matters. If you really knew your business, you would appreciate what 
has been done in the direction with which you find fault. We are, however ob! ; ged for 
your suggestion. Send your address, and we will give you a useful hint by 'post. 

P. B. (Lancashire). — Write to the Novelty Iron Works, New York. You may also addresn 
the manager of the Agricultural Engineering Co., Thames-street, London. We under- 
stand that an engine has been set up somewhere in that neighbourhood. 

C. — The formula is corrected in the present number. 

R. S. — The locomotive plate referred to is engraved, and has for some time been waiting 
an opportunity for its publication in The Artizan. As to surface condensers send 
your address, and we will reply through the post. We do not know the gentleman for 
whom you inquire.— The vessel and her machinery not having been sufficiently tried, 
we must for the present decline complying with .your request; we require facte. The 
diagrams you have sent us are fictitious. The fuel could not have evaporated the volume 
of water. 

C. D. — Get a thorough theoretical knowledge of Arithmetic, Logarithms, the differen- 
tial and integral Calculus, Geometry, Stereometry, and Trigonometry, besides the 
rudiments of Applied Mechanics, Natural Philosophy, and Chemistry. The following 
books would be of use to you :— Moseley's and Rankine's Applied Mechanics, Rankine's 
Steam Engine, Dempsey's Practical Railway Engineer, Simms : On Levelling, and many 
of Weale's Series of Rudimentary Works. 



ERRATA. 

In the paper " On the Strength of Boilers," the co-efficient 263 should be 266, wherever 
it occurs. 

In the same paper, page 21, Table of Fobmul.e foe Strength of Boilers' column 

31 -5?- should be 5 ™>. 
1 1 



headed, Strain per inch 



RECENT LEGAL DECISIONS 

AFFECTING THE ARTS, MANUFACTURES, INVENTIONS, &c. 
Undee this heading we propose giving a succinct summary of such decisions and other 
proceedings of the Courts of Law, during the preceding month, as may have a distinct 
and practical bearing on the various departments treated of in our Journal : selecting 
those eases only which offer some point either of novelty, or of useful application to the 
manufacturer, the inventor, or the usually — in the intelligence of law matters, at least 
— less experienced artizan. With this object in view, we shall endeavour, as much as 
possible, to divest our remarks of all legal technicalities, and to present the substance 
of those decisions to our readers in a plain, familiar, and intelligible shape. 



Howes v. the Great Ship Company (Limited). — This was an action brought in the 
Court of Queen's Bench by the plaintiff, Captain Ebenezer Howes, to recover a sum uf 
money for royalty in the use of the plaintiff's patent in rigging the Great Eastern. The 
question involved was, by whose authority the patent was used, whether it was by Mr. 
Seott Russell in the completion of his contract, so as to make him liable for the royalty, 
or whether it was extra work done by him at the suggestion of the late Captain Harrison, 
acting not merely as superintendent for Mr. Scott Russell, at his request for the proper 
completion of the work, but as the agent of the company authorising the adoption of 
the patent on their behalf. The jury returned a verdict for the defendants, after having- 
been locked up for some time. 

Blyth v. Samuda. — The plaintiff in this action, Alfred Blyth, is an engineer, and 
he sued the defendant, J. D. Aguilar Samuda, an iron shipbuilder at Poplar, to recover 
damages for the breach of a contract into which the parties had entered in August, 1858, 
whereby the defendant had contracted to build an iron steam-tug for the plaintiff, 
according to the specifications annexed to the argument, for the sum of £5000. The 
plaintiff complained that the vessel was not built according to the specifications. The 
defendant pleaded the usual pleas, and also an equitable plea, in which he alleged thai 
the variations were made with the knowledge and consent of the plaintiff, and that he 
waived them. It appears that the plaintiff had entered into a contract with the Mayence 
Steam Towing Company, to supply them with a steam- tug of a shallow draught of water, 
and enteied into a sub-contract with the defendant to construct the hull of the vessel, to 
which he was himself to add the steam engine and boilers, according to the specifications. 
The deck beams were to be of iron, fastened to the sides by knees and angle irons, and 
the whole were to be connected by two stringer plates lying on the ends of the deck beams, 
runnin" from end to end of the vessel, and rivetted to the deck beams and connected 
with the sides of the vessel. The defendant, however, substituted wooden deck beams 
for the iron beams, and instead of the iron stringerplate he put a wooden shelf, his object m 
doin^ so bein°- it is said, to lessen the draught of water. The vessel was constructed through- 
out under the inspection of plaintiff's manager, and before it was launched, the defen- 
dant's attention was drawn to the deviation from the specifications, and he was told that 
the responsibility of its being satisfactory to the Mayence Company rested with him. 
Shortly after the vessel bein- launched and fitted with her engines, sailed for Rotterdam, 
and on her voyage encountered a heavy swell from the North Sea, which caused her to 
pitch and labour a good deal, and the result was that on her arrival the Mayence Com- 
pany would not accept the vessel. The sides of the vessel had bent, or " buckled," and 
the bottom had sunk six or seven inches in the middle. The plaintiff had recovered 
£850 from the Insurance Company, and had sold the vessel for £1450 to the Mayence- 



70 



Beeent Legal Decisions. — Notes and Novelties. 



("The Abtizah, 
L March 1, 1861. 



Company, and he now sought to recover from the defendant the difference between these 
sums, and what he had paid him, viz., £5000; as he attributed the buckling of the vessel to 
the substitution of wooden deck beams, and a wooden shelf for the iron deck beams and 
iron stringer plate. The defence was, that it was necessary to have wooden deck beams 
in order to secure the vessel drawing only 3ft. water, and that the deviation from the 
specification had been adopted with the plantiff's full consent, and that it had finally been 
accepted and paid for, in satisfaction of the contract. This trial, which lasted three days, 
ended in a verdict for the defendant. 

Schlumberger and Others v. Salt. — This was an action brought by the plaintiffs, 
in the Court of Queen's Bench, woolcombers and machine manufacturers, on the Upper 
Rhine, against the defendant, the late M.P. for Bradford, for an alleged breach of an 
agreement. Mr. Salt was only the nominal defendant, the real defendant being Mr. S. 
Cardiff Lister,lthe well-known combing-machine manufacturer in this country. Mr. Salt 
and some other gentlemen had purchased of the plaintiffs the royalty for the manufac- 
ture of their machines for Great Britain, Ireland, and Scotland only, and they have sold 
the same to Mr. Lister. The plaintiffs discovered that Mr. Lister had manufactured the 
machines, and had sold them to parties on the Continent, and they brought this action 
for compensation. Before the plaintiffs' case was concluded the parties agreed to a 
verdict for the plaintiffs, damages £5000. 

Eae v. the Thames Ikon Works and Shipbuilding Company. — This was an action 
brought for the infringement of a patent which the plaintiff had taken out for an im- 
provement in the formation of the keel for iron steam vessels. The defendants pleaded 
"Not Guilty;" that it was not plaintiff 's invention ; that it was not new; that it was not 
the subject of a patent, &c. The plaintiff had been workman, foreman, and manager to 
Messrs. Rennie. The defendants' company having been established, they secured the 
sendees of the plaintiff. The defendants had contracted to build two ships for the Royal 
Mail Steam Navigation Company. The plaintiff was aware of a great defect in connecting 
the keelson with the keel in ships, and he had invented a mode of doing this, which he 
thought a great improvement. He had kept his plans and models sealed up 
in his own private office. Two persons connected with the Mail Company had come 
down to talk to him about the ships the defendants were building for them, and, in con- 
fidence, he showed them his models, telling them he should take out a patent. They 
highly approved of the plan, and requested plaintiff to apply it to their ships. In 
the beginning of April, 1858, the plaintiff took out a patent, and shortly after the 
directors and the plaintiff disagreed, and he left their service. After that time they 
applied his invention to tiie Warrior and other ships which they built, and refused to 
allow the plaintiff any royalty, and this gave rise to the present action. For the defen- 
dants it was urged that the plaintiff had communicated his invention to other persons, 
and had publicly used it in defendants' yard before he had taken out the patent ; and in 
addition to this, he had been in consultation with one of defendants' foreman about the 
^invention, and each had suggested some part thereof; therefore the invention was not 
new at the time the patent was taken out, and not solely the invention of the 
plaintiff. Witnesses were called proving the latter portion of the defence. A 
A specification sent in by the RoyalMail Steam Navigation Company was put in. It was 
dated March, 1858 ; the drawing in that specification contained the groove. It was said 
to have been a matter of common discussion in defendants' yard before that time. The 
object of cutting the groove was well known. The Lord Chief Justice here interposed, 
and asked, if the jury believed defendants' witnesses, how could the plaintiff succeed. It 
was one of the hardships attending such things when a man told his invention ; he 
always regretted that an inventor should so defeat his own interest. The plaintiff' was, 
therefore, nonsuited. • 



NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 



OUR "NOTES AND NOVELTIES" DEPARTMENT— A SUGGESTION TO OUR 
READERS. 

We have received many letters from correspondents, both at home and abroad, thanking 
us for that portion of this Journal in which, under the title of "Notes and Novelties," 
we present our readers with an epitome of such of the " events of the month preceding" 
as may in some way affect their interests, so far as their interests are connected with 
any of the subjects upon which this Journal treats. This epitome, in its preparation, 
necessitates the expenditure of much time and labour ; and as we desire to make it as 
perfect as possible, more especially with a view of benefiting those of our engineering 
brethren who reside abroad, we venture to make a suggestion to our subscribers, from 
which, if acted upon, we shall derive considerable assistance. It is to the effect that we 
shall be happy to receive local news of interest from all who have the leisure to collect 
and forward it to us. Those Who cannot afford the time to do this would greatly assist 
our efforts by sending us local newspapers containing articles on, or notices of, any facts 
connected with' Railways, Telegraphs, Harbours, Dooks, Canals, Bridges, Military 
Engineering, Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, Boilers, Furnaces, Smoke Prevention, 
Chemistry as applied to the Industrial Arts, Gas and Water Works, Mining, Metal- 
lurgy, &c. To save time, all communications for this department should be addressed 
"19, Salisbury-street, Adelphi, London, W.C." and be forwarded, as early in the month 
as possible, to the Editor. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Tubular Steam Cranes. — The two powerful tubular steam cranes erected for the 
Government by Messrs. Fairbairn & Sons have been recently subjected to a series of 
severe tests, before being formally taken possession of by Government. The largest of 
the two cranes is a fine specimen of mechanical engineering, and has been constructed 
of sufficient strength to sustain nearly double the number of tons that it will ever be 
required to bear. In order to cany the enormous weight thrown upon the foundation, 
excavations were made to the depth of nearly 30 feet, where a firm bed of concrete was 
laid, supporting a number of iron cylinders, each of 15 feet in length, the whole being 
totted firmly together, and surrounded with brickwork. The arm of the crane forms the 
segment of a circle of 25 feet radius, the w-hole being formed of half-inch wrought-iron 
plates. By a simple contrivance it can be so adjusted that the crane may be worked by 
manual labour as well as steam, eight men being required to lift weights of 15 tons, 
while the nominal power of the engine when steam is used is 7 horse. During the expe- 
riments recently made, the crane was first tested with a few tons weight, which was gra- 
dually increased until a strain of 15 tons 7 cwt. was obtained, three of the heaviest guns 
on the wharf being raised with the greatest apparent ease. In order to show the perfect 
control of the engine, the guns were repeatedly raised and lowered with the greatest 
rapidity, while, by a simple contrivance, the weight was moved round to any required 
spot by means of a spur segment, on which the crane travels. At the period of the 
heaviest strain it was ascertained that the deflection of the crane was only 2 inches, 
returning l*- inches when the weight was removed, leaving a \ inch of settled deflection, 



or dead set. Similar experiments were made with the second crane, the results of which 
were equally satisfactory. 

Reab-Admieal of the Blue Robebt Spencer Robinson has been appointed by the 
Admiralty as successor to Rear-Admiral Sir Baldwin W. Walker in his office as Controller 
of the Navy. 

Ships' Pumps.— An official trial recently took place in Portsmouth dockyard of the two 
patent systems of ships' pumps (Downton's and Roberts's) commonly in use in the navy— 
Downton's being a 7 inch or regulation pump, and Roberts's a doubie-action twin pump 
of 5i inches. The result proved that five tanks, measuring 200 gallons each were filled 
with water by Roberts's pump in 17 minutes 27 seconds, with 520 strokes, and by Down- 
ton's, with 746 strokes, in 21 minutes 40 seconds ; being 42 per cent, in favour of the 
former in capacity, and about 20 per cent, in time. 

Experiments lately made at Pittsburg, U.S., on the strength of iron compressed by 
cold rolling, show that the operation imparts to this metal a strength of about HO'OOO lbs 
per square inch, when before it bore but 65,000 lbs. 

Anvil Block.— Messrs. Morrison & Co., of Ousburn, Newcastle-on-Tyne, cast a few 
days since an enormous anvil block, weighing upwards of 34 tons, for the Elswick 
Ordnance Works. The melting of the metal occupied five hours, aDd the immense mass 
will take three weeks to cool, when it will be removed to its bed at Elswick. 

The Largest Cast-ieon Building in the Woeld is now erecting' in Havana 
Cuba. It is 800ft. long, 70ft. wide, and 50ft. high, and is to be used as a warehouse to 
store merchandise on the dock. 

The Numbee op Steamers built in the United Kingdom in 1856| was 298 steamers 
measuring 90,549 tons ; in 1857, 321 steamers, measuring 87,594 tons ; in 1858, 221 
steamers, measuring 80,106 tons ; in 1859, 219 steamers, measuring 61,375 tons - and in 
1S60, 242 steamers, measuring 103,662 tons. In the latter number is included the tonna<*e 
of the 6-reat Eastern. 

Stone-Breaking Machine.— A Bombay paper thus describes a new machine invented 
to supersede manual labour in stone-breaking :— " Embedded in a strong wooden frame 
is what is termed a vertical jaw, formed of white metal, chilled. This is corrugated at 
intervals of about two-and-a-half inches. Opposite the vertical is the hanging or move 
able jaw, which works at an angle of about forty-five with the other, thus with it forming 
a kind of hopper, into which are placed the larger stones for reduction into metal the 
hanging jaw propelled forward two hundred times in a minute by a lever moved on a 
taggle-joint, worked by a crank and fly-wheel, thus giving the necessary sharp, hammer- 
like blows to the stone. This machine, being upon two large wheels, and havin" an 
arrangement in front to which smaller ones may be attached, can be transported at 
pleasure, and with very little trouble or loss of time. It crushes bluestone at the rate of 
four cubic yards per hour, and can be set at pleasure to a large or small gauge A 
cylinder, with different sized meshes, when required, is attached to the apparatus' the 
smaller apertures being nearest the feeder." 

Surface Condensers.— It has been found that the tubes of the Poisson surface con- 
densers, used in many of the American steamships, become so injured after two years' 
use as to be entirely worthless. This result is attributed to the sprinkling of cold water 
upon them instead of its circulating in bulk among them. 

An Iron Ship, 300ft. long, is about lin. longer when in the Gulf stream than in the 
Northern seas, with the water at a temperature of about 35 deg., the difference beine - 
due to the expansion of the iron in the warmer current. 

By the Return made by Lloyd's up to 14th ult., the number of losses and casualties 
during the recent storm amounted to 210. When the returns are completed, it is hi°-hly 
probable the number will not be far short of 300. 

The Admiralty have come to the determination of abolishing the rank of third-class 
assistant engineer in the navy. Assistant engineers of the first-class will, in future, be 
styled engineers; those who are at present in the second-class will become first-class - 
and those of the third-class will be designated second-class assistant engineers. 

Before the Publication of Lieutenant Maury's wind and current charts, the average 
length of a voyage by sailing ship between England and Australia was 124 days. The 
average is now ninety-seven days, the passage having once been made in sixty-three days 

On the 10th ult., on the Great Northern Railway, near Doncaster, a wooden bridge 
was carried away by a flood. An express train had passed over it not long before and 
the discovery of the accident was just in season to stop another train about leavin°- Don- 
caster at 1.17 a.m. The traffic was interrupted until late on the following day. 

The Tyne Improvement Commissioners have erected, at the west-end of the New 
Quay, North Shields, a mast and apparatus, to be used by the Coastguard in giving 
instructions to seamen in the use of the rocket apparatus in cases of shipwreck. ' 

French Navy.— An official statement ol the French Navy states as follows':— At this 
time, when the only war ships worthy of the name are steamers, our real force is 
reduced to eighty-eight vessels, even including those of a mixed order, which are but of 
secondary value. These eighty-eight vessels are thus classed : — 

New Ships. Mixed. Total. 

Liners 12 23 35 

Plated Frigates 1 — i 

Ordinary Frigates ... 11 6 17 

Corvettes 7 — 7 

Avisos 28 — 28 

59 29 88 

A Great Vessel of Olden Times.— Ptolemy Pliilopater, who lived some 200 years 
before Christ, had a ship with forty banks of rowers, being 560ft. in Iength-^lOOft longer 
than the Persia, and 120ft. shorter than the O-reat Eastern— -76ft. from one side to the 
other ; height to gunwales, it was 96ft. ; and from the highest part of the stern to the 
water-line it was 100ft. It had four rudders, each 60ft. Ions:. When it put to sea it held 
5000 rowers, and 400 supernumeraries, and or. the deck were 3000 mariners. 

Captain Sih Edward Belchee, C.B. (owing to the demise of Admiral Sir George 
Mundy), is now promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral. 

A Set of very Poweeful Sheers, worked by steam power, and adequate to lift the 
largest class of marine boilers and machinery, is in course of construction by Messrs 
Jackson & Watkins, at the Canal Iron Works, Poplar, for the use of the port of Sebastopol' 

The British Navy.— A parliamentary return has just been issued, showing the' 
number of Her Majesty's steam and sailing ships afloat, building, and converting on the 
lstlof the present month. Of steamships afloat there are 392 screw, and lli'paddle 
making a total of 505, and 57 are building or converting. The effective sailing ships 
afloat are 129, making the total of steam and sailing ships 688. Of the steam ships afloat 
53 are ships of the line, screw ; 31 are frigates, screw, and 9 paddle ; 9 block ships screw - 
1 iron-cased ship, screw ; 19 corvettes, screw ; 58 sloops, screw, and 35 paddle • '3 small 
vessels, screw, and 21 paddle ; 189 gun vessels and gunboats, screw ; 8 floating batteries 
screw ; 17 transports, troop ships, tenders, yachts, &c, screw, and 48 paddle ; and 4 
mortar ships, screw. The steamships building or converting are 14 ships of the line 

12 frigates, 6 iron-cased ships, 4 corvettes, 14 sloops, 4 gun vessels and gunboats all the 

foregoing are screw vessels ; 2 despatch vessels, paddle ; 1 transport. The effective sailing 
ships afloat are divided into 10 ships of the line — 8 of these, and 2 from the non-effective 
list, are fit to be converted into block ships ; 17 frigates, 4 of these are fit to be converted • 
18 sloops and 8 small vessels, and 83 mortar vessels, floats. 

Shipbuilding and Repairing. — A return has been presented to Parliament, furnishin" 
particulars of the expenditure of the four millions voted for the building and repair 0? 
ships, and the wages of artificers for the year 1859-60, On 49 ships and vessels building 



The Artizan,! 

March 1, 1861. J 



Notes and Novelties. 



71 



there was expended £1,018,061 ; on six ships commenced as sailing ships and converted 
to screws while building, £193,727 ; on 17 ships launched as sailing ships, and subsequently 
converted into screws, £322,074 ; for the fitting out and refitting, and for repairs, and the 
maintenance of 239 steamships and vessels in commission £819,976 ; and of 56 sailing 
ships and vessels, £39,194 ; for the fitting, refitting, and repairs and maintenance of 207 
ships and vessels in the steam ordinary, £362,256, but the corresponding outlay on 100 
ships in ordinary appears to have been met by credits given for stores returned on paying 
off; for the fitting and maintenance of hulks, £5560 ; and for the maintenance of yard 
craft, £21,611. Then there were £286,752 paid for building vessels by contract, £762,590 
for machinery of steam vessels, £343,136 for miscellaneous expenses, and £110,508 for 
stores sent abroad. 

Iron Shipbuilding on the Tyne. — On the 17th ult. there was launched, from the 
building yard of Messrs. Mitchell & Co., a full-rigged iron screw steamship, named the 
Western, of the following dimensions : — Length, 183ft. ; breadth, 23ft. ; depth, 12'2ft. 
The engines, by Messrs. Stephenson & Co., Newcastle, are of 100 horse power, and are of 
the same principle as that of the iron vessel Diamwiitina. The Diamantina has had 
two trial trips. The result of the latter was even more satisfactory than the former, the 
vessel attaining a greater amount of speed with a less consumption of fuel. The average 
speed attained was 94 knots per hour, being half a knot above the contracted speed, on a 
consumption of l'231bs. coal per indicated horse power. 

Puddling Machine. — A self-acting puddling machine may be seen up to the 13th inst. 
at 21, Rhodeswell-road, Stepney, practically making puddled balls without manual labour. 

International Exhibition op 1862. — The arrangements for holding the second Inter- 
national Exhibition of Works of Industry and Art in 1862 are steadily progressing. A 
Royal Charter has been granted empowering the commissioners to borrow the sum of 
£250,000. The funds borrowed are to be expended on the erection of such building as 
may be necessary, and in the general expenses attending the enterprise. Of the building 
to be raised, one acre only is to be of a permanent character, and upon this portion the 
sum of £50,000 is to be expended in its erection and completion. Should the Exhibition 
be attended with a profit, in this case the permanent building is to be vested in the 
Society of Arts, and used by them for purposes tending to promote arts, manufactures, 
and commerce ; but in case of a deficiency at the close of the Exhibition, the Society of 
Arts is to have the power to claim a lease of the same upon its undertaking to pay to the 
commissioners such money as the buildings would be likely to realize if taken down ; but 
in case the Society of Arts should not claim a lease, then the commissioners are to sell 
the one acre of permanent building, and convert into money all properties and effects 
belonging to them, which can be sold and converted, particularly all the buildings erected 
by them for the purposes of the undertaking. Should there, however, at the close of the 
Exhibition, after the payment of all liabilities, be a sufficient surplus of profit remaining, 
then the one acre of permanent building is to be completed and the land retained for the 
purposes of a future Exhibition, by the payment of £10,000 to the Royal Commissioners of 
the Exhibition of 1851, on whose land the Exhibition of 1862 is to be placed, and all 
further profits are to be applied to such purposes connected with the encouragement of 
arts, manufactures, and commerce as shall be determined by the guarantors at a meeting 
to be called for that purpose. On the 23rd ult. it is stated that they came to a final deci 
sion as to the character of the building intended to be erected for the Exhibition of 
1862, and so soon as the guarantee deed is signed the Bank of England will be prepared 
from time to time to advance the necessary funds, and Messrs. Kelk and Lueas, the emi- 
nent contractors, who sent in the lowest tenders, will jointly proceed with the erection 
of the building. It is also stated that the commissioners have received the assurance of 
the French Government of its support of the Exhibition, accompanied by the statement 
that it had been the intention of the Emperor to hold an International Exhibition in 
1862, had the project not been entertained in England. The Duke of Newcastle, Secre- 
tary of State for the Colonies, has addressed a communication to the Governors of Her 
Majesty's colonies, announcing the intention to hold the Exhibition. In England some 
of our largest manufacturers are already actively engaged in preparing for this second 
display. 

A Scientific Gentleman in Jamaica, after years of study and research, claims to have 
discovered some new arrangement by which, by action and reaction, condensed air is 
enabled to keep a piston or other body in perpetual motion without extraneous aid. 

The Midland Waggon Company held their customary half-yearly meeting on the 
20th ult. The report was adopted. The net profit of the past half-year, after deducting 
£7158 for the renewal of waggons, amounted to £6550. A dividend of 10 per cent, was 
declared, and the remaining £3000 was carried to the credit of the bonus shares which are 
now paid up, and are classed with the ordinary shares of the company. Certain resolu- 
tions were then passed, by which the company will now be authorised to increase the 
capital to £200,000. 

A Dividend op 5s. per Share has lately been declared by the directors of the English 
and Australian Copper Company. It' is said the company purpose making 3000 tons of 
copper during the present year. 

A New Surveying Chain. — Mr. Payne, of the United States, has brought out a new 
invention to supersede the usual chain used in surveying. It consists of a steel measure, 
which curls up like a tape measure, but is so tempered as to be perfectly straight when 
uncoiled. The whole weight of the instrument does not exceed 31bs. A thermometer is 
attached to it, and the measure, it is stated, can always be of the same length, no matter 
what is. the temperature. 

A Dredger intended for the river Tyne, and designed to operate at a depth of 30ft., is 
now being built by Messrs. Wingate and Co. The above is the largest dredger ever built 
on the Clyde. 

STEAM SHIPPING. 

The Steam Navigation Company held their half-yearly meeting on the 26th ult., Mr. 
J. Wilkin in the chair. The report of the directors and statement of accounts were unani- 
mously adopted, and the customary dividend of 10 per cent, and the usual bonus of 2s. 6d . 
per share were declared, a vote of thanks being likewise passed to the chairman and 
directors in acknowledgment of their services. 

Tpe " Spider," screw steam gunboat, having received a thorough repair, got up steam 
on the 26th ult., and proceeded from Hamoaze into Plymouth Sound, to try her machinery. 

The " Royal Albert." — At Devonport there are various rumours regarding the fate of 
the screw steamship Royal Albert, 121. Some contend that she will be cut down ; others, 
that she is so much decayed as to be not worth repairing. 

Queensland — Australia. — A number of influential colonists have projected a Steam 
Navigation Company with a view to increase the traffic, lower the rates of freight, and 
afford the Government greater facilities for carrying on the mail service between Brisbane 
and the northern parts of the colony. The capital of the company is £25,000, divided 
into shares of £10 each. Arrangements have already been made with the Government 
for the conveyance of the mails from the 1st of April, 1862 ; and as the mail subsidy will 
cover the working expenses, the shares will soon take a high stand. As nearly all the 
shares intended to be issued have been taken up, it was determined to appoint an early 
day for the election of directors. 

New (South Wales. — The H.R.N.S.N. Company forwarded home instructions by the 
last mail for a new steamer, to be built to their order. She will be about 15ft. longer, 
with 1ft, more beam, than the City of Newcastle, and of about 180 H.P. She is to com- 
bine all the latest improvements, and is expected to be one of the fastest paddle-boats in 
the colonies. 

The "Metropolis," screw steamer, of London, sunk on the 12th ult., off the Hermitage 
Rocks, Jersey. 



The Steam Reserve in the Medway, at Chatham, is composed of the following 
line of battle and other screw steamers :— First division— The Meanee, 81,-400 horse 
power; Phaston, 51,— 400 horse power ; Challenger, 22,— 400 horse power; Malacca, 17,— 2O0 
horsepower; Chameleon, 17,— 200 horse power; Griffin, 5,— 80 horse power ; Lee, 5,— 80 
horse power ; and five gunboats, each of 2 guns, and 60 horse power. Second division— 
The Rood, 91,-600 horse power; Rodney, 90,-500 horse power; Waterloo, 90,-500 horse 
power; Goliath, 80, — 100 horse power ; Irresistible, 80,— 4W horse power; Secern, 51,-500 
horsepower; Galatea, 26,— SOO horse power ; Orpheus, 21,— 400 horse power ; Orestes, 21, 
—400 horse power ; Soratio, 12,-250 horse power ; Dragon, 6,-560 horse power ; Victor, 
6,-350 horse power ; Plover, 5,-80 horse power ; Wanderer, 4,-200 horse power ; Cormor- 
ant, 4,-200 horse power ; Racehorse, 4,-200 horse power. The floating batteries— Thunder- 
bolt 16—200 horse power ; Etna, 16,-200 horse power ; Thunder, 14,-150 horse power ; and 
5 gunboats. Third division— The Ansen, 91,-800 horse power ; Atlas, 91,-800 horse power; 
Newcastle, 51— 600 horse power ; Eurotus, 12,-200 horse power (mortar ship) ; Swallow, 
9,-60 horse power ; Hermes, 6,-200 horse power ; Virago, 6,-300 horse power; Locust, 3, 
—100 horsepower; and 10 screw gunboats. Fourth division-The Collingwood, 80,-400 
horse power ; Leander, 51,-400 horse power ; Phoenix, 6,-260 horse power, and 1 gunboat. 

Progress op Steam Shipping.— A return has been published, from which it appears 
that in 1860 the number of steamers built for British owners were— 28 vessels of wood, 
811 tons ; 140 vessels of iron, 79,570 tons. For foreign account, 71 steamers of wood! 
23,280 tons ; 242 of iron, 103,662 tons. 

The "Queen Victoria" steamer, which run on shore near Plymouth in January last, 
has since been most successfully raised by the use of Gwynne's Pumps. This is the tenth 
large vessel recently raised and floated by the use of these centrifugal pumps. 

The " Napoleon," afair representative of the new steamships of the fine of the French 
Navy, has an extreme length of 262ft., a breadth of 53ft. 8in., and a draught of 25ft. 3in. 
Her immersed mid-section is 10634 square feet, and displacement, 5050 tons. Her engines 
have 98-j in- cylinders, 5ft. 3in. stroke, and her four-bladed propeller is 19ft. in diameter, 
and has a pitch of 27ft. llin. She has eight boilers, and forty furnaces, and at a maximum 
speed of 12'14 knots, burns 143 tons of coal per day, carrying five days' supply. 

The " Ripon," belonging to the Peninsular and Oriental Company,has come to London 
to be lengthened 35ft. 

The "Cockatrice," new class gunboat, made her official trial of speed a few days ago 
at Portsmouth. The mean of her runs at the measured mile gave her a speed of rather 
over 8| knots. Her engines are 60 horse nominal, condensing, by Messrs. Penn. Their 
working gave entire satisfaction. 

Steam Shipbuilding on the Clyde. — Messrs. Napier and Sons, of Govan, are 
building a fine new steamer, to be named the Scotia, and intended for the Cunard line of 
Atlantic steamers. The Scotia will, next to the Great Eastern, be the largest mercantile 
steamer built. Messrs. Napier have also entered into a contract to build an iron-cased 
war steamer, intermediate in size between the Warrior and the Resistance. The con- 
tract has been taken at £41 10s. per ton, as compared with £37 per ton in the Black 
Prince, and £31 10s. in the ease of the Warrior. Messrs. Napier's tender is, however, 10s, 
per ton lower than a similar one entered into by Messrs. Westwood, Baillie, and Co., 
of Milwall, Poplar. The new batteries (which are intended for block-ships), instead of 
being limited, as regards their iron-casing, to a length of 214ft. amidships on each side, 
will be plated entirely round from below the water-line upwards. 

Steamship Paddle Floats. — The Royal paddle yacht Victoria and Albert, on the 
occasion of the recent trip to Madeira from Antwerp, sustained considerable injury to her 
paddle-floats during the exceedingly violent weather she experienced throughout the trip, 
particularly on the outward voyage. Since her floats have been unslipped and examined, 
it has become a question whether they could not be made from some more durable 
material than that which has been hitherto used — English oak. To ascertain this satis- 
factorily, a series of tests have been tried at Portsmouth, and the result appears to be that 
it will be difficult to supersede English oak with any other material more durable for the 
purpose. Each float of the yacht's paddles measure lift. 6in. in length, by 4ft. 4in. in 
width, the wood being 4in. thick. One of these floats — a spare one— was tested. The 
others tested comprised two new ones, of the same wood— English oak, one of American 
oak, and one of wrought iron, the latter being plates rivetted together with a space 
between. The mode of testing was by placing the float with its two ends resting on 
bulks of timber. Across the centre of the float, transversely, ran a bar of iron, 4in. square, 
from which was suspended the weights for trying the float's resisting powers. The 
American oak broke at 32 tons. The wood forming this float was of the finest character, 
and most even grain, and without a knot in any part. One of the new English oak floats 
broke at 28 tons, and the other at 24 tons. These floats were much weakened by having 
iron plates on their surface, each containing nine or ten bolt holes. The one that broke 
at 28 tons, had it been without this iron plate, and its accompanying bolt holes, would 
doubtless have stood as great a strain as the American oak. The Victoria and Albert's 
spare float broke at 21 tons, and the wrought iron one broke at 19 tons. 

The "Philomel." — Gripeiths'sScrew. — The Philomel, 5, screw-gun vessel, tested her 
speed in Stokes' Bay, on the 8th ult. The average of the runs made at the mile gave the 
ship a speed in knotsof9'540,usinga Griffiths's propeller, atadraught of water of 12ft. 5in. 
aft, and 10ft. 9in. forward. On her trial at light draught, prior to her commission, drawing 
lift. 5in. aft, and 7ft. lin. forward, using the Admiralty or common screw, she attained a 
speed of 10'851 knots. The diameter and pitch of the screw being in both cases nearly 
the same, the Griffiths used in the present trial being 9ft. diameter, with a pitch of 12ft. 
6in. ; and the Admiralty screw used hi the trial at light draught only differing from 
Griffiths's in having 2in. less pitch. The Torch, a sister vessel to the Philomel, on her deep 
draught trial, madeiJ'843, the draught of water being about equal. The Ranger, also a 
sister vessel, on her deep draught trial, drawing 4-J-in. less than the Philomel, made 
8'981 knots. 

The " Wanderer," 4, gunboat, 200 horse power, on the 14th ult., proceeded to the mea- 
sured mile off Maplin Sand for the purpose of testing her machinery. The trial lasted 
five hours, and was most satisfactory. The vessel made six runs, and attained a mean 
speed of 104 knots per hour; revolutions, 92 ; draught of water forward, 8.7; aft, 10.7 
pressure of steam, 201b. ; vacuum, 25. 

The "Pelican," 17, screw, just completed in the fitting of her machinery by Messrs. 
RavenhiU, Salkeld, and Co., made her official trial of speed on the 14th ult., at the mea- 
sured mile in Stokes' Bay. The ship drew 12ft. 2in: aft, and lift, forward, being in 
light trim, and about 16in. less than she will be with guns, cables, masts, and rigging on 
board. She was propelled by a Griffiths screw of 12ft. diameter, and a pitch of 14ft. Sin. ; 
pressure of steam, 201b. ; vacuum, 25; revolutions of engines, maximum, 112; mean, 110. 
The mean of six runs gave the ship a speed in knots of 11-380, the boilers and machinery 
performing their duty well. 

The " Barossa," steam corvette, 21 guns, 400 horse power, was taken to the Maplin 
Sands on the 16th ult., for the purpose of testing her machinery and capabilities at the 
measured mile. The Barossa is a new and handsome vessel, lately launched at Wool- 
wich, and built from plans designed by Sir Baldwin Walker, late Controller of the Navy. 
She is a sister ship to the Jason. Her length between perpendiculars is 225ft. 6in., her 
beam, 40ft. 6in., and her tonnage, 1650. Her engines are built by Messrs. Watts and Son, 
of Birmingham. During her trial, the vessel was tested in every manner, and found to 
work exceedingly well, and with very little vibration. She attained an average speed of 
12-19 knots per hour, giving a draught of water forward of 15ft., and aft 17 ; mean revo- 
lutions, 66; pressure of steam, 20 ; indicating horse power, 800; nominal horse power, 
400. She is propelled with one of Griffiths's screw propellers, the diameter of which is 
16ft., and the pitch 24ft. 



72 



Notes and Novelties. 



TThe Aktizaw 
L March 1, 1881. 



RAILWAYS. 

Thames Embankment and Railway Bill. — The object of this bill is to authorise 
the embankment of the Thames on the Middlesex side, between Westminster and Black- 
friars bridges, so that it may be rendered available as the site of a mam sewer and of 
a railway, and afford space also for a road and for approaches. The estimated expense 
of the embankment, works connected with it, road, and approaches, is £600,000, and of 
the railway, £75,000. Power is proposed to be given to the Commissioners for Woods, 
Forests, and Land Revenues, to contribute any funds that Parliament may place at their 
disposal for that purpose, towards the undertaking. It is to be competent for the 
Metropolitan Board of Works to construct the embankment, a sewer for the main drainage 
of the metropolis, and contribute a sum of £400,000, out of any funds placed at their 
disposal by Parliament. The approaches to the roadway will be from Whitehall-place 
and Waterloo-bridge, and the eastern end of the embankment will unite with the line 
which the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway are authorised to construct to 
Farriugdon-street, there communicating with other railways, having terminal stations 
in the city, and power is to be given to such railways to contribute. Borrowing powers 
are to be sought in addition to the original capital, to the extent of £100,000. The work 
is proposed to be completed in five years. 

Australian Railways. — Eight railways now radiate from Melbourne, proceeding from 
three stations. The following is a list of those now in operation :— Melbourne, St. Kilda, 
and Brighton, 8 miles ; Melbourne and Sandridge, 2J miles ; Melbourne and Williamstown, 
9 miles ; Melbourne and Geelong, 47 miles ; Melbourne and Sunbury, 24 miles ; Melbourne 
and Essenden, 4i miles ; the suburban two branches, 7 miles— total, 102 miles. The 
Sandhurst line will be open to Woodend, about 22 miles beyond Sunbury, in April or 
May. The practicability of street tramways is under discussion in the City Council, and 
locomotives on common roads are actually in use in New South Wales. 

The Nerbudda Bridge, on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, has 60 
spans of iron, and is of a total length of 3750ft. The Taphu Bridge, on the same line, 
has 32 spans, and its total length is nearly 2000ft. 

The Paris, Lyons, and Mediterranean Railway, whose lines now comprise 1201 
miles, is the largest establishment of the kind in the world. Its receipts for January 
were £356,667, whilst those of the London and North Western (966 miles) were £290,093. 
The Midland Railway now has 454 locomotive engines, 17 new goods' engines having 
been purchased during the last half-year. These engines are worked upon 678 miles of lines. 
Charing Cross Railway. — The new Cannon-street branch of the Charing Cross Rail- 
way is to be 900 yards, or rather more than half-a-mile long, and, including a bridge over 
the Thames, is estimated to cost £525,000. 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway.— On this line an experiment has been in 
progress for the last two years, to determine the best kind of rails, " every possible 
description, without regard to price," having been put down where the traffic was heaviest. 
The results are not yet determined. 

Railway - Notes from the North. — The line branching off the Great North of Scotland 
Railway, 6 miles out of Aberdeen, through the eastern districts of the county to Peter- 
head and Fraserburgh, and called the Formartim and Buehan Railway, is expected to be 
opened to Mintlaw, 30 miles from the junction, on the 1st of May this year. A line is 
making, and expected to be opened in July, 1861, from Keith (the northern terminus of the 
main line), to Pufftown (westward) ; a Bill is in Parliament this Session, for an extension of 
this line from Pufftown up the Valley of the Spey to Grantown (where Her Majesty spent 
a night last autumn). There are immense forests of fir, the largest in Scotland, at 
Abernethy, to which this line will open an access, and which are at present almost value- 
less for want of it. This line crosses the Spey three times, and as there are several 
sharp curves in it, it is proposed to employ Bogie engines only, instead of the ordinary 
locomotives. The Great North of Scotland Railway has leased the Morayshire Rail- 
way from Lossiemouth, a seaport on the Moray Frith, through Elgin to Rothes ; a junction 
of a couple of miles will be made between the Pufftown line and it, each company making 
up to the Spey — the bridge across it to be mutual— and working from this on to Elgin. 
All these branches are independent companies, to which the Great North of Scotland 
Company, supplies the rolling-stock for these lines, and works them, but gives no 
guarantees to them. The above lines just described as being in progress Will, when com- 
pleted, give a total length of nearly 250 miles of single line. The main line has been 
doubled from the Kittybrewster station to the junction of Formartim and Buehan Rail- 
ways, as the latter must be worked as a main line out of Aberdeen ; it is too expensive to 
be worked as a branch of this line. A bill is also in Parliament this Session to double 
the line from this station to the terminal station in the town, and the latter station is to 
be fully doubled in size ; in the same bill, powers are taken to purchase here, Kittybrewster, 
ground to build a complete new set of workshops. It is rumoured again that the Great 
North of Scotland line and the Scottish North Eastern line are to be joined by a line 
through the centre of Aberdeen, both companies working out of a joint station. There is 
no doubt, if this is done now, it will save the former company having eventually to double 
the present line between Kittybrewster and Aberdeen, and enlarging the stations. A 
bill is in Parliament this Session for a line from Forres, 25 miles this side of Inverness, on 
the Inverness and Aberdeen Railway to Dunkeld, through the centre of the Highlands, by 
"the pass of Killiecrankie." This line is promoted by the Inverness and Aberdeen 
Junction Railway, which joins the Great North of Scotland line at Keith, and goes to 
Inverness. It is expected to catch all the through traffic, there being little, if any, local 
traffic. We consider, however, that if the line is ever made, it will prove a very expensive 
undertaking. We understand there would be gradients on it of 1 in 65 for 20 miles at 
a stretch. 

The Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne, and Guide-bridge Junction Railway will, under 
ordinarily favourable circumstances, according to report delivered by the engineer, be 
ready for traffic in May next. 

Thb Performance of the new Express Engines, with 8ft. driving wheels, on the 
Caledonian Railway, is reported very satisfactory, notwithstanding that they are worked 
on long inclines of 1 in 75. 

At a Special Meeting of the South Staffordshire proprietors, a resolution to accept 
the proposal of the London and North- Western, to lease the line, transferring Mr. 
M'Lean's lease, was carried by a poll. 

The London and North- Western working stock, included on the 31st Decembe 
last, 839 locomotive engines : 737 first-class, 576 second-class, and 434 third-class car 
riages ; 15,565 goods waggons, besides about 4000 other vehicles of various descriptions. 
The total charge to capital, including moveable machinery and tools, is £3,427,837. 

TELEGRAPHIC ENGINEERING. 

Red Sea and India Telegraph. — The difficulties between the Red Sea and India 
Telegraph Company and Messrs. Newall have finally been settled in a satisfactory manner, 
viz., the company are to pay Messrs. Newall the gross sum of £65,000, which sum 
will include the drawback, amounting, with interest, to £26,500, thus leaving £38,500 
only to be provided for out of the funds of the company. 

Thb London District Telegraph Company have sixty stations now open. 

The Red Sea and India Telegbaph cost £70,000, and for this outlay twelve 
messages were sent, making the cost of each message £5833 6s. 8d. 

Private Telegraph. — Railway and Gas Companies, are beginning to avail themselves 
of the private wires, and within a short time it is expected that the system will be 
extended to all the Government departments, to St. Martin's-le-Grand, and the district 
post offices, to the fire engine stations, the clubs, theatres and the courts of law. 



French Telegraphs. — Preparations are now in process for establishing a new line of 
electric telegraph between Paris and London, by Dieppe and Newhaven. Three wires 
from Paris will meet one from Havre, at Malaunay, and the four will cross the Channel from 
Dieppe to Newhaven. When this line is completed, France will be connected with 
England by twelve wires, four from Calais to Dover, four from Boulogne to Folkestone, 
and four from Dieppe to Newhaven. These last are especially intended to connect 
Lyons, Bordeaux, and Marseilles directly with London. 

Mediterranean Telegraph.— -The English screw steamer, William Corry, arrived at 
Malta on the 16th ult. from Otranto, having successfully completed the submarine line of 
telegraph between Otranto and Sidari, at the north-end of the Island of Corfu. The land 
line at Otranto, connecting the cable end with that town, is completed, and the line will 
shortly be open for communication. Steps will be taken during the summer months to repair 
and the Malta and Corfu, and the Malta and Cagliari hues. It is expected that the Malta 
both Alexandria cables will be out at the end of April or beginning of May, and Her Majesty's 
ship Medina is at present engaged completing the soundings along the proposed route. 

The Malta and Alexandria Cable. — The cable shipped originally on board the 
Queen Victoria for service at Rangoon, but now intended for the Mediterranean,continues in 
the hold of the Government brigs Pilot,Rover, and corvette Araehne, which are moored near 
the Royal Albert Bridge, in Hamoaze, where it has been for the last month, and from 
where there is no immediate prospect of its removal. 

MILITARY ENGINEERING. 

The Whitworth Gun. — The experimental firing from the 80-pounder Whitworth gun 
at Portsmouth was brought to an abrupt termination by the discovery of a flaw or rent 
in the metal at the breech. The gun, which weighs four tons, has been landed from the 
StorTc gunboat, and forwarded to Woolwich. Many naval officers, experienced in gun- 
nery, are of opinion that the principle of the gun, in working metal upon metal, is radi- 
cally wrong. They argue that if any foreign substance is introduced into the bore of the 
gun, such as a cinder from the funnel, and should get between the inner surface of the 
gun and the projectile, the latter would infallibly jam, and fcie gun would buret. 

A Set of very Powerful Sheers, worked by steam power, and adequate to lift the 
largest class of marine boilers and machinery, is in course of construction by Messrs, 
Jackson and Watkins, at the Canal Iron Works, Poplar, for the use of the port of 
Sebastopol. 

The Experiments at Portsmouth, now being conducted, both for the purpose of 
testing the new rifled cannon, and their effects against iron-cased vessels, have come to a 
stand-still by the failure of the guns employed. First, the 100 pounder Armstrong was 
found defective in the proving, and lately the 80-pounder Whitworth has also failed. 
Practice with the latter has been carried on from the Stork gun-boat, by Captain 
Hewlett, of the Excellent, at the Sinus,' whose sides are cased with iron armour on the 
angulated system, and the result of the firing at 300 yards distance was a penetration of 
only 2\ inches, while the polygonal bolts dropped alongside broken. The firing from the 
68-pounder solid shot, smooth borecf, gave better results, insomuch that a few blows in 
the same spot would have driven the whole plate in. Armstrong's powder was used with 
the Whitworth, in order to give every advantage to the gun, it being of a slower combus- 
tion, important when the tremendous pressure excited by the bolt on first starting down 
the polygonal grooves is considered. It was not until the following morning that, when 
the gun was cleaned, a rent across the breeeh-band was discovered. Whatever may be 
the result of the report on the Whitworth rifling, it is now pretty elearthat of the breech- 
door, and the screw, is sufficiently objectionable; grit from the funnel, or any dirt getting 
among the threads of the screw, which are quite exposed, shut up the fire of the gun 
altogether ; and with respect to the pressure on the grooves, we venture to think that 
the callipers would show some slight enlargement of the bore at the breech end after 
continuous firing. 

The Whitwohth Ordnance. — Four Whitworth 80 pounder guns, made on the muzzle- 
loading principle, are about to be tried. Two have been made at the Royal Arsenal, 
Woolwich, and two at Manchester. The 80 pounder, which, during the recent official 
experiments at Portsmouth, was found defective, is the same which was subjected 
to a great variety of trials in 1860, and which was fired at Southport in February in that 
year. In August last an account was given of practice obtained with this gun at 5 deg., 
when a range of upwards of 3000 yards was obtained, and the charge used was lOlbs. of 
powder. When the same gun fired its 801b. projectiles through the plates and sides of 
the Trusty, charges of 121b. and 141b. powder were used, and the latter was the largest 
charge Mr. Whitworth appears ever to have employed. But when the gun was officially 
proved at Woolwich, after upwards of a year's experimental firing, it is asserted that the 
very large charge of 24lb. powder was used. It is not unlikely that so large a charge 
strained and permanently injured the gun, built up as it is of two series of hoops. With 
regard to the general working of the principle of firing hard metal projectiles from rifled 
bores, it is argued that Mr. Whitworth has fired from one of his small field guns upwards of 
2000 rounds, and the bore shows no mark of injury. In the case of large guns, both Sir 
W. Armstrong and Mr. Whitworth have great obstacles to overcome, owing to the pecu- 
liar construction required to give the necessary strength, and the difficulties arising from 
defects in materials wrought in large masses. 

The Abmstkong Guns. — In the House of Commons, in reply to a question, the Under 
Secretary for War, Mr. T. G. Baring, said, the reports received with respect to the mode in 
which the Armstrong gunsjdid their w ork in China were very satisfactory. They related to a 
number of points of small detail — to the fuses and the different portions of the guns. But 
he was inclined to think it would not be for the advantage of the country to make those 
reports public, although he was quite willing to allow any hon. member who might desire to 
inspect them the opportunity of doing so. 

LAUNCHES OF STEAMERS. 

Launch of Her Majesty's Ship " Chanticleer." — This 17 gun screw sloop, 200 
horse power, was launched from No. 2 slip at Portsmouth Yard, on Saturday morning, 
26th Jan., at eleven o'clock. She is a fine vessel, and sister ship to the Rinaldo. The 
following are her principal dimensions :— Length between perpendiculars, 185ft. ; length 
of keel for tonnage, 33ft.; breadth moulded, 32ft. 4in.; depth in hold, 17ft. 6in.; burthen 
in tons, 9,850-8-94. On the dogshores being knocked away, and hydraulic power applied, 
she went away beautifully, and was immediately after her launch taken into the steam 
basin to receive her engines, and to be brought forward for commission. The admiralty 
superintendent, and several naval and military officers were present at the launch. One 
of the daughters of Admiral Grey performed the ceremony of christening. The whole 
arrangements reflect great credit on the master shipwright, Mr. Abethell, and those 
under him. The public not being generally aware of the launch, were not, as is generally 
the case, present. The Glasgow, frigate, will be launched next month. 

Two Screw Steamers were launched at Dundee in one day, and at one tide, on the 
9th ult. One of the vessels launched is a wood-built screw steamship, specially con- 
structed for the seal and whale fisheries ; the other an iron screw steamer, built on 'specu- 
lation. The steamship for the Arctic trade was built by Messrs. Stephen and Son. The 
Polynia is 140ft. long, 29ft. broad, and measures 580 tons. The iron screw steamer Dal- 
housie was launched from the shipbuilding yard of Messrs. Gourlay, Brothers, and Co. 
This vessel is about 150ft. long, 20ft. broad, and lift. 3in. deep. The Dalhov.sie took the 
water in excellent style, in the presence of a great multitude of people, and was at once 
taken charge of by the steam tug Sampson, and towed into dock, where she is being fitted 
out for the trade between Newcastle and Dundee. 



The ArTizan.I 
March 1, 1861. J 



Notes and Novelties, 



73 



Launch of the "Ajax." — On Jan. 31, 1861, was launched from the steamship works 
of Messrs. Stothert and Martin, an iron paddle wheel steam vessel, called the Ajax. 
She is 100ft. long, 19ft. beam, and is fitted with strong and well-finished engines of 80 
horse power on the side-lever principle. She has flue boilers of great size and strength, 
made entirely of Messrs. G. B. Thorueycroft and Co.'s best iron. She is built for the 
Bristol Steam Towing Company, and will be the largest and most powerful steamship in 
their fleet. She is a handsome ship, and is the only iron one of that character that has 
ever been entirely constructed in Bristol by one firm, the hull, machinery, and boilers 
being made and fitted complete by Messrs. Stothert and Martin. She will be one of the 
fastest vessels of the class in the Bristol Channel. It is gratifying to see that the com- 
pany are promoting the building of their vessels and machinery in Bristol, where their 
money is made. 

The " Bristol," screw steam frigate, 51 guns and 600 horse-power, built at No. 1 slip 
Woolwich, was successfully launched on the 12th ult. The Bristol was subsequently 
removed to the basin, to be fitted with her engines and machinery, manufactured by 
Messrs. Napier, of Glasgow. The following are her exact dimensions : — Length, extreme, 
285ft. ; length between perpendiculars, 250 ; length of keel for tonnage, 214ft. 7in. ; 
breadth, extreme, 52ft. ; breadth for tonnage, 51ft. 6in. ; breadth, moulded, 50ft. 8in. ; 
depth in hold, 18ft. 8in. ; burthen in tons, 3027— 40-94 ; armament, one 68-pounder pivot- 
gun, 30 65-cwt„ 9ft. guns, 20 32-pounder 58-ewt. guns. 

The "Speedwell," screw steam-vessel of five guns, and 425 tons burthen, was launched 
in a most successful manner, at Deptford Dockyard, on the 12th ult. The Speedwell^ is 
now in the basin, to be fitted with her machinery and engines of 80 horse-power, which 
are manufactured by Messrs. Day & Simmons, of Southampton. 

RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. 

Fatal Accident on the London and South- Western Railway. — An accident of 
a very serious character occurred on 28th January last, to the 5'10 p.m. direct Portsmouth 
train, on the above line, near Wimbledon station, which resulted in the tender and four 
carriages being thrown off the line. One passenger (Dr. Baly) lost his life, and two 
others sustained serious personal injury. 

Fatal Accident at the Cbtstal Palace Railway Station. — On the 11th ult., two 
passengers were killed while crossing from the London, Dover, and Chatham Railway, to 
the train from the Crystal Palace to London-bridge. When the London and Chatham 
was first opened , a porter was always there to see that the passengers did not cross wbile 
the train was coming in ; but of late the crossing has often been left without any one to 
warn the passengers. 

BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 

Fatal Boilek Explosion.— On the 4th ult., a lamentable accident took place at the 
paper manufactory of Messrs. J. Dickinson and Co., Manchester. About seven o'clock 
the boiler of the works exploded, injuring four persons so severely that two have since 
died, and the others are in a very precarious state. 

From Boiler Explosions in Steamships, and other accidents to them in the United 
States during the past year, the lives lost have been 474. Of this number, 125 were from 
explosion; by collision, 308; by fires, 41. It is quite common for sloops and schooners 
in the United States to run at night, both at sea and on rivers, without a light ! and when 
a steamboat comes snorting up iri dangerous proximity, there is usually a desperate rush 
made to display a tallow candle at the head or stern. 

The Association foe the Prevention of Steam Boiler Explosions. — At the 
monthly meeting of the executive committee, held on Tuesday, the 29th Jan., Mr. L. E. 
Fletcher, C.E., chief engineer, presented his report, from which the following are ex- 
tracts : — We have made 92 visits, and examined 199 boilers and 165 engines. Of these 
visits, three have been special. Of these boilers, 2 have been specially, 159 externally, 6 
internally, and 32 thoroughly examined. Eight cylinders have been indicated at ordinary 
visits. The principal defects met with during the month are as follows . — Fracture, 4 
(1 dangerous) ; corrosion, 15 (2 dangerous) ; safety-valves out of order, 5 (1 dangerous) ; 
water gauges out of order, 4; pressure gauges ditto, 4; blow-off cocks ditto, 6 (2 dan- 
gerous) ; fusible plugs, 4; furnaces out of shape, 1 (dangerous) ; over pressure, 1. Total 
41 (7 dangerous). Boilers without water gauges, 3; blow-off cocks, 15; feed check 
valves, 8. The chief engineer in his report, which is too long for insertion in evtenso, re- 
marked that two boilers had been inspected during the last month, which, although 
working at a pressure of 101b., yet were not fitted w'th their own independent safety 
valves, but had to rely for the escape of their steam upon the safety valves of some ad- 
joining boilers, the commtmication to which could be intercepted, and the arrangement, 
was consequently pregnant with danger. Attention was called in the report to the too 
frequently disregarded weakening effect of steam domes upon the shells of boilers, re- 
ference by way of illustration being made to an explosion which took place lately to a 
boiler, not under the inspection of this association, which, though of good material and 
workmanship, went right through the opening for the steam dome, the dome itself being 
blown completely over the mill. This explosion was attended with fatal consequences, 
and two other explosions, equally disastrous, had occurred during the last few weeks. 
Neither were these two boilers under the inspection of this association, and had they 
been under inspection there is every reason to conclude that these lamentable effects might 
have been prevented. 

Manchester Steam Boiler Assurance Company. — In addition to the report 
we gave last month we give now some further details. Two boilers sustained 
injuries to the flues, and have been repaired at the expense of the company. One 
of these accidents resulted from the deficiency of water. This boiler is provided 
with glass tube water gauge, and the usual mountings, all oi which appear to 
have been in working order, with the exception of a check valve on the feed pipe, 
through which the water must have passed, and thus escaped into the adjoining 
boiler not in use* The other boiler which sustained damage is provided with one of 
Hopkinson's safety valves, and a glass tube water gauge, neither of which gave any 
indication of deficiency of water; but the crown of the furnaces, where the collapse oc- 
curred, gave unmistakable evidence of overheating. This can only be accounted for by 
the presence of a peculiar' kind of deposit, which does not form a hard scale, as com' 
monly found in boilers, but is precipitated irt a very fine powder. It is generally found, 
where there is a deposit of this kind, overheating takes place, notwithstanding abundance 
of water in the boilers. It is very important, therefore; in such cases to obtain water 
from another source. The flues of the boiler referred to are 26ft. long by 2ft. lOin. in 
diameter, made of 7-16th plates, and the working pressure 501bs. per square inch. The 
boiler has not worked many months, and; under ordinary circumstances, is well calculated 
to sustain this pressure. Both flues collapsed in the furnace part, but with the exception 
of one or two edges of the plates they were not fractured, and the quality of the iron 
appeared to be good. 

Up to the Date of the last report of the Manchester Association for the Prevention 
of Steam Boiler Explosions, but three boilers among all those under the inspection of the 
association (constantly averaging nearly 1500) had exploded in six years. 

Fearful Locomotive Explosion.— A locomotive explosion occurred on the Blythand 
Tyne Railway on the 23rd ult. A locomotive was standing at the Blyth Station, ready to 
take away the early train, when its boiler suddenly burst. The engineman and fireman 
were both very severely injured. The boiler, after exploding, separated into three parts j 
one part was hurled through the end of a house opposite the station, which is nearly all 
blown in, a large piece of the boiler being lodged in the upper room. Another portion 
was pitched into a stable. The third part was carried into an arm of the river covered 
Dy the tide at high water, A carriage next the engine was completely smashed up. The 
locomotive itself ia a complete wreck. 



WATER SUPPLY. 

The Watee Supply of the borough of Whitehaven is said to be the softest in the 
kingdom. 

During- the present winter, at a time when the temperature of the air over Loch 
Katrine was from 12 deg, to 14 deg. below the freezing point, no ice formed upon that 

GAS SUPPLY. 

Gas on Railways, etc.— Gas for lighting railway carriages and steamboats is used in 
America at both high pressure, and at ordinary atmospheric pressure. The high pressure 
holders are charged with gas at a pressure of 4001b. per square inch. 

Fearpul Explosion op a Gasometer.— An explosion of gas, attended by serious 
injuries to several persons, took place lately at the gas company's works in Walker- 
street, Preston. It appears that an enormous gasometer was in course of construction 
by Messrs. Houghton and Co., of Birmingham, and nearly completed. It was 105ft. 
in diameter, and 44ft. in height when inflated, the tank of water in which it was 
floated being 23ft. deep, and it was estimated to contain 330,000ft. of gas. At the time 
of the explosion, about half-past ten, two men were engaged on the work, and were 
assisted by two labourers. To state distinctly the precise cause of the explosion appears 
almost impossible, and it may never, perhaps, be known unless one of the unfortunate 
sufferers can distinctly explain it. One man, who was sitting on the top of the holder, 
after being blown into the air, fell into one of the rents, and was held in the crevice by 
the neck until rescued, otherwise he must have fallen into the water beneath and been 
hopelessly lost. The others were fearfully scorched and bruised. One leaped over the 
wall with his clothes in a state of flame. The "outfit," or lower portion of the holder, 
which remained entire, was completely displaced from its position, one edge being level 
with the water in the tank, and the other being 20ft. above the edge of the water. 
Within this space lay the collapsed dome, bent and crushed to an indescribable shape. 
The columns remain standing, and only one of them is injured, that one having a large 
fracture on the side nearest the holder. All the connecting bridges are fractured, and 
the conducting rods broken like so many matches. The heavy iron slabs suspended as 
weights to the chains fell with a frightful crash, smashing the stonework, and cutting 
up the earthwork near. 

DOCKS, HARBOURS, CANALS, &c. 

Lighthouses.— The number of lighthouse stations on the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, 
and Pacific Coasts, is 223 exhibiting 369 lights. The number of light-vessel stations on 
the same coast is 42, and the number of lights exhibited, 55. On the lake coasts there 
are 91 light-stations, exhibiting 115 lights, making a grand total of 456 light-stations, 
and the lights exhibited, 539. 

A Gigantic Graving Dock. — The Mersey Dock Board are about to construct a 
gigantic graving dock at Birkenhead. It is to be 750ft. long, 85ft. wide, and 106ft. deep. 
The estimated cost is £84,000. There will be accommodation for two rows of vessels on 
gridirons at each side of the dock, the construction of which is to be proceeded with as 
as possible. 

Dey Dock at Pembroke. — The completion of this dock is being urged on night and 
day, relays of men relieving each other every 12 hours ; when finished, it will be capable 
of accommodating the largest ship in the British Navy. A gradual reduction of the 
establishment, both of skilled artizansand labourers, is to take place at Pembroke. The 
number of men employed is about 1300. 

Improvements at Chatham. — The Lords of the Admiralty have decided on making 
several improvements at Chatham Dockyard, for which purpose the sum of £35,000 has 
been taken in the estimates, in addition to the large sums previously voted by Parliament. 

MINES, METALLURGY, &c. 

Prevention of Over-winding. — An ingenious contrivance for preventing accidents 
from over-winding of safety cages is now being largely introduced. The invention consists 
in the use of a shackle formed of three steel plates, provided with slots similar to those 
employed in the formation of bayonet joints ; the one being right-handed, and the other 
left-handed ; when the chain is introduced, the blades are drawn apart, and the link is 
thus tightly fixed in the upper part of the slots ; a rivet of soft iron is then passed through 
both plates, which effectually prevents the release of the link, except in case of over- 
winding, when the outer sides of the plates or blades, being drawn through a ring, cuts 
the soft iron bolts, and permitting the slot to open, disengages the cage. 

Iron Ore Discovery. — Upon the discovery of iron ore on the estate of Sir Cullen 
Eardley, at Nettleton, the Hon. Baronet became desirous to have the most accurate in- 
formation respecting" it, and sent samples to the Geological Institution, London. The 
report is very satisfactory. Iron in its metallic state of first-rate quality has been 
obtained. Some persons who understand the different properties of iron say it is very 
much too fine for foundry purposes, and it is argued therefrom that a large portion of 
North Lincolnshire must one day become a manufacturing as well as an agricultural 
district, being the centre of a large corn and cattle-growing country. 

Cast Platinum.— At the last sitting of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, M. Deville 
exhibited two ingots of platinum, weighing together a little over 551b., which had been 
melted in the same furnace, and run into an ingot mould of forged iron. He states that 
platinum may be melted in any quantity; and once melted, it behaves precisely like 
gold or silver, requiring exactly the same precautions as in casting the precious metals. 
He also exhibited a platinum cog-wheel, cast in an ordinary sand mould in the same 
way as other metals; thus giving a new proof of the possibility of giving platinum all 
the forms that may be desired by the process. . 

Bismuth,— The eminent chemist M. Niekles has laid before the French Academy ot 
Sciences an account of some experimental researches on bismuth, which, he asserts, proves 
that bismuth is a " demi-metal," and in common with tellurium, arsenic, antimonv and 
tungsten, establishes a transition between the metalloids and the metals. Like them, 
also, it is neither ductile nor malleable, qualities possessed by all bodies, the metaility 
of which is uncontested. e „„„, v 

Coppee, containing twenty-four per cent, of phosphorus, will resist a strain ot 4S,0001bs, 
to the square inch. 

Cumberland Black Lead— A valuable discovery has taken place of a new sop, or 
pipe, of pure plumbago, fully confirming the opinion expressed by Captain Dlson, in his 
report of 1859,. since which date the company have sold several parcels of wad at from 
358, to 458. per lb,, being equal to £3500 to £4500 per ton. A good demand for this new 
deposit of wad has been already received. . . , 

The Coal Supply to the METROPOLis.-The quantity of coal and coke earned into 
the metropolis for the year ending Jan., 1861, shows an enormous increase on preceding 
years. No less than 1,477,545 tons have been, conveyed from various parts of England 
to London, by the railways having access thereto, the London and North- W estern, and the 
Great Northern carrying the greatest proportion. The following is the actual tonnage oi 
each railway company, The London and North- Western, 693,418 tons ; Great Northern, 
502,813 tons; Eastern Counties, 121,225 tons; Great Western, 63,944 tons; Midland, 58,490 
tons; South Western, 17.5S9 tons ; South Eastern, 14.5S5 tons ; Hertford, Luton, and Dun* 
stable, 4416 tons; London, Tilbury, Southend, 958 tons; and the London and Brighton, 
104 tons. Of this aggregate one-ninth has been produced from the Claycross pits, near 
Chesterfield, For the year the seaborne importation has been 3,573,377 tons, brought 
by 11,226 ships, against 3,299,170 tons by 10,693 ships, being an inerease of 274,207 tones 
and 533 ships, 



10 



74 



List of Neio Patents. 



("The Aetizan, 
L March 1, 1861. 



A New Kind of Beonze. — Workers in metal are fiuding good uses for a new kind of 
bronze, made by melting together ten parts of aluminium with ninety of copper. It is 
described as being tenacious as steel, and well adapted for the bearings of machinery. A 
polisher, who used it for bearings in his lathe, which made 2000 revolutions a minute, 
found it last six times longer than bearings made of other kinds of metal. It is good 
also for pistol barrels, and is to be tried forrifles and cannon. 

The Properties op Nickel. — Some new facts were recently laid before the Academy 
of Sciences on this subject by M. Tissier, who contends that, as regards resistance to 
the action of acids (with the exception of nitric acid), nickel is superior to iron, zinc, 
copper, lead, and tin ; and that in tenacity it is also superior to iron (in the proportion of 
90 to 70). M. Moigno states that in the smaller coinage of America, nickel has been 
already employed. The applications of this metal in the arts will doubtless increase. 

Ikon in Kent. — Now that the iron in the Southern counties is exciting some interest, 
it may not be generally known that there is abundance of iron ore in Lamberhurst. It was 
in this parish that the most celebrated furnaces in the kingdom were situated; it was at 
one of these furnaces that a large portion of the ordnance used in our navy were east : 
here, also, the iron ballustrades that now surround St. Paul's were cast. The railings and 
gates for St. Paul's weighed upwards of 200 tons, and cost £11,200. 

Coal Workings. — Important Discovery. — The proprietor of the gasometer at Blae- 
navan states that he has found a method by which the explosive carburetted hydrogen 
gas which accumulates in coal mines can with safety be extracted. Theinvention is very 
simple. A receiver, containing a syphon pipe, is to be placed in the pit's mouth, and 
cor.neeted to gas pipes of a sufficient size, which are to be carried down the pit, and 
through the workings ; branch pipes being attached to the main pipe, with stop-cocks at 
all necessary points. These branch pipes, for conveying the gas to the main, are to be 
inserted in tbe roof, or any other part of the workings, where gas is found to accumulate. 
The receiver on top of the pit is to be filled with gas, and a burner attached to the 
receiver will be lit. By these means, all the gas which may be in the pipes will be sucked 
up through the receiver, the burner of which will keep lit as long as any gas remains in 
the pipes. Mr. Williams, the proprietor, has constructed the apparatus on a small scale 
at his gasometer. This has been inspected by several scientific gentlemen, all of whom 
have pronounced very favourably of its pertormance. 

Cementation oeIeon. — The process by which iron is converted into steel generally con- 
sists in making it combine with a small quantity of carbon ; and very frequently, owing 
to the brittleness of steel when tempered to the highest degree, it is desirable to give 
the qualities of steel to the surface only of a bar of iron. This is done by enclosing it 
in a box of sheet-iron, filled with charcoal-dust, or horn-shavings, tallow, &c. Here the 
question naturally arises whether carbon combines with the metal under a solid form, 



which is scarcely admissible, or else is absorbed in the" shape of some carburetted gas; 
and, in the latter case, it is useful to know what gas is generated in the process. On this 
subject M. Caron has just addressed a paper to the Academy of Sciences, in which he 
describes several experiments of his to show that the cementation i6 owing to the form- 
ation of a cyanide, cyanogen being, it is well known, a compound of carbon and 
nitrogen. Having filled a porcelain tube with fragments of charcoal surrounding a bar 
of iron, and exposed it to the heat of a reverberatory furnace, he successively caused 
hydrogen, oxide of carbone, azote, air, pure carburetted hydrogen, &c., to pass through 
the tube, but could not, after a two hours' fire, obtain any degree of cementation. But 
the ease was far different when he made a current of dry ammonia pass through the 
tube ; in that case the cementation was effected rapidly and easily ; after being exposed to 
the fire for two hours, the bar of iron being immediately tempered, then hammered to 
make the grain closer, and then tempered once more, proved, on being broken, to have 
been cemented to a depth of two millimeters. This result M. Caron attributed to the 
formation of the cyanide of ammonium, and further experiments confirmed this idea. 
M. Caron then, in order to obtain cyanide of potassium in his tube as a cementing agent, 
let his charcoal soak in a solution of carbonate of potash, and the experiment succeeded 
beyond expectation. In the same manner he obtained excellent cementations by 
employing soda, barytes, and strontian, under the influence of a current of air. Hence 
he shows that all the various nostrums used in metallurgy for cementing iron owe their 
efficacy to the formation of cyanides. 

APPLIED CHEMISTRY. 

On the Insoluble Mattek op Zinc, by G. P. Bolwell. — In making hydrogen by 
the action of dilute sulphuric acid on commercial zinc, we observe a number of black 
flocculent particles floating on the surface of the liquid, which, when the zinc is all dis- 
solved, gradually sinks to the bottom, and crumble down to a greyish powder. This 
residue in 100 parts of ordinary sheet zinc, amounted to, 

i. ii. in. rv. 

1-3142 1-3661 1-3388 1-3017 

or, taking the mean of the four determinations, 1'3339. It was found to consist of 
sulphate of lead, together with about five per cent, of carbon, and a trace of iron. The 
black particles appear to be suboxide of lead, which, when the evolution of hydrogen has 
ceased, and not till then, are slowly converted into sulphate of lead. The lead undoubtedly 
exists in the zinc as metallic lead, and its quick conversion into suboxide is probably due to 
the electric current which is established between it and the zinc with which it is in contact; 
for if a clean piece of lead be immersed in dilute sulphuric acid, it will remain bright for 
some time ; but if, now, a piece of zine be placed in the liquid, so as to wash it, the lead 
will be speedily coated with a black film. 



APPLICATIONS FOE PATENTS AND PEOTECTIONS 
ALLOWED. 

Dated October 15, 1860. 
2514. P. E. Smith, Essex-street, Strand— Fire-arms and 
ordnance. 

Dated October 25, I860.- 
2598, A. Verwey, 3, Croydon-grove, Croydon — Manufacture 
of soap. 

Dated November 5, 1860. 
2708. E. F. Prentiss, Philadelphia, U.S.— New detergent. 

Dated November 6, I860. 
2724. C. Neumann, U. S. — Manufacture of hoop skirts. 

Dated November 13, 1860. 
2784<. L. Saccardo, Tenetia — Apparatus and arrangement of 
paper for the substitution of this latter instead of 
the cards of Jacquard looms. 
2786. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Improvements in 
looms. 

Dated November 19, 1860. 
2838. G. Chowen, Dipperton, New Down, Crediton, Devon- 
shire — Obtaining motive power by hydraulic means. 
Dated November 21, 1860. 
2350. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Improvements in journal 
or axle boxes for railwaj carriages. 
Dated November 24, 1860. 
2880. P. C. H. Charbol and A. Berson, Paris— Cages and 

aviaries for birds. 
2890. S.M. Fox, New York, U.S.— Improvements in rails 
for railways, and in the wheels of carriages to run 
thereon, especially adapted to street railways. 
Dated November 26, 1860. 
2894. G. F. Train, Liverpool — Improvements applicable to 
street railway carriages, part of which are suitable 
for other purposes. 

Dated December 3, 1860. 
2958. E. E. Keen, 15, Old Change— Improvements in cocks, 
taps, valves, and other apparatus for stopping and 
regulating the flow of liquids, steam, and gas. 
Dated December 5, 1860. 
2988. C. J. Dumery, 29, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris — Ap- 
paratus for extracting from water or any liquid^the 
bodies in dissolution. 

Dated December 10, 1860. 
3031. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Improvements in 
machinery for quartering cork-wood, and for cutting 
the quarters into bottle corks. 

Dated December 11, 1860. 
3037. J. Hamerton, Shibden, near Halifax — Manufacturing 
certain textile fabrics. 

Dated December 12, 1860. 

3051. G. S. Harwood, Bradford— Machinery for drying, 

stretching, and tentering cloths. 

Dated December 14, 1860. 

3080. H. Barber, Belgrave, Leicestershire — Lamps used in 

Mines. 

Dated December 17, 1860. 
3093. J. W. Hill, 3, Philadelphia-place, Hackney-road— 

Sewing machines. 
3096. E. Barlow, Bolton-le-Moors, J. Newhouse, Farnworth, 
and F. Hamilton, Bolton-le-Moors — Machinery for 
carding cotton and other fibrous substances." 
3099. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-street— Fishing nets. 



3104. 
3108. 
3113. 
3128. 
3136. 
3151. 

3154. 
3160. 

3182. 

3185. 
3188. 

3190. 

3192. 

6. W. 
16. H 

18. S, 



19. 


G. 


20. 


T. 


22. 


P. 


24. 


J. 



LIST OF NEW PATENTS. 

Dated December 18, 1860. 

C. Stevens — A new mode of obtaining an article re- 
sembling honey, and to be used as a substitute 
therefor. 

W. Scholes, Leeds — Wire card-covering for carding 
wool, silk, flax, tow, cotton, jute, or other fibrous 
substances. 
J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — An improved 
compound felted and textile fabric. 
Dated December 20, 1860. 
T. Sykes and B. C. Sykes, both of Cleckheaton, York- 
shire — Furnaces. 

Dated December 21, 1860. 

D. A. Morris, Pittsburgh, U.S. — Improvements in the 
manufacture of sheet iron. 

Dated December 22, 1860 
A. Savage, 42 and 43, Eastcheap — Apparatus for sepa- 
rating, reducing in size, and mixing articles of 
grocery. 

Dated December 24, 1860. 
P. Spence, Newton Heath, near Manchester —Im- 
provements in separating copper from its ores. 
Dated December 26, 1860. 
F. Warren, Birmingham — Machine used for cleaning 
cotton, commonly called a " churka," or "roller 
gin." 

Dated December 28, 1860. 
W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Machinery to he 
used in the manufacture of paper. 
Dated December 29, 1860. 
J. Brinton and J. Lewis, Kidderminster— Manufacture 

of pile carpets, rugs, and other pile fabrics. 
J. L. St. Cyr, A. J. Griguon, and P. Eome, Paris, 
— Manufacturing fibrous materials, tissues, or 
other fabrics. 
L. C. M. J. Vilcoq, Courbevoie, France— Apparatus 
or machinery for triturating textile bodies and 
other substances. 
H. Chamberlain, Wareham, Dorsetshire— Preparation 
of clay for pottery purposes, which improvements 
are also applicable to filtering or cleansing liquids. 
Dated January 2, 1861. 
Cooke, Charing Cross — Apparatus for ventilating, j 

Dated January 3, 1861. 
. Doffegnies, Brussels — Obtainine pulp for the manu- 
facture of paper from Indian corn and other 
similar plants. 
Perkes, Clapham — Improvements in presses and 
modes of pressing, applicable to cotton, hemp, 
wool, coir, hides, hay, fibres, peat, linen, thread, 
piece goods, extracting oil, and other useful 
purposes. 

Dated January 4, 1861. 
Lowry, Salford— Machinery for heckling flax and 

other fibrous materials. 
Cobley, Meerholz, Hesse, Germany — Mode of obtain- 
ing or manufacturing commercial salts of lead 
directly from the ores of lead. 
Pimont, 55, Imperial-street, Eouen, France — Ap- 
paratus for drying fabrics and other articles. 
Crocker, Liverpool — Apparatus for indicating the 
number of persons, vehicles, or articles passing, or 
being made to pass, any place or part of a machine. 



30. 
32. 


H. 
B. 


34. 


L. 


36. 


W 


39. 


J. 


40. 


W. 


12. 


G. 


44. 


W. 



26. J. E. A. Douglas, Hounslow— Eoughing the shoes of 
horses and other animals, to prevent them from 
slipping in frosty weather. 

Dated January 5, 1861. 
Gilbee, 4, South-street, Finsbury — Sewing machines. 
G. Sloper, Hackney — Machinery for amalgamating, 
and for effecting the separation of gold from 
earthy and other matters containing the same. 

D. Owen, 481, New Oxford-street — Improvements in 
bustles or skirt supporters. 

. M. Williams, HandWorth, Staffordshire — Treating 
coal peat, for the purpose of obtaining solid and 
liquid hydro-carbons therefrom. 
Hamilton, Glasgow — Governors for regulating the 
speed of steam and other engines. 
Luck, Mabledon-place, Burton-crescent — An im- 
proved table, or article of furniture. 
Dated January 7, 1861. 
D. 'Mease, South Shields — The manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid, and also in separating copper and 
silver from their ores. 

Bagley and W. Mincher, Birmingham — Coating 
metals and alloys of metals. 

Dated January 8, 1861. 
46. W. Eattray, St. Clement's Chemical Works, Aberdeen — 
For the invention of improvements in preserving 
organic substances. 

E. Chassang, 9, Eue du Conservatoire, Paris — An im- 
proved buckle. 

J. Welch, Cheapside— Scarfs and cravats. 

Dated January 9, 1861. 
Adamson, Newton Moor, Cheshire — Improvements 

in steam engines. 
, Taylor, Nursling, near Southampton — A combined 
heating and ventilating pipe. 

C. Shephard, Victoria-street, Westminster — Ap- 
paratus for carburating gas for gas lighting. 
N. Leroy, Paris — Grease for lubricating the fnctional 
surfaces of machinery. 

Dated January 10, 1S61. 
F. Halliday, 4, Langham Chambers, Langham-place 
Westminster — An improved trigger for gun locks. ' 
Moulton, Bradford, Wiltshire — Manufacture of india- 
rubber, applicable to springs, valves for machinery, 
and other purposes. 
63. E. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Treating lava and 
other volcanic substances, in order to tit them for 
employment hi certain arts and manufactures. 
C. Newsome, Coventry — Looms for weaving ribbons. 
J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields and Glasgow — 
Tanning hides and skins. 
66. J. Conry, Manchester— Apparatus for communicating 
between the passengers and guard, and guard 
and engine-driver on railways. 
C. H. G. Williams, 39, Eegent-square, Gray's-inn-road — 

Manufacture of dyes and colouring matters. 
W. Longmaid, Galway, Ireland— Hardening the surfaces 
of the rails of railways, and the surfaces of the 
tyres of railway wheels, and in charring the sur- 
faces of timber to be used for railway sleepers, and 
other purposes. 



The Aetizan, 
March 1, 1861, 



:•] 



List of New Patents. 



75 



Dated January 11, 1861. 

70. C. Senior, Huddersfield — Apparatus for tentering or 

stretching and drying woollen or other textile 
fahrics. 

71. W. C. Carson, Sheffield — Improvements in stoves, grates, 

or fire-places. 

72. H. T. Hooper, Truro, and TV. Gerrans, Tregony, Corn- 

wall — Machine for distributing manure on lands. 

73. T. Bromwich, Bridgnorth— A combined apparatus for 

combing and cutting the hair of the human head. 
71. W. H. Muntz, Millbrook, Hampshire — Improvements in 
breaks for locomotive engines. 

75. W. H. Muntz, Millbrook, in Hampshire— Signalling or 

communicating with the guard or engine-driver in 
railway trains. 

76. P. Laffitte, Bordeaux/Gironde — An improved instrument 

for writing and printing music. 

77. W. E. Gedge— Weighing machines. 

79. T. T. Cheliingworth, 12, Buckingham-street, Adelphi, 

and J. Thurlow, 37, Belvedere-road, Lambeth — Im- 
provements in traction engines. 

80. W. H. Moran, Cologne — Improvements in gas meters. 

81. H. Pawson, 117, Leadenhall-street — Beams and weigh- 

ing machines. 

82. A. R. le Mire Normandy, King's-road, Clapham-park — 

Connecting gas and other pipes. 

83. N. Ager, 77, Upper Ebury-street, Pimlico — Stoves and 

ranges. 

84. A. M. Poote, New York, United States— Lock for re- 

ceiving and securing umbrellas, canes, and similar 
articles. 

85. W. G. Woodcock, West Bromwich — Wrought iron 

beams or girders and columns. 

86. R. Smellie, West Merrieston, North Britain — Apparatus 

for supporting and working sash windows and 
other similar sliding or traversing details. 

87. M. A. Muir and J. M'llwham, Glasgow — Looms for 

weaving. 

Sated January 12, 1861. 

88. TV. Bullougb, Blackburn, Lancashire — Improvements 

in looms for weaving. 

89. G. Whight, Ipswich — Sewing machines. 

90. T. Warwick, Birmingham — Governors for steam and 

other engines. 

91. J. Charlton, Manchester — Directing the streams of 

water employed in extinguishing conflagrations. 

94. H.Matheson, Lahore-terrace' Sydenham-road, Croydon 

— Improved apparatus for generating steam. 

95. E. F. Prentiss, Birkenhead — Regulating the flow of gas, 

part of which is applicable to the valves of steam 
engines. 

97. C. A. Girard, 17, Bonlevart du Temple, Paris — Pre- 

paring colouring matters for dyeing and printing. 

98. G Franci, 29, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris — Cannon and 

mortars. 

Dated January 14, 1861. 

100. J. Baldwin, junior, C. Wood, John Crossley, Halifax- 

Machinery for combing wool or other fibrous sub- 
stances. 

101. T. Hall, Oxford-street — Obtaining colouring matters. 

102. W. Desilva and T. F. Griffith, Liverpool—Instrument 

for taking observations at sea or on land. 

103. H. Clifford, Greenwich — Apparatus to be employed in 

coiling and paying out electric telegraph cables. 

104. J. Horsey, Belvedere-road, Lambeth — Pouches or 

receptacles for tobacco and other articles. 

105. H. Weaber, New Maldon, Surrey— Window fastenings. 

106. J. Lark, Strood, Kent — Manufacture of . Portland 

cement. 

107. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields, and Glasgow — 

Machinery or apparatusfor obtaining motive power. 
Dated January 15, 1861. 

108. S. Hemming, Moorgate-streat — Improved rifle ranges. 

109. J. Sidebottom, Harewood, near Cheshire — Fire-arms 

and ordnance. 

110. J. Willcock, 89, Chancery-lane— Gas regulators. 

111. J. F. Spencer, Newcastle-upon-Tyne— Improvements 

in steam engines, and the machinery and apparatus 
connected therewith. 

112. C. Stevens, 31, Charing Cross — A new paste made from 

wood to be used in the manufacture of various 
articles, 

113. C. B. Walker, 1a, Southampton-street, Strand — A novel 

mode of advertising, signalling, giving notices, or 
other communications. 

114. R. Wilson, Patricroft, Lancashire — Screw propellers, 

and machinery or apparatus for actuating the 
same. 

115. G. Davies. No. 1, Serle-street, Lincoln's-inn, and 

Glasgow — The manufacture of blades for knives, 
razors, swords, bayone's, and other similar articles, 

116. A. G. Lasserre, Chemist, Bordeaux, France — Manufac- 

ture of fuel. 

117. M. Courniol, Libouvne, France — Manufacturing tallow 

candles supporting a heat of 2S degrees, without 
greasing or adhering, and extracting from the 
moulds whatever may be the atmosphere every two 
hours. 

118. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Construction of 

railway and other carriages. 

119. L. A. Bigelow, HighHolborn — Construction of certain 

kinds of passenger carriages. 

120. J. Picken, Birmingham — Breech-loading fire-arms and 

ordnance. 

J21. E. Stevens, 5, 6, and 7, Cambridge-road, Bethnal 
Green — Machinery for preparing dough and paste. 



Dated January 16, 1861. 

122. H. Sagar, Broughton, Manchester— Machinery for 

finishing patent tracing cloth and woven fabrics. 

123. TV. Coulter, 143, Everton-road, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, 

Manchester— An invention for the use of joiners, 
cabinet makers, and others, called " a bench hook." 

124. E. TVhittaker and J. Clare, Hurst, Lancashire — Machi- 

nery for apparatus for preparing cotton or other 
fibrous materials to be spun. 

125. J. Reading, Birmingham — Swivels or fastenings for 

connecting watches to watch chains, for fastening 
articles of jewellery, and for other like purposes. 

126. J. TV. Graham, Manchester — Cutting, shaping, and 

dressing stone or other similar substances. 

127. J. Batley, Leeds— Manufacture of belting. 

128. J. Teller, Newcastle-upon-Tyne — Capstans and 

winches for hoisting, which improvements are 
also applicable to the steering of ships. 

129. R. TV. Swinburne, South Shields — Manufacture of 

plate glass. 

Dated January 17, 1861. 

130. TV. Spence, 50, Chancery-lane— Machinery for making 

butt hinges. 

131. J. H. Craven, Keighley, Yorkshire— Spinning and 

doubling wool, cotton, silk, flax, and other fibrous 
substances, and in machinery or apparatus em- 
ployed for the same. 

132. M. A. Mennons, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris — Appa- 

ratus and materials for filtering water and other 
liquids. 

133. G. Lewingdon, Bridport, Dorsetshire — Chimney and 

ventilating cowls. 

134. M. F. Cavalerie, 29, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris— Ap- 

paratus for obtaining motive power by centrifugal 
force. 

135. TV. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Apparatus for raising 

fluids. 

136. E. Jullien, Marseilles — Machinery for preparing and 

treating hides and skins in the manufacture of 
leather. 

137. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-street — Apparatus for locomotion, 

and in the construction of certain wheels employed 
therein, and of levels used therewith, such im- 
proved wheel and level being also applicable for 
other purposes. 

138. J. R. Joy, All Saints' Street, Bristol— Machinery or 

apparatus for lithographic printing. 
Dated January 18, 1S81. 

139. J. Townsend and J. Walker, Glasgow — Mordanting, 

and in the manufacture of products to be used as 
mordants and otherwise. 

140. E. Argent, White Lion-street, Pentonville — Lifting and 

tilting casks, or other receptacles containing 
liquids. 

141. I, Bates, Dukinfield, Cheshire — Apparatus for prepar- 

ing warps for the loom. 

142. R. Mason, Lincolnshire— Apparatus for washing and 

churning. 

143. J. Jobson, Derby — Improvements in the manufacture 

of stove grates. 

144. TV. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — An improved clutch 

apparatus for transmitting motion to various kinds 
of machinery. 

Dated January 19, 1861. 

145. B. Piifard, 17, Caroline Villas, Kentish Town— Prepa- 

ration of non-conducting substances, for the depo- 
sition thereon of metals by electric action. 

146. W. Crozier, Findon Cottage, Witton Gilbert, Durham- 

Means of communication on railways. 

147. W. A. Lyttle, 10, Arundel-street, Strand — Projectiles, 

to be used with ordinance rifles, and other fire- 
arms. 
143. F. G. Sanders, Poole, Dorsetshire — Boxes for contain- 
ing earth for growing shrubs or trees, which im- 
provements are also for paving, flooring, building, 
and other purposes. 

149. R. M. Latham, Fleet-street — Construction of children's 

rocking toys. 

150. J. Bond, Tow Law, Durham — Railway wheels. 

151. H. Vandercruyce, Bordeaux — Apparatus for lowering 

or striking the masts of ships at sea with sails and 
courses set. 

152. C. TV, Lancaster, Bond^street, J. Brown, J, Hughes, 

Newport — Constructing forts, screens, and other 
like defences. 

153. J. B. Rickards, Snow-hill — Construction of axle boxes 

for the wheels of vehicles used on railways, applic- 
able also to the wheels of vehicles used on common 
roads. 

154. D. Mann, New York, United States — Rotary spading 

and digging machines, 

155. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-street— Machines for manufactur- 

ing corks, bungs, spiles, and such like articles, 
157. TV. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Device for balancing slide- 
valves of steam engines. 

Dated January 21, 1861. 

159. C. E, Albrecht, Radnor-place, Hyde-park— Apparatus 

for indicating or measuring the pressure of steam 
and other fluids. 

160. TV. Pickstone, 32, York-street, Manchester — Waggons 

used for carrying coals. 

161. Lieut. J. Scott, 23, Michael's-plaee, Brompton— Rifles 

and their projectiles. 

162. TV. Pickstone, 32, York-street, Manchester — Apparatus 

for discharging water from steam pipes. 



163. 
164. 

165. 

167. 
168. 
169. 

170. 

171. 

172. 
173. 
174. 

175. 



17s 



187. 
188. 

189. 
190. 

191. 
192. 

193. 

194. 

195. 
196. 
197. 
198. 

199. 
200. 

201. 
202. 

203. 

2"4, 

205. 
206. 
207. 



R. Mushet, Coleford — Improvement in the manufacture 
of cast steel. 

H. Hibling, 14, Blomfield-street North, Kingsland-road 
— Manufacture of high boots, knickerbockers, and 
other suchlike articles. 

T. Stewart, Northampton-street, Clerkemyell — Im- 
provement in vehicles known as Hansom cabs 
Dated January 22, 1861. 

C. TV. Siemens and F. Siemens, both of Great George- 
street, Westminster — Improvements in furnaces. 

C. Duckworth, Pendleton— Manufacturing fabrics for 

useful and ornamental purposes. 

G. White, 7a, Pancras-lane— An improved warping and 
beaming mill. 

TV. Cooke, Charing-cross — Apparatus for filtering. 

R. Philp and J. Philp, 9, Lower John-street, Golden- 
square— Propellers for propelling ships, boats, and 
other vessels in water. 

E. Ellis, Bangor, Caernarvon, apparatus for picking 
and picking oakum, 

R. Henderson, 15, Park-place, Bayswater-road — Dumb 

jockey, for breaking or training horses. 
H. R. Cottam, St. Pancras Iron Works, Middlesex — 

Folding chairs, cots, and suchlike articles to sit 

and recline on. 
J. Chatterton, Highbury-terrace, and W. Smith, Pow- 

nall-road, Dalston — Manufacture of telegraphic 

cables. 
A. E. Holmes, Derby — Carriage springs. 
R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Manufacturing tyres 

for wheels, hoops, and rings. 

Dated January 23, 1861, 

D. Smithies, Rochdale-road, and J. Jackson, Holyrood. 

terrace, Queen's Park, Manchester — Manufacture 

of healds or harness for weaving. 
TV. Westley, Northampton— Manufacture of boots and 

shoes. 
TV. Brown, TVigan — An improved stripper for carding 

engines. 
W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane— Thrashing machines. 
W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane— Circular looms for weav. 

ing hats and other articles. 
TV. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane— Ships' sails. 
J. Deakin and J. Cresswell, Birmingham— Shutters. 
W. "Wilson, Newcastle-upon-Tyne— Manufacture of hats. 

A. Prince, 4, Trafalgar-square, Charing Cross— An rm, 

proved induction and eduction valve for steam 

engines. 
R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Sewing machines. 

Dated January 24, 1861. 
T. Haworth, Nut Mill, Bovup— Apparatus for governing 

or regulating the speed of steam engines or other 

motive power. 
H. Henderson, Edinburgh— Apparatus for printing 

yarns or threads. 

F. G. Mulholland, 20, Great Oxford-street, Marlbo, 
rough-road, Chelsea— Apparatus for preventing 
steam-boiler explosions. 

R. Thomas, Bath-street, Tabernacle-square— Tires ot 
wheels for vehicles used on common roads. 

H. D. O'Halloran, Kensington— An improved sporran 
or excursion bag especially suitable for volunteer 
riflemen and tourists. 

G. T. Selby, Smethwick, Staffordshire— Construction ot 
masts and posts. 

, T. Gibson, W, Knighton, and H. Knighton, Staveley 
Works, Derby— Core barrels for casting pipes, re- 
torts, and other hollow articles. 
, D. J. Fleetwood, Birmingham— Apparatus for rolling 
metal. 
W. Longmaid, Inver, Galway, Ireland— Manufacture of 

iron and steel, 
N. TV. Dobeson andG. Warren, Bill Quay Bottle Works, 

near Gateshead — Manufacture of glass. 
J. Vero, Athej-stone, Warwickshire— Machinery for se- 
parating the fur or hair from the skins of animals. 
Dated January 25, 1861. 

E. T. Hughes, 123, Chancery-lane— Apparatus for pul- 
verising clay and other materials. . 

G. Hadwen, Audenshaw, Lancashire— Double-lift jac- 
quard machine applicable to power looms. 

R. A. Brooman, 160, Fleet-street— Reaping and mowing 
machines. 

S. Needham, Oriel Place, Chelsea— Spring apparatus 
applicable to bedsteads. 

J. Law, Hollinwood, Lancashire— Breaks ol engines. 

B. Lauth, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Lmted States- 
Piling iron for heating. 

A F Yarrow, Arundel-square, Barnsbury, and J. B. 
Hilditch, Barnsbury Villas — Apparatus used in 
ploughing, tilling, or cultivating land. 

C Lungley, Deptford-green Dockyard— Construction of 
ships and other vessels for war purposes. 
Dated January 26, 1861. 

J Durrant, Fitzrov-square, and N. A. Harris, Bays- 
water— Construction of chimney-tops or appliances 
for surmounting chimneys. 

C. Bishop, St. Helen's— Ornamenting of glass. 

C. A. Drevet, 4, South-street, Finsbury — Manufacture 
of sulphurous acid, sulphites, bi-sulphites, and sul- 
phuric acid. 

T. Bradford, Manchester — Machines for washing, rins- 
ing, and blueing clothes, fabrics, yarns, and similar 
articles. 

F. W. Webster, TVhitstablc— Apparatus applicable for 

washing and churning. 



76 



List of New Patents. 



["The Aetizak, 
L March 1, 1861. 



212. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Obtaining 
motive power from the expansion and compression 
of air, gas, or vapour. 

213. R. Mushet, Coleford — Manufacture of melting pots or 

crucibles. 

214. J. Arrowsmith, Bilston, Stafford — Manufacture of 

armour plates for gun-boats and land batteries. 

215. G. Hallett, 52, Broadwall, Lambeth, and J., Stenhouse, 

17, Rodney-street, Pentonville — Manufacturing of 
pigments for coating surfaces. 

2l6- H. Bessemer, Queen-street-place, New Cannon-street — 
Ordnance and projectiles. 

Dated January 28, 1861. 

217. J. Clark, 28, Harleyford-place, Kennington — The appli- 
cation of a paste of whatever wood to any kind of 
ornamental and other mouldings, without the .least 
admixture of any other materials, or use of any 
chemical agent. 

2i8. J. Boulby, Whitby— Instrument for measuring the 
speed of ships. 

2i9. C. De Bergue, 9, Dowgate-hill— Machinery for shaping 
metal. 

220. J. Badcock, Canhall Gate, Wanstead — Signalling be- 

tween the different carnages of railway trains. 

221. H* W. Hart, 3, Rue Bergere, Paris— Gas burners. 

222. 3?. H. Twilley and A. Romer, Dean-street, Middlesex- 

Tobacco pouches. 

223. G. A. Rothholz and M. Rosenthall, 14, Goulston-street, 

Whitechapel— Combined garment for gentlemen's 
wear. 
224* W. E. Newton, 66, Chancerydane — Apparatus for ex- 
hausting and compressing air, and producing air- 
blasts. 

225. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— An improvement in 

dinner plates. 

226. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Railway carriage 

wheels* 

227. J. G. Mason, Ironmonger-street, Stamford— Chimney 

tops. 

228. J. A. Shipton, Wolverhampton— Steam engines. 

Dated January 29, 1861. 

229. T. A. Verkruzen and M. A; Verkruzen, 9S, Hatton- 

garden, E*C. — A metal paint. 

230. W. Winstanley and J. Kelly, Liverpool, Lancashire, 

and W. Payne and J. Formby, Liverpool — Ships' 
pumps. 

231. E. W; Furrell, Kensington — Means of communication 

between the guard and the engine driver of a rail- 
way train. 

233. W. P. Fleming, Halifax— Bottle cleaners. 

234. J. W. Friend, Freemantle, Southampton — Beer engines. 

235. J. H. Ashford, Loxbeare, Tiverton — Signals for com- 

municating between the passengers of railway 
trains and the engine driver and guards. 

237. R, Culverwell, Plymouth — Apparatus for obtaining 

motive power, 

238. E. A. L. Negretti and J. W. Zambra, Hatton-garden, 

London — Mountain and other barometers. 

239. C. E. Crawley, 17, Gracechureh-street, and T. Shneider, 

74, Horseferry-road, Westminster — Safety and other 
lamps* 

Dated January 30, 1861. 

240* A* Courtois and J* E. de Soulange, both of Paris, 
France — Kiln for calcining limestone. 

241. A' Courtois and J. E. de Soulange, both of Paris- 
Construction of kiln for baking bricks, tiles, or 
other similar articles. 

242* J. Mellor, jun., Colne Cottages, King's Bridge, Hudders- 
field — An improved machine called a " cross raising 
gig," used in the dressing of woollen cloth. 

243. S. T. Crook, Halifax — Boilers employed for warming 

buildings. 

244. A. Boyle, Birmingham — Manufacture of umbrellas and 

parasols. 
245* W. Archer, Polton — Jacquard machines* 
246. E. Smith, Carlisle-street, Middlesex — Manufacture of 

swivel rings. 
247* J. Poole, Bletchley, Bucks, and J. Wright, 42, Bridge- 

street, Blackfriars — Steering or guiding steam or 

other vessels. 
249* G* T. Bousfield, Loughborough Park, Brixton — Lasts 

for boots and shoes, 
249* H. Phillips, Pinhoe, Devon* and J. Bannehr, Exeter — 

Urinals, and manufacture of manure when urine 

is used* 

250, G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough Park*. Brixton — Boots 

and shoes. 

251. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough Park, Brixton— Manu- 

facture of shoes for horses, and other hoofed 

animals. 
352* 3. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Treatment of 

vegetable substances. 
253. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lineoln's-inn-fields— Construction 

and internal arrangement of railway carriages. 
254* R. B* Longridge, Manchester — Promoting the circu- 
lation of water in steam boilers* 
2SS* W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane— Spring hinges, 

Dated January 31, 1861. 
25$, C. Reeves, Birmingham— Apparatus for converting 

breech-loading small arms into muzzle-loading 

small arms. 
$M . fe* D* Clegg, 73, Fleet-street— Atmospheric clocks, or 

mercurial time keepers. 
J&S, J* Robertson, Avon Bank, North Britain — Machinery 

or apparatus for finishing textile fabrics. 



259. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Apparatus for 

roasting coffee and other seeds and roots, and for 
drying grain. 

260. S. Moulton, Bradford— Construction of cables for tele- 

graphic purposes. 

261. S. W. Warren, Brooklyn, New York, United States— 

An improved high and low water indicator for 
steam and other boilers. 

262. I. Rogers, Haverstraw, Rockland, United States — Fur- 

naces for treating iron ores. 

263. J. Chatterton, Highbury — Treating gutta pereha, In- 

dia rubber, and compounds containing one or both 
of these substances. 

Dated February 1, 1861. 

264. E. W. Furrell, Kensington — Apparatus for communis 

eating between the passengers aud the engine 
drivers of railway trains. 

266. R. Kuntsmann, Manchester — Apparatus for lubricating 

the frictional surfaces of machinery. 

267. H. Curtiss, 7a, Skinner-street, Snow-hill — Men's scarfs, 

cravats, and neck-ties. 

268. J* M. Park, Glasgow — Sun blinds or shades. 

269. A. Crichton, Cork — Applying and fitting screw pro- 

pellers. 

270. W. Hart, Norwich — Sewing machines. 

271. J* J. de Arrietta, Piccadilly — Applications of ehapapote 

and its products. 

272. A. V* Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — An improved con- 

struction of motive power engine. 

273. II. Medlock, 20, Great Marlborough-street— Brewing 

malt liquors. 

274. M. Pollok, jun., of Govan, Lanark, North Britain— Ap- 

paratus for winding yarn or thread. 

275. H. Bessemer, Queen-street-place, New Cannon-street — 

Manufacture of malleable iron and steel. 

276. T. E. Knightley, 25, Cannon-street — Constructing 

stable floors. 

Dated February 2, 1861. 

277. G. H. Spencer and R. G. Cook, Hathersage, Derbyshire 

— Umbrella and parasol furniture., 

278. E. T. Hughes, 123, Chancery-lane —Manufacture of 

woven fabrics. 

279. W* Prangley, Salisbury— Pianofortes. 

280. J. Cameron, Hematite Iron Works, Hindpool, Lanca- 

shire — Purifying water for the supply of steam 
boilers. 

281. A. L. Brieknell, Loughborough Park, Brixton — Fire 

escapes. 

282. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Manufacture of paper 

pulp. 
233. W* Clark, 53, Chancery-lane— Bellows. 

285. W. N. Wilson, 144, High Holborn, and W. T. Hewlett, 

Leicester — Sewing machines. 

286. J. G. Marshall, Headingley, Leeds— Treatment of flax, 

hemp, and other fibres. 

Dated February 4, 1861. 

287. J. S. Larue, Paris — A mode of greasing pistons and 

slide-valves. 

288. D. Walmsley and J. Rostron, both of Disley — Appa 
ratus for providing against accidents in hoistinj 
machinery. 

2S9. J, Abraham, Birmingham — Brass hails to be used in 
sheathing ships. 

290. A. E. C. de Balyon, 57, Faubourg Mohtmartre, Paris- 
Manufacture of woven fabrics. 

291. R* Hbwarth, Mount Pleasant, Bury, New-road, Man- 
chester — Machinery for raising pile on woollen, 
cotton, and other fabrics. 

292. E. C. Morgan, Norwich — Carriage building. 

293. R. A. Broomah, 166, Fleet-street — Carving or figuring 
wood. 

294. J. Murray, Whitehall-place — Railway carriages. 
Dated February 5, 1861. 

295* G. W. Belding, Moor-lane, Cripplegate — Skeleton 

petticoats. 
297. G. Williams, Liverpool — Construction of charcoal and 

other kilns. 

299. J. T. Wood, Strand— Open Work fabrics, suitable for 
ladies' collars. 

300. Captain H. Dixon, 8, Park-end, Sydenham — Apparatus 
for signalling in railway trains. 

301. J* Leeming, North Holme Mill, Bradford — Looms. 

302. J. Purdey, 314f, Oxford-street — Apparatus for ramming 
and turning over breech-loading cartridges. 

Dated February 6, 1861. 

303. E. T. Hughes, 123, Chancery-lane — Shuttles for weaving* 

304. A. Drevelle, Manchester— Apparatus for folding and 

measuring woven or textile fabrics* 

305. J. Marsden, Orrell, near Wigan — Apparatus for makin^ 

forging, and punching metal nuts, spikes, or 

307. C. M. J. Bourcier, Paris, and T. Allan, of Adelphi- 

terrace — Ti'eafing certain animal sinews, in order to 
convert them into fibres or threads. 

308. C. W. Forbes, Southampton — Rests for rifles. 

309. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Preserving animal sub- 

stances. 

310. A* J. Robertson, 26, Parliament-street, Westminster— 

Construction of ships and vessels. 
Dated February 7, 1861. 

311. J. Beesley, Coventry— Looms used in the manufacture 

of ribbons and other fabrics. 
312* J. W. Wilson, Beevor Saw-mills,- near Barnsley— -Steam 

boilers. 
313. J, E. Boyd, Hither Green, Lewisham-^Manufaeture and 
' preparation of paper, 



Dated February 8, 1861. 

314. A. Drevelle, Manchester— Embroidering or ornament-' 
ing woven fabrics, felts, or other similar materials. 

315. T. Blezard and J, Blezard, of Padiham, Lancashire — 
Self-acting temples. 

316. M. J. Stark, N orwich — Preparation of colouring 
matters for dyeing, staining, or printing fabrics. 

317. T. Banks and T. Morgan, Kidderminster — Improve- 
ments in coating sheets or plates of iron with lead 
OT tin. 

318. B. Peake, Coventry — Brocaded silk fabrics. 

319. R. Harrild, and H. Harrild, Farringdon-street — Appa- 
ratuses for printing addresses for newspapers. 

320. R. M. M'Turk, Liverpool — Improved construction of 
neck-tie, and attachment therefor. 

321. W. M. Storm, New Yoric, U.S.— Construction of 
ordnance. 

322. J. Branscombe, Noel-street, Islington — Telegraph 
cables. 

323. W. Morris, junior,- Kent Waterworks, Deptford — Valves. 
DatedFebruary 9, 1861. 

324. D. Grimshaw, Belfast— Locks. 

325. H. Freystadt, 16, Broad-street-buildings — Manufacture 
of bodies for caps, nets, ;baskets, bags, and other 
similar articles of light work. 

326. C. J. Richardson, 54, Kensington-square — Armour or 
metal covering for iron eased ships of war. 

327. H. Withers, Dundalk— Horse shoes. 

328. G. Jarrett, 37, Poultry — Apparatus applicable for 
marking linen, and for other printing and stamping 
purposes. 

329. D. Ker, Plymouth — Construction of submarine tele- 
graphic cables. 

3ct0. J. L Jullion, Tynemouth — Treatment of soda water 
and sulphurets. 

331. J. Higgins and T. S. Whitworth, Salford — Apparatus 
for preparing cotton and other fibrous materials for 
spinning. 

332. J. Lockwood, Dudley-hill, near Bradford — Healds for 
fibrous materials. 

334. J. G. Jennings, Holland-street, Blackfriars — Capsules, 
or covers for the necks or ends of jars. 

335. A. Leidemann and T. Lange, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

■ — Manufacture of sub or oxi-sulphate of lead. 
Dated February 11, 1861. 

337. E. Gervaise and J. E. Bernier, Paris — Manufacture of 

artificial leather. 

338. M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris — Im- 

provements in the heating and cooling surfaces of 
engines propelled by aeriform fluids, 

339. M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris — Con- 

struction of steam generators employed for heat- 
ing, drying, evaporating, and other purposes. 

340. M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris— Con- 

struction of certain kinds of breech-loading fire- 
arms. 

341. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Floating structures. 

342. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Machinery for pre- 

paring hemp and similar fibrous materials. 

343. W. S. T. Clarke, 29, Charing-cross— A railway break. 

344. H. Baker, Glasgow — Manufacture of lucifer matches. 

345. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lineoln's-inn-fields— Arrangement 

of bearings and grease boxes for shafts and axles* 

346. N* Thompson, Abbey Garden, St. John's Wood — Ma- 

chinery for preparing wood for boat-building and 
other uses* 

347. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Treating the tobacco 

plant in order to manufacture paper. 

349. G. G. Aggio, Nevill's-court, London— Stereotypeplates. 
Dated February 12, 1861. 

351. W. Oldfield, Noble-street, St. Luke's^-Writing and 
dressing cases. 

353. A. Parkes, Birmingham — Electric telegraph conductors. 

355. A. Parkes, Birmingham — Manufacture of the fire boxes 
of locomotive and other tubular boilers. 

357. C. Prater, Charing-cross — Slings or traps adapted for 
knapsacks. 

359. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-^ Projectiles for 
ordnance and fire-arms. 

Dated February 13, 1861* 

361. E. T. Jones, Morden College, Blackheath — Suppres- 
sion of arsenical and sulphurous fumes emitted 
during the first operation or calcination of copper 
ores. 

365. C. S. Roskilly, Falmouth — Refining malt liquors. 

367. W. Clark, 59, Chancery-lane — Sewing and embroidering 
machines* 

369. C. A. Lawson, Aston, New-town, near Birmingham, J. 
B. Barnes and J. Loach, Birmingham — Projec- 
tiles applicable to the use of ordnance and small 
arms. 

371. M. Henry, 84, Fleet-street — Construction of a certain 
description of castor. 

373. J. Poole, J. Wright, F. S. Hemming, G* Searby, all of 
35, Moorgate-street — Drilling, boring, or excavating 
rock or other earthly substances. 

INVENTIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS 
FILED, 



265. T. Lemeille, 51, High Holborn — Engines for the ex- 
traction of the produce of mines, and new arrange- 
ment of the ropes for suppressing all dead weight. 

364, C. F. Atkinson, Sheffield — The application of steel or 
iron to the manufacture of collars and wristbands 
to be worn as articles of clothing. 



Vj 6 f^^ 



r 



JDireattan' of jyatn/ 



RAILWAY CURVE. S" 




*■»'>***■ ^Ta^c 



76 

212. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Obtaining 

motive power from the expansion and compression 
of air, gas, or vapour. 

213. E. Mushet, Coleford — Manufacture of melting pots or 

crucibles. 

214. J. Arrowsmith, Bilston, Stafford— Manufacture of 

armour plates fot gun-boats and land batteries. 

215. G. Hallett, 52, Broadwall, Lambeth, and J. Stenhouse, 

17, Eodney-street, Pentonville — Manufacturing of 
pigments for coating surfaces. 

216. H. Bessemer, Queen-street-place, New Cannon-street — 

Ordnance and projectiles. 

Dated January 28, 1861. 
2i7. J. Clark, 28, Harleyford-place, Kennington — The appli- 
cation of a paste of whatever wood to any kind of 
ornamental and other mouldings, without the. least 
admixture of any other materials, or use of any 
chemical agent. 

218. J. Boulby, Whitby— Instrument for measuring the 

speed of ships. 

219. C. De Bergue, 9, Dowgate-hill— Machinery for shaping 

metal. 

220. J. Badcock, Canhall Grate, Wanstead — Signalling be- 

tween the different carnages of railway trains. 
221; H. W. Hart, 3, Hue Bergere, Paris— Gas burners. 

222. F. H. Twilley and A. Eomer, Dean-street, Middlesex — 

Tobacco pouches. 

223. G. A. Eothholz and M. Eosenthall, 11, Goalston-street, 

Whitechapel — Combined garment for gentlemen's 
wear. 
224 W. E. Newton, 66, Chancerydane — Apparatus for ex- 
hausting and compressing air, and producing air- 
blasts. 

225. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— An improvement in 

dinner plates. 

226. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Bailway carriage 

wheels, 

227. J. G. Mason, Ironmonger-street, Stamford— Chimney 

tops. 

228. J. A. Shipton, Wolverhampton — Steam engines. 

Dated January 29, 1861. 

229. T. A. Verkruzen and M. A: Verkruzen, 96, Hatton- 

garden, E,C. — A metal paint. 

230. W, Winstanley and J. Kelly, Liverpool, Lancashire, 

and W. Payne and J. Formby, Liverpool — Ships' 
pumps. 

231. E. W. Furrell, Kensington— Means of communication 

between the guard and the engine driver of a rail- 
way train. 

233. W. F. Fleming, Halifax— Bottle cleaner's. 

234. J. W. Friend, Freemantle, Southampton — Beer engines. 

235. J. H. Ashford, Loxbeare, Tiverton — Signals for com- 

municating between the passengers of railway 
trains and the engine driver and guards. 

237. B; Culverwell, Plymouth — Apparatus for obtaining 

motive power, 

238. E. A. L. Negretti and J. W. Zambra, Hatton-garden, 

London — Mountain and other barometers. 

239. C. E. Crawley, 17, Gracechurch-street, and T. Shneider, 

74, Horseferry-road, Westminster — Safety and other 
lamps. 

Dated January 30, 1361. 

240. A; Courtois and J; E. de Soulange, both of Paris, 

France — Kiln for calcining limestone. 

241. A; Courtois and J. E. de Soulange, both of Paris- 

Construction of kiln for baking bricks, tiles, or 
other similar articles. 

242. J. Mellor, jun., Colne Cottages, King's Bridge, Hudders- 

field — An improved machine called a "cross raising 
gig," used in the dressing of woollen cloth. 

243. S. T. Crook, Halifax — Boilers employed for warming 

buildings. 

244. A. Boyle, Birmingham — Manufacture of umbrellas and 

parasols. 

245. W. Archer, Bolton — Jacquard machines. 

246. E. Smith, Carlisle-street, Middlesex — Manufacture of 

swivel rings. 

247; J. Poole, Bletchley, Bucks, and J. Wright, 42, Bridge- 
street, Blackfriars — Steering or guiding steam or 
other vessels. 

243; G; T. Bonsfield, Loughborough Park, Brixton — Lasts 
for boots and shoes, 

249; H. Phillips, Pinhoe, Devon; and J. Bannehr, Exeter — 
Urinals, and manufacture of manure when urine 
is used. 

250. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough Park, Brixton — Boots 

and shoes. 

251. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough Park, Brixton— Manu- 

facture of shoes for horses, and other hoofed 

animals. 
352, J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Treatment of 

vegetable substances. 
253. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Construction 

and internal arrangement of railway carriages. 
354; E. B; Longridge, Manchester — Promoting the circu- 
lation of water in steam boilers; 
25S; W. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Spring hinges; 

Dated January 31, 1861. 
355. C. Beeves, Birmingham — Apparatus for converting 

breech-loading small arms into muzzle-loading 

small arms. 
Off. B: D; Clegg, 73, Fleet-street — Atmospheric clocks, or 

mercurial time keepers. 
24& ii Bobertson, Avon Bank, North Britain — Machinery 

or apparatus for finishing textile fabrics! 



311. 
312. 
313. 




J. Beesle„j 

of ribbons and other fabrics. 
J. W. Wilson, Beevor Saw-mills, near Barnsley — Steam 

boilers. 
J, E. Boyd, Hither Green, Lewisbam— Manufacture and 
' preparation of paper. 



H 

c 

73 

m 

70 

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o 

00 
CO 

o 

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00 
73 

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t new arrauge- 



traction of tire'proauce 6t* 
ment of the ropes for suppressing all dead weight. 
364. C. F. Atkinson, Sheffield — The application of steel or 
iron to the manufacture of collars and wristbands 
to be worn as articles of clothing. 




PASSIMO- 



Indies i2 9 e 3 




w. y»n/A c.sai r3X 



THE ARTIZAN, APRIL l=J, 18 61. 









t "it mi 



76 

212. 

213 

214 
215 

216 
2i5 

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22 

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25 



THE ARTIZAN. 

No. 219.— Vol. 19.— MABCH 1, 1861. 



PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE FOR THE EDINBURGH 

AND GLASGOW RAILWAY. 

{Illustrated ly Plate 189.) 

With this number we present our readers with a large copper-plate en- 
graving of a Passenger Locomotive — for fast trains — constructed by Messrs. 
Beyer, Peacock, & Co., of Manchester, for the Edinburgh and Glasgow 
Railway, early in 1856; and their performance having given entire 
satisfaction up to the present time, a considerable number of these 
engines have from time to time been ordered, from Messrs. Beyer, 
Peacock, & Co., by the Engineer to the Company, for the same line of 
railway. The same firm have also constructed two other classes of engines, 
to meet the respective requirements of heavy passenger trains and goods 
trains of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, maintaining the same type 
or character, the boilers, fire-boxes, engine cylinders, and gearing being 
the same in all the three classes of engines. The principal dimensions of 
the class of engines we now illustrate are as follows : — Cylinders, 16 in. 
diam., and 20 in. stroke ; driving wheels, 6ft. 6in. diam. ; leading and hind 
wheels, 3ft. 6in. diam., and 14ft. 6in. between their centres ; boilers, 10ft. 
lin. long inside, by 4ft. diam., with 172 tubes 2in. external diam. ; fire- 
boxes (copper), 4ft. long by 3ft. 6in. wide, by 5ft. 3in. high ; heating sur- 
face in fire-box, 82 square feet ; ditto in tubes, 928 — total, 1010 square 
feet ; area of fire-grate, 14 square feet ; weight of engine under steam, 
22 tons 10 cwt. 

The firm of Messrs. Beyer, Peacock, and Co., has for its first partner a gen- 
tleman who was many years with Messrs. Sharp, Brothers, and Co., where 
his great talent as a practical engineer obtained for him a very wide reputation 
for excellence of design and constructive ability. Mr. Peacock, the second 
partner, is known to be one of the most — if not the most — -practical of the 
locomotive engine builders of the present day, combining within himself that 
varied and extensive amount of knowledge which can alone be acquired by 
having passed through the several grades of practical working from his ap- 
prenticeship as a mechanic, his after employment as a journeyman in the 
position of engine fitter and erecter, and afterwards as fireman ; then as 
driver ; next, as foreman in the running-shed, and in different positions in 
the railway locomotive shops; then, finally, in connection with railway 
works, as Locomotive Superintendent over an extensive line of railway ; 
and now a partner in one of the largest and most modern engine building 
establishments in the world. It is not, therefore, so surprising that 
Messrs. Beyer, Peacock, and Co., should, in the course of so very few 
years, have attained such eminence as locomotive builders ; and to this 
cause, also, we ascribe their apparent fondness for giving uniformity of 
character to the chief parts of the several engines — to maintain, as far as 
possible, uniformity of type, simplicity of construction, combining great 
strength with the least weight, and a general character of finished ex- 
cellence, superadded to the utmost mechanical accuracy. 

We hope at some very early date to be able to illustrate two other 
classes of engines of the same type, which have been built by the same 
firm for the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway Company, for perform- 
ing the duties connected with the various traffic arrangements 
of that railway. These latter engines, having worked equally well 
■with those which we have illustrated in the present number, additional 
interest will be given to their publication from the fact that we shall be 
able to compare their relation and performances as working machines, as 
well as point out their constructive merits. 



Mr. D. K. Clark, in his Recent Practice in Locomotive Engines, &.c* says, 
"These engines are characterised by elegance and finish, in general form 
and arrangement, and in detail. The broad and comprehensive slab frame- 
plate is here noticeable. It was first introduced by Mr. Beyer, many years 
since, in the engines made by the old established firm of Sharp, Brothers, 
& Co. (now Sharp, Stewart, & Co.), and is now generally adopted in English 
practice. The short cast iron blast pipe reaching just above the level of 
the upper row of flue-tubes is also noticeable. This level of blast pipe 
gives the best results, creating a superior draft with a wide orifice, as com- 
pared with higher situated blast orifices, and was first arrived at by Mr. 
Peacock by means of a series of well arranged experiments. It is now 
commonly adopted." 

He also gives the following particulars as to the dimensions of the axles, 
&c, of this engine, beyond what we have given above : — ■" The crank axle 
is 6|in. diam. at the middle, and at the journals, which are 7£in. long, the 
throws of the cranks are 4in. thick, and lOin. broad, — being strong, yet 
elastic. The axle is 8in. diameter in the wheel cases. The journals of the 
fore and hind axles are 4Jin. diameter, and 8in. long. 

In the plate illustrating this engine, we have given a side elevation, a 
longitudinal section, and a sectional plan. The first-named view gives a 
very accurate notion of the appearance which the engine piesents; the 
other two views contain all the details most accurately shown in position, — 
drawn to scale with the utmost minuteness, — and having their dimensions 
generally marked thereon. Thus, to the practical engineer, this plate is 
of infinitely greater value than a mere picture would be of such machines, 
however excellent the style of the engraving, or the elaborateness of the 
shading. 

In the present instance we have to acknowledge our obligation to Messrs. 
Blackie and Sons, for their permission to illustrate this engine, which 
we have selected as an excellent example of Messrs. Beyer and Peacock's 
construction ; and, also for the extracts from the text of Mr. D. K. Clark's 
admirable work. 

TURNER AND GIBSON'S IMPROVEMENTS IN BRIDGES. 
(Illustrated ly Plate 191.) 

Our Plate is an illustration of a railway bridge constructed according to 
Messrs. Turner and Gibson's patent, and recently erected by them on the 
line of the Cork and Youghal Railway, Ireland. These improvements 
relate to that description of bridge known as balanced, rolling, or sliding 
bridges for crossing canals, dock entrances, railway lines, &e. The chief 
feature in the description of the bridge now under notice is, that the 
roadway being perfectly level, and not having any " camber," it may be 
employed with advantage as a railway bridge, and is readily opened or closed 
by merely sliding or rolling it back or forth in a horizontal position, and 
without tipping or canting ; and when the bridge is in position, a con- 
tinuous line of rails is formed, perfectly steady and secure for the purposes 
of traffic. 

Underneath the platform of the bridge constructed according to this 
invention, guiding and bearing rails are introduced for running upon, 
wheels or rollers, one set of which supports the platform near the centre of 
its length ; and one or more sets of wheels or rollers may be interposed 
beneath the platform on the "land" or "pit end." 



* Recent Practice in the Locomotive iiiigine ; Comprising the latest Improvements, &e. 
By D. K. Clarke, C.E. Published by Blackie & Sons, Glasgow, Edinburgh, and London. 
1860. 

11 



78 



Practical Papers for Practical Men. 



("The Aetizaf, 
L April 1, 1861. 



For the purpose of readily allowing these descriptions of bridges to be 
employed for railway purposes, lengths of rails are so mounted upon beams 
or girders of a length equal to the distance from the inner end of the " pit" 
to the end of the bridge ; so that, when the bridge is in its place, the 
roadway, or line or lines of railway bars are made continuous, of uniform 
gauge, level and perfectly rigid and firm ; but to enable the bridge to be 
opened, each of the girders in the " pit" is capable of being swung upon 
its longitudinal axis, and turned down upon its side, thus allowing the 
"tail" end of the bridge to pass freely back. These swinging beams and 
rails required but little force to turn them from the vertical to the hori- 
zontal position, and vice versa. 

In our Plate, Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of one of these bridges 
in situ, a continuous line of rails being formed across the bridge. Fig. 2 
is a plan of the same ; fig. 3 is a transverse section (to an enlarged scale) 
taken across the " pit." The bridge itself is also here shewn in section in 
order to give an idea of its construction. Fig. 4 is a transverse section of 
a similar bridge to that shown in fig. 3, but shows a different method of 
mounting and working the longitudinal beams or girders carrying the con- 
tinuation rails, and which would be of advantage more especially where 
the "pit" is limited in width at the surface, or in depth ; the lengths of 
girders and rails in the "pit" end being made to fall inwards and towards 
each other. 



PEACTICAL PAPEES FOR PRACTICAL MEN— No. II. 



ON CONTINUOUS GIRDERS. 

Among the numerous and varied treatises on straight girders generally, 
there are but few which touch upon the conditions of strain on continuous 
girders ; and in the few works which do investigate this very important 
subject, the method adopted may be regarded as a mathematical curiosity, 
almost devoid of results practically useful. The consideration of these 
facts has induced us to examine carefully the nature of the principles in- 
volved in these structures, which examination has resulted in formulas 
which, on account of their extreme simplicity, cannot fail to be practically 
useful. Our results are not absolutely accurate, but may be made to ap- 
proximate to the truth as nearly as we please, and we may here mention 
that, for the sake of testing our formulae, we have solved the problem by 
a complicated but certain process. Before entering upon the calculations 
to which the present paper is devoted, it will be necessary to determine 
expressions relative to ordinary single girders. First, then, we will find 
an expression for the moment of resistance of plate girders generally, 
which will be constant whether the girder is continuous or otherwise. It 
has been shown in a previous paper that if we neglect the effect of the 
web in a plate girder, and the flanges of the girder are thin, compared 
with the depth of the girder, the moment of resistance will be M= s. a. d, 
where a is the area of one flange, s the direct resistance of the metal per 
square inch, and d the depth of the girder, supposing s x a to be the same 
for either flange ; if such is not the case it must be taken for the weakest 
flange. We will now ascertain the expression for the moment of strain 
on single girders. If the girder be fixed at one end and free at the other, 
and loaded at the end with a weight W, I being the length of the girder, 
and M the moment of strain at any point distant x from the end of the 
girder, M = W.r, and at the point of support, M = W?. If the girder 
carries a distributed load w per foot run along its whole length, 

M = r ^, and at the point of support, M = ^— . If the girder is sup- 

it a 

ported at both ends, but not fixed, we must, to find the moment at a point 
distant x from one point of support, when the girder carries a load of to 
per foot run, determine the difference between the moment of the load 
between the given point, and the moment of the reaction at the pier 
which acts in a contrary direction to the former. These moments will 

' -; hence the equation to the moment of strain is 



be, -=- and 

4 



M 



to I x 



M-«£ 



10 CC- IV 30 \ *} 

2~ = —~- \l — x\, and at the centre of the span 



We have only given the equations to the moment of strain in these 
particular cases, as they are the only ones to which we shall require to 
refer in our subsequent investigations. We will now proceed to resolve 
the general conditions of strain on continuous girders into two or three 
cases, which admit of solution by means of the foregoing formula?, the pro- 



cess by which we accomplish this division being arithmetical ; but we 
must preface our calculations by some remarks upon the general nature of 
continuous girders. If we carefully observe any span of a continuous 
girder, we cannot fail to notice that, if the girder be subject to an uni- 
formly distributed continuous load, the centre part will be rendered con- 
cave on the upper surface, whereas the points over and about the 
points of support will become convex on the upper surface, clearly 
indicating a difference in the nature of the strain at these places ; 
thus the upper flange will be in compression at the centre of the 
span, and in tension over the piers ; therefore there must be some 
intennediate point or points at which the strain changes from com- 
pression to tension, and at which there is no strain, and this point 
is called the point of contrary flexure. The span that we are observing 
will appear to be divided into three parts, viz., the central part simi- 
larly circumstanced to a girder supported at the ends equally loaded, and 
in span equal to the distance between the points of contrary flexure ; and 
into two end parts, each of which is in the same condition as a girder fixed 
at one end and free at the other, loaded equally, and also having a weight 
equal to half the weight of the load on the central part, suspended from its 
end. This state of affairs is what we should naturally expect, and such 
is actually the case ; hence the determination of the distance of the points 
of contrary flexure becomes the desideratum. 

In any continuous girder the moment of strain over the pier will be a 
maximum when the two spans only which meet at that pier are loaded, 
and the greatest moment of strain on the central part of any span will be 
obtained when that span only is loaded. 

We will now apply our process to various practical cases, first illus- 
trating its general nature by its application to a single girder, firmly fixed 
at both ends, which represents a case occasionally occurring in continuous 
girders. 

If A B, Fig. 1, represents the position of a girder fixed at both ends, of 



WW 




which the points of contrary flexure are situated at e and d, in the para- 
bolic curve e eg d It, the ordinates of which represent the moment of strain 
for every point in the girder ; thus, for instance, f g shows the moment 
of strain at the centre, drawn to a given scale, and A e, B h those over the 
piers to the same scale. 

As it is necessary that the moments of strain and resistance must at 
every point in the girder be equal, in order to satisfy the conditions of 
equilibrium, and the moment of resistance depends upon the area of the 
section when the depth is" constant, and also as the weight of the girder 
depends upon its bulk, which is made up of these sections, which them- 
selves depend upon the ordinates to the curve, it follows that, the web 
being left to bear the shearing load (of which we shall presently treat), the 
weight of the flanges will vary as the area of the curve. The manner in 
which the girder resists the action of the load will be such, that the strains 
on all parts of the girder are balanced, and the greatest possible amount 
of resistance exerted by the girder ; hence, the resistance being constant, 
the sum of the moments of strain which is represented by the area of the 
curve will be a minimum, and the distances of the points of contrary 
flexure must be taken of such value as to satisfy this condition, in order 
to give data upon which the strength of the girder may be calculated. 

We must now turn our attention to the formulas by which the area of 
the curve is to be calculated, but if we insist upon absolute truth in this 
case our equations become too complex to be useful ; we can, however^ by 
a very simple expression, approximate closely to the truth, for we find 
that the lines ee and d h (Fig. 1), are nearly straight. Hence we may consider 
A e c, d h B, as plane triangles ; e d g is a parabola. Every parabola has 
an area equal to two-thirds of that of a circumscribed rectangle ; there- 
fore, by this and the foregoing data, we find that the total area of the 

curve is = : lfg.ed + A.c-~ + dB- — , tutfg = moment of strain 

at the centre of the girder = me, and the girder being symmetrica], 
A e = d B and A e = B h, also A e = moment of strain over the pier = M'; 
therefore the area of the curve = f mo x c d + M' x A c. By the for- 

to . c d 2 , 
mula? given at the commencement of tlie present paper, me = —$—, and 



A c 2 w .cd ^ c> j n t ^ e p resen t case the actual value of to 



will not affect the value of the distances required ; we will, therefore 
assume w = 1, and as we desire our distances m terms of the span let 
the span also = 1. Let h = A c = the distance of the point of contra- 
flexure from the point of support; we purpose obtaining a close approxi- 



The Artizan,") 
April 1, 1S61. J 



Practical Papers for Practical Men. 



79 



mation to the true value of this quantity by a series of assumed values, 
continually approaching to the required quantity. 

We may here observe that, in any span of any continuous girder, the 
sum of the central moment of strain + half the sum of the moments over 
the piers is constant, and this fact provides us with a very convenient 
check upon our calculations when substituting the' assumed values of h in 
the above equation. 

The following tabular form exhibits the method applied to the present 
case : — 



Let h = -1 
— «2 

„ ='3 


inc. 


M' 


Total. 


Areas. 


Total. 


0-08 

0-045 

0-02 


0-04 + 0-005 
0-02 + 0-06 
0-045 + 0-06 


0-125 
0-125 
0-125 


0-0426 + 0-045 
0-018 + 0-016 
0-0053 + 0-0315 


0-0876 

0-034 

0-368 



In this table the first column shows the assumed value of h ,- the second, 
the central moment corresponding to each of these assumptions; the 
third column contains the moment over either pier ; the fourth, which is 
a check upon the first and second, contains the sum of the moments over 
one pier and at the centre of the girder ; the fifth column contains two 
series of areas — the first that of the central parabolic part of the curve, 
and the second that of the end triangular parts of the curve. The sixth 
column contains the total areas of the curve, and from it we see that the 
first and last quantities are both larger than the intermediate value ; hence 
the true value of h lies between 0-1 and 03. "We will now approximate 
closer to this value : — 



Let A = -21 
„ = -215 
„ = -22 


mc. 


w 


Total. 


Areas. 


Total. 


0-042 
0-041 
0-039 


0-022 + 0-061 
0-023 + 0-061 
0-024 + 0-062 


0-125 
0-125 
0125 


0-0162 + 0-0174 
0-0148 + 0-018 
0-0146 + 0-0189 


00336 
0-0326 
00335 



Prom this latter table we find that the true value of U is contained be- 
tween -21 and -22, and that -215 is exceedingly near to it ; hence we may 
safely assume this in practice as the value of h. 

From these calculations we find that, in a girder fixed at both ends, and 
uniformly loaded throughout its whole length, the value of h is -215 x 
span, and the distance between the points of contrary flexure is = -57 x 
span. If I = span, and w load per lineal foot, then mc = 0-041 w I 2 , and 
W = 0-084 w P, and, by equating- these expressions with these for the' mo- 
ment of resistance of the girder, we obtain 0-041 tv I 2 = s. a. d. .'. w 

d 
— s. a. represents the direct strain on either flange ,• and 0-084 w P = 

7 . 0-084 w P ,, ' ,. ; " ' . 

s. a. a. . . -J = s. a. represents the direct strain on either flan°-e, 

over either point of support. The greatest quantity of metal must be over 
the pier, whence it decreases to the point of contraflexure, beyond which 
it again increases to the centre of the girder. 

Let us now consider the case of a girder fixed at one end, and sup- 
ported, but not fixed, at the other. The tabular statement will be as 
follows : — 



Let h = 


= '2 


mc. 


M'. 


Total. 


Areas. 


Total. 


0-08 


0-020 + 0-08 


0-180 


0-042 + 0-010 


0-052 


„ = -25 


0-07 


0-031 + 0-083 


0-184 


0-035 + 0-014 


0-049 


» = 


= -3 


0-06 


0-045 + 0-105 


0-210 


0-028 + 0-022 


0-050 



. It will be observed that the quantities in the fourth column do not 
exactly agree. The difference, however, is not sufficiently great to en- 
danger the accuracy of the calculation. This girder will have one point 
of contrary 'flexure which, according to the table, is distant from the point 
of support on which the girder is fixed by an amount between -2 I and -3 I, 
and the areas are so nearly equal that -25 I must be very near the true 
value of h, if not actually the true value. 

It may be well here to remind the reader that mc represents the moment 



of strain at the centre of that part of the girder which is concave on the 
upper surface, and this point will, in the present case, be midway between 
the point of contrary flexure and the pier on which the girder is supported 
only. Equating the moments of resistance and strain as before, we find 
that the maximum direct strain on either flange, at the central part of the 

girder, is = — , and the direct strain on either flange over the pier 

_ 0-114. to. I 2 

~ d ' > 

"VYe will now proceed to determine the positions of the points of con- 
trary flexure in a continuous girder, supported at three points, and having, 
therefore, two spans or bays. First, let the spans be equal, and also the 
loads on the two bays ; then will each span be in exactly the same condi- 
tion as a single girder fixed at one end and supported at the other. Hence, 
in a continuous girder of two spans of equal lengths, when both spans are 
loaded, or both are unloaded, there will be two points of contrary flexure, 
one ou each side of the central pier, and distant -25 I from it. Let the 
loads now be different on the two spans, which would be the case when 
one span only is loaded with a live weight. Let w per foot run be the 
load on one bay, and w" that on the other. In this case we shall have 
another condition to satisfy, viz., so to arrange the points of contrary 
flexure that the moment produced over the pier by one bay will be equal 
to and balanced by that caused by the other bay. By an obvious trans- 
formation of our formulae we find the moment over the pier generally 

= — — . Let the point of contrary flexure in the first span be distant It, 
from the centre pier, and let that in the second span be distant v from the 



o'Ui 



and also M' = 



iv" I v 



therefore 



io" ! v 



same pier ; then M' 

— - — , aud the spans being equal, v = — j? h. Let us suppose that the 

weight of the girder alone is one ton per lineal foot, and of the load alone 
one ton per lineal foot, then iv' = 1, w" = 2, and It = 2 v. ~We now deter- 
mine the minimum area allowed by this condition : — 



V. 


h. 


m'c. 


m"c. 


M'. 


Areas. 


Total. 


•1 


"2 


0-08 


0-20 


o-i 


0-032 + 0-12 + 0-015 


0-167 


'2 


•4 


0-042 


0-16 


0-2 


0-018 + 0-083 + 0-06 


0-163 


•3 


■6 


0-02 


0-125 


0-3 


0-005 + 0-058 + 0-135 


0-198 



From this table we see that the value of v is between -1 and -3. The 
following is a closer approximation : — 



V. 

•16 


h. 


m'c. 


m"c. 


M'. 


Areas. 


Total. 


•32 


0-058 


0-175 


0-16 


0026 


+ 0-098 -f 0-038 


0-162 


•18 


•36 


0-05 


0-168 


0-18 


0-021 


+ 0-091 + 0-048 


0-160 


•19 


•38 


0-048 


0-164 


0-19 


0-019 


+ 0-088 + 0-054 


0161 



Hence the value of v is between -16 and -19, and the corresponding areas 
are very nearly alike, we may, therefore, adopt '18 as the true value. By 
so doing we involve an error of about xio of v ; but as far as we shall use 
the calculation the error is on the safe side. As we have before observed, 
the greatest moment of strain is produced over the pier when both spans 
are fully loaded ; hence the greatest direct strain on either flange over the 

centre pier is = - , and as the greatest moment of strain on the 

central part is obtained, when one span only is loaded, the direct strain 

on either flange is = =— when w' = w". If the ratio between the 

loads upon the two spans is any other than the above v, and 7i will have 
different values from those given above, it may be calculated by the 
same process. The error above mentioned is occasioned by our method of 
calculating the areas of the curves; but of this we shall speak hereafter. 

If the spans are unequal, another element will be introduced into the 
calculation, but this may be readily determined; for if we put V an 

I" for the two spans, M' = —5 — -, and also AT = — — ; therefor e 



I" 



to' I' h, and v 



V 



h. Suppose that 10' = Z.10", and I' = 



1"5 I", then v = 3 h, which being ascertained, the other calculations are 
conducted as above. From the foregoing data we may determine the 



80 



Practical Papers for Practical Men. 



["The Artizan, 
L April 1, 1861. 



greatest strain to which any part of the girder may he subject, whence all 
the elements of the bridge which are intended to resist the bending strain 
may readily be decided upon. These calculations may at first sight appear 
somewhat tedious, but a little experience will show that they occupy, in 
fact, but little time. 

Before taking leave of the continuous girder of two spans, we must 
explain another method of determining the positions of the points of 
contrary flexure. Let the loads still he in the ratio of 1 to 2. If we 
consider the girder as consisting of two single girders, supported at the 
outer ends, but fixed on the centre pier, we shall find that in both spans, 
the spans being equal, the points of contraflexure are each one quarter of 
the span from the centre pier ; but in one case the moment on the pier 
will be twice what it is in the other, but in the continuous girder the 
moment must be the same whichever span it is calculated from. Let us 
therefore alter the distances of the points of contraflexure from the centre 
pier, so as to satisfy this condition ; we must then increase that for the 
span with the least load, and diminish the distance for the other. We 
may consider that we have two right angled triangles, whose bases 
represent the distances of the points of contraflexure from the pier, and 
the perpendiculars the moment over the pier ; the bases are equal, and the 
perpendiculars are unequal. We require two similar triangles, whose 
perpendiculars are equal to a mean between the perpendiculars of the 
given triangles. If we call the greater perpendicular 4, and the lesser one 2, 
the mean between them will be equal to 3. First, let us reduce the 
largest triangle, the perpendicular must be reduced to the extent of one- 
fourth, then the base will be = -25 — - 0625 = '1875, which is within the 
limits of v in the last table, and within ^jth of the value adopted ; as 
v in the table is slightly short of the true value, the actual error in this 
case is not so great as we have just stated, for the base of the other 
triangle we find, by adding one-half, -25 + "125 = '375, which is exactly 
twice the value of the base of the diminished triangle. This method 
possesses an advantage over the last, in the extreme readiness with which 
the calculation may be performed ; for it does away altogether with the 
necessity of forming new tables of approximations for every fresh case, 
and may be made quite as accurate by adding ^th of the value 
obtained, for the distance of the point of contraflexure from the pier. It 
will be observed that this method depends upon the assumption that the 
true value of the moment over the pier is equal to half the sum of the 
moments, supposing the spans to be distinct, and the girders fixed on the 
pier over which the moment is brought into action. 

We have hitherto found it most convenient to determine the positions 
of the points of contrary flexure, in order to obtain data upon which the 
strength might be calculated. We have, however, now arrived at a stage 
of our investigation when it becomes desirable to change our method of 
procedure, as in our future cases we shall be able more readily to obtain 
the value of the moment over any pier than the position of the points of 
contrary flexure, the moment being found by comparing the girder with 
a series of single fixed girders. The moment over the pier being known, 
we can readily find that at any other point of the span by altering the 
general equation to suit the circumstances of the case, and the strain at the 
centre may be found thus : — If M', M" represent the moments at each end 
of the span, and m the moment at the centre, we find, by examining the 

p i. .n. "1 ivl 2 M' + M" 

curve ot moments, that m = —r- — ~ . 

o Z 

In the commencement of the present paper, we have shown that in an 

isolated girder which has its ends only supported, M = R' x — — ^— , in 

2 

which expression R represents the reaction of the pier, from which x is 

measured : in the continuous girder this force also acts, but the action of 

the moment over the pier must be taken into consideration. This latter 

evidently acts in the same direction as — — , for they both tend to render 

2 

the beam convex on the upper surface ; hence the above equation becomes 



M 



W x- 



-11'. 



We must now find an expression for B/, which will be affected by the 
moments over the piers. Let, therefore, M" be the moment over the pier 
at the opposite end of the span to that for which R' and M' was taken ; 

then in the above equation, when x = I, M = M", M" = R' I M'; 

. z 
M" 
, and the above equation becomes, M = 



therefore, R' = -g- + j 

OoJ_ M' - M" 
V -2 + I 



}■■• 



w x' 
~~2~ 



— M'. If the distances of the points of 

contrary flexure from the piers are required, they may be found by making 
M = o in the above equation, and determining the value of x from the 
quadratic thus obtained, two values will be found which will correspond 
to the two points of contrary flexure when two exist. These may also be 
determined by a transformation of one of the foregoing formula?. Thus, 



if there is but one point of contrary flexure, h being its distance from the 
pier, M' = —5 — '■> therefore Ji = j-. If there be two points of contrary 

flexure, h being the distance of one from the support over which M' is 
taken, and v the distance of the other from the other support, then 

%T \l — v\, therefore h = — ; ^ , and also M" =_ ~V < I — /; j 



JI 



therefore v = - 



T2 M" 



,{i- v y 



- w 



We will now proceed with the investigation of the strains on continuous 
girders of three spans, and as a practical case will be more satisfactory 
and quite as convenient as a suppositious one, we will select a railway 
bridge, which carries two lines of railway, and consists of three continuous 
girders, between which the rails are laid. The centre span is 88-5 feet in 
length, and the two end ones 85-25 feet each ; the depth of the girder is 
7ft. 6in., and the weight of the bridge 1-33 tons per foot run. We take 
the moving load for the two lines of rail at 2 tons per foot run. Our object 
is now to determine the maximum moments on the piers and on the central 
parts of the spans, and we may here observe, that as the end spans are 
equal, the maximum moments on them and on the second and third sup- 
ports will be equal. There will be one point of contrary flexure in each 
end span and two in the centre span. To find the maximum moment over 
the piers, we first take the first and second spans, subject to a total load, 
the third having its own weight only to carry. We must make two cal- 
culations to get near the truth — the first based on the positions of the 
points of contrary flexure, found by considering each span as distinct and 
fixed, — and the second found from the revised values of these quantities. 
Those who desire greater accuracy may obtain it by more numerous ap- 
proximations and corrections. 

In girders fixed at one end, the point of contrary flexure will be *25 I 
from the fixed end; in this case it becomes 85-25 x "25 = 21-3, &c. In 
girders fixed at both ends, the distance of either point of contrary flexure 
from one pier is -25 I, and for the centre span in the present case, 88*5 
x '.215 = 19, &c. The moments calculated upon these data are, for the 
second support by the first span, M' = 85 - 25 x 3-33 tons x 21-3 -7- 2 = 

3023-3 ; and by the second span, M' = •[ 88-5 - 19 j x 3-33 x 19 -=- 2 

= 2198 - 3. For the third point of support by the second span, M" = 2198'S, 

and by the third span, M" = 85-25 x 133 x 21-3 -=- 2 = 1207-5. The 

positions of the points of contrary flexure must now be altered so as to 

equalise the moments ; but on the centre span, by altering the position of 

one point, we affect the moment on the opposite pier, therefore this must 

be allowed for. On the second point of support in the second span, the 

moment, and therefore the distance, of the point of contraflexure must be 

increased by about £, — to equal the diminished moment by the first span, and 

at the other extremity, at the third support, the moment must be reduced 

by nearly |. The increment on the second support will decrease the mo- 

^ «.- , . 19<c „ 19 x 3-33 x 13 , . „ ' . 

ment over the third by — ^ — x 13 = ;; = 164-5, taking the 

o o 

reduced value of the distance of the point of contrary flexure from the pier. 
The reduction of this value will increase the moment over the other pier 
, 19 iv 19 x 3-33 x 23 _, A , . ., . ■, , . ... 

by — t— x 23 = 5 = 485, taking the increased value in this 

o o , 

case. If we take the unaltered values in both cases we shall find 



19 w 

5 
will he 



x 19 = 240-4 and 
164-5 + 24-0-4 



19u> 



- x 19 = 400-4, and the means of these results 

, 485 + 400-4 ,,. , , 

= 202-5, and = 442-7 ; adding and sub- 

z z 

tracting these values respectively, we have for the revised moments, as 

calculated /rom the centre span, 2198 + 202'5 = 2400"5 = M', and 2198 - 

442 - 7 = 17o5'3 = M", when both are calculated by the centre span. We 

might, by continuing the above process, approach the truth very nearly ; 

but the present results are sufficiently accurate for our purpose. We shall 

therefore equalise the values for M' by reducing them to a mean — thus 

2400-5 + 3023-3 '■ ,. , , „ , , ,, . , 

M = „ = 2712, which we shall adopt, as the error involved 

z 

is only about 5 V of the result. The value of the other moment is not re- 
quired, as it is not a maximum. The mean depth of the girder is about 
7 feet; hence, dividing by this, we obtain the strain on either flange, which 

2712 
is — =— = 344*57 tons; if we allow 4 tons per square inch as the greatest 

safe strain direct for either flange we have -r- 344-57 =^ 86'14 square inches 

for the area of either flange over the second and third points of support. 
Four tons may seem rather small for tension, but this is accounted for if 
we consider the loss by rivet holes, which does not exist if the flange is in 
compression. The calculations may be completed by taking two othei 



The AitTrzAN,"! 
April 1, 1861. J 



Practical Papers for Practical Men. — Slalilily. 



81 



cases, viz., the first span loaded and the second span loaded. In the first 
case we shall get the maximum moment at the centre of either end span, 
the second the same for the centre span ; these divided by the depth of the 
girder will give the direct strain in either case, one quarter of which will 
be the sectional area of all the top, or all the bottom flanges. In a similar 
manner we might carry our examples to any number of spans ; but this is 
unnecessary, for reasons now to be explained. If we take a variety of con- 
tinuous girders of equal spans and loads, we shall find that the greater the 
number of spans, the less will be the maximum moment on each pier. We 
are therefore quite safe in taking the moment calculated on the piers of a 
three span girder for those on the piers of a four or five span girder of 
equal spans, and by so doing we escape the complexity which is unavoidable, 
if we work the cases out. When, however, the bridge is very heavy, it may 
be preferable to work the particular case out. There is another considera- 
tion which must not be neglected in the construction of continuous girders, 
viz., the expansion of the metal between the temperatures of summer and 
winter, which will necessarily limit the length of the girder : thus we see 
that the Victoria Bridge at Montreal is made in lengths of two spans each, 
so that the expansion can be conveniently provided for. We will now speak 
of the weight on each pier. 

Let I be the length of any span of a continuous girder, to the load per 
foot run, M' the moment on the first, and M" that on the second support, 

R' R" being the reactions; then K'= -5- + j— — ,andR"= -— + 

Z L Z 

, which will give the proportionate weight borne by each point of 

support for each span. The shearing strains diminish as the ordinates of 
a straight line, becoming nothing at the point of greatest horizontal strain ; 
thus measuring from this point to any point distant from it towards the 
pier, the shearing strain at such point will be represented by w x, and this 
shearing strain the web of the girder should be made strong enough to 
withstand. The strain which may be safely allowed is 4 tons per sectional 
square inch. If we take the case of a girder fixed at one end and supported 

at the other, there will be no shearing strain at a point distant - I from 

o 

the pier on which the girder is supported only. Let I = 180 feet, and 
10 = 2-5 tons ; then if x = 13 feet, the shearing strain at that point, which 
will be either 54-5 feet, or 80'5 feet from the pier which supports the free 
end of the girder, will he 13 x 2-5 = 32-5 tons ; therefore at these points 
the least area of the web should be 8-0625 square inches. This is of course 
very far below what would be necessary for the junction of the flanges. 

Before concluding the present paper we will make a few observations 
upon the method, which we have adopted for the determination of the area 
of the curve of moments of strain, from which arises a slight error, to 
which we have already referred. Let a b c d in Fig. 2 represent the curv 




i77ZM>. 



of moments, which is a parabola., b and c being the points of contrary 
flexure ; then we have taken the area of the part b c g as being 



fff x 



2 be 



This is perfectly correct. The area of the parts ahb,doi, we have taken 
as — 



= a h x 



h b — 



+ d 1 x 7j-. 
a 



This is an approximation in most cases very near the truth, as the lines 
ab, de are usually nearly straight. The correct expression for the area is 
evidently — 

_ 1 — '-_ . __ 1 _ 

~ 3 ■ fa • be - fg (hb + ic) +, g) • eg 



ad. 

li, and c i = v ; 



If m = moment at centre of span, I =. span = a d, h b 
then the area 

= \ . M \ I - (h + v) } - m (h + v)+ 1 . ^Jl. 
6 <• •> 3 8 

_ It will generally be found that the formula we have adopted is suffi- 
ciently correct, but we deemed it desirable to supply our readers with an 
accurate account of our data, so that they may, if 'they choose, work out 
approximations for themselves. All cur results have been compared with 
those obtained by the process mentioned at the commencement of the paper, 
and it is from these comparisons that we have deduced the amount of error 
in our various formula?. 



STABILITY. 

(Illustrated in Plate 190.) 

Stability, Strength and Stiffness are necessary to the permanence 
of a structure, under all the variations or distributions of the load or 
stress to which it may be subjected. 

Stability of a Fixed Body is the power of remaining in equilibria 
without sensible deviation of position, notwithstanding the load or stress 
to which it may be submitted may have certain deviations. 

Stability of a Floating Body.— A body floating in a fluid is balanced, 
or at rest, when it displaces a volume of the fluid, the weight of which is 
equal to the weight of the floating body, and when the centre of gravity 
of the floating body and that of the volume from which the fluid is dis- 
placed are in the same vertical plane. 

When a body in equilibrio is free to move, and is caused to deviate in a 
small degree from its position of equilibrium, if it does not tend to deviate 
further, or to recover its original position, its equilibrium is termed Indiffe- 
rent; when it tends to deviate further from its original position, its equi- 
librium is Unstable ; and when it tends to return to its original position, 
its equilibrium is termed Stable. 

A body in equilibrio may be stable for one direction of stress and un- 
stable for another. Assume fig. 6 to represent the cross section of the 
hull of a vessel; G the centre of gravity of the hull; W L the water 
line ; and C the centre of buoyancy of the immersed section in the 
position of equilibrium ; conceive the vessel to be heeled or inclined 
over, so that ef becomes the water line, and b the centre of buoyancy of 
the immersed section, produce b m and the point m is the meta-centre* of 
the hull of the vessel. 

The Comparative Stability of different hulls or vessels is proportionate 
to the distance of G m for the same angles of heeling or of the distance G d. 

The oscillations of the hull of a vessel may be resolved into rolling about 
its longitudinal axis, pitching about its transverse axis and vertical pitching, 
consisting in rising and sinking below and above the position of equilibrium. 

If the transverse section of the hull of a vessel is such that when the 
vessel heels, the level of her centre of gravity is not altered, then her rolling 
will be about a permanent longitudinal axis traversing her centre of gravity, 
and it will not be accompanied by any vertical oscillations or pitchings, and 
the moment of her inertia will be constant while she rolls ; but if when 
the vessel heels the level of her centre of gravity is altered, then the axis 
about which she rolls becomes an instantaneous one, and the moment of 
her inertia will vary as she rolls, and her rolling must necessarily be 
accompanied by vertical oscillations. 

Such oscillations tend to strain a vessel and her spars, and it is desirable, 
therefore, that the transverse section of her hull should be such that the 
centre of its gravity should not alter as she rolls — -a condition which is 
always secured if all the water lines, as W L and e f, are tangents to a 
common sphere described about G ; or, in other words, if the point of their 
intersections, o, with the vertical plane of the keel is always equi-distant 
from the centre of gravity of the hull. 

TO DETERMINE THE MEASURE OF THE STABILITY OF THE HULL OF A 
VESSEL OE OF A FLOATING BODY. 

The measure of the stability of a floating body depends essentially upon 
the horizontal distance, G d, of the meta-centre of the body from the 
centre of gravity of the body, and it is the product of the force of the 
water, or resistance to displacement of it (acting upwards), and the distance 
of G d, or P x G d. If the distance c in is represented by c, and the 
angle of rolling c m b by M°, the measure of stability, or S, is determined 
by P x c x s m M° = S ; and this is therefore the greater ; the greater 
the weight of the body the greater the distance of the meta-centre from 
the centre of gravity of the body, and the greater the angle of inclination 
of this or of c m b. 

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS UPON THE STABILITY OF RECTANGULAE BLOCKS 
OF 'WOOD OF UNIFORM LENGTH AND DEPTH, BUT OF DIFFERENT 
WIDTHS. — W. BLAND. 

Length 15 in. ; Depth 2 in. ; and Depression 1 in. 









Ratios 01 


Stability. 






1 


With like 


By squares of 


By cubes of 


'idth. 


Weight. 


As observed. ' 


weights. 


the widths. 


the widths. 


In. 


oz. 










3" 


24 


i- 


1- 


1- 


]_■ 


4-5 


35 


35 


2-4 


2-25 


3-375 


6- 


45 


7- 


3-7 


4- 


8- 


7- 


55 


11- | 


4-8 


6-25 


15625 



* The meta-centre depends upon the position of the centre of buoyancy, for it is that 
point where a vertical line, drawn from the centre, intersects a line passing through the 
centre of gravity of the hull of the vessel, perpendicular to the plane of the keel. The 



82 



Stability. — Steam. 



["The Abtizax, 
L April 1,1861. 



Hence it appears that rectangular and homogeneous bodies of an uniform 
length, depth, weight and immersion in a fluid, but of different widths, 
have stability for uniform depressions at their sides (heeling), nearly as the 
squares of their %vidth, and that when the weights are directly as their 
widths, that their stability under like circumstances is nearly as the cubes 
of their ividth. Further experiments deduced the following results : — ■ 

1. That rectangular and homogeneous bodies of an uniform width, depth, 
and immersion in a fluid, but of different lengths, have stability for uni- 
form depressions at their sides, nearly as their weights, and without refer- 
ence to their lengths, and that when the weights are directly as their 
lengths, that their stability Under like circumstances is nearly directly as 
their lengths. 

2. That like bodies of an uniform width, length, an immersion of half 
their depth, but of different depths, have stability for uniform depressions 
at their sides, nearly inversely as their depths, and that when the weights 
are directly as the depths, that their stability is inversely as their depths. 

BESTJXTS OP EXPERIMENTS UPON THE STABILITY OF MODELS HAVING 
MIDSHIP SECTIONS OP DIEPEEENT POEMS, BUT OP UNIFOEM LENGTH, 
WIDTH, AND WEIGHTS. 

(Immersion different, depending upon form of section.) 



Form of Immersed Section. 


Stability. 




9- 

14- 

1- 

12- 











* Draught of water or immersion double that of the rectangle. 



STEAM. 
(Continued from page 6\.J 

THE DENSITY OP SATURATED STEAM. 

On the principle of the mechanical equivalence of heat, according to 
which heat, and work or duty performed, are convertible into and repre- 
sentative of each other, the investigation of the properties of steam may 
be conveniently conducted in terms of one form of expression or the other 

heat, or dynamic effect — as the nature of the experimental evidence may 

demand. The density of saturated steam is one of its properties which 
has not yet been accurately determined by direct experiment ; nor, of course, 
has the relative volume, which is inversely as the density. The density of 
steam is expressed by the weight of a given constant volume — say one 
cubic foot ; and the relative volume by the number of volumes of steam 
produced by one volume of waters — hence called relative. The density and 
the relative volume are, however, most accurately determinable by meaus 
of the pressure, temperature, and latent heat of steam, all of which have 
been subjects of careful and comprehensive experiment. When steam is 
freely generated in contact with water in a boiler, the actual process of 
o-eneration consists, first, in heating the water to the temperature due to 
the pressure under which the steam is generated ; second, in the absorption 
of a large quantity of heat which becomes latent— not affecting the ther- 
mometer — and is replaced physically by a quantity of steam of the same tem- 
perature — the sensible heat of the water continuing sensible in the steam. 
It is properly argued, then, that the specific function of converting the water 
info steam, of changing a non-elastic into an elastic substance, of thus de- 
veloping a reservoir of motive-power where none existed before, is per- 
formed by the latent heat ; and that, inasmuch as the process is just the 
conversion or change of form, of heat into elastic force, the force or power 
so manifestedis simply commensurate with the latent heat ; and if the latent 
heat, the amount of which is known experimentally, be converted into foot- 
pounds in terms of Joule's equivalent, it will constitute one side of an 
equation, which will show on the other side the dynamic expression of the 
relative temperature and pressure, which also are directly known by 
experiment. 

Suppose one pound of water in contact with other water, to be converted 
into one pound of steam within a boiler, and that the process of heating 
and conversion be commenced at the bottom of the scale of absolute tem- 
perature, at 461° below zero, Fahrenheit. Whether it be possible or not, 
it is at least conceivable that the whole of the given weight of water may 



point of the meta-centre may be the same, or it may differ slightly for different angles of 
heeling. The angle of direction adopted to ascertain the position of the meta-centre 
should be the greatest which, under ordinary circumstances, is of probable occurrence ; 
in different vessels this angle ranges from 6° to 20°. If the meta-centre is above the centre 
of gravity, the equilibrium is stable ; if it coincides with it, the equilibrium is indifferent ; 
and if it is below it, the equilibrium is unstable. 



be in a state of vapour at 1° absolute temperature, of extreme tenuity, in- 
definitely large in volume, and indefinitely low in pressure ; let it be sup- 
posed that this one pound of steam occupies the entire capacity of the 
boiler, and let the temperature be raised to 2° ; another portion of vapour 
would be generated, occupying part of the capacity of the boiler, and 
forcing the prior steam into smaller compass, aud thus increasing its 
density. If the temperature be thus continually elevated by decrees, the 
particular pound of steam under consideration would be continually reduced 
into smaller bulk, and its density would be increased, and likewise the 
pressure. It may properly be conceived, therefore, to undergo a process of 
compression from its conception to maturity — the increments of pressure 
accumulating with the increments of density and pressure. Now, the work 
of dynamic force accumulated in the given pound of steam, in virtue of the 
successive compression to which it maybe supposed to have been subjected, 
is the same in quantity for each degree of temperature : — it is equal, in 
fact, to the product ot the final increment of pressure multiplied into the 

final volume of the steam. Or — regarding the problem in another way 

a pound of water is converted into a pound of steam, generating and occu- 
pying a certain volume, and this volume is consummated with a final in- 
crement of pressure for the final degree of temperature. 

This final increment of pressure, then, represents, for this particular 
volume, one degree of temperature ; and if multiplied into the volume, is 
an expression of the action for one degree of temperature. If further mul- 
tiplied by the absolute temperature in degrees, the resulting product ex- 
presses the whole o£ the latent heat of evaporation inherent in the <nven 
weight of steam. 

In strict argument, this mode of estimation, in terms of the whole volume 
of the steam, gives a result slightly in excess of the literal result, as the 
volume actually generated is not the whole final volume, but only the ex- 
cess of this above the volume of the water from which it is o-enerated. 

To vary the form of the argument, suppose the final volume of the o-iven 
pound-weight of steam to be erected into a vertical column on 1 square 
foot of base, the column would of course weigh 1 pound ; and if the height 
be multiplied by the final increment of pressure in lbs. per square foot for 
one degree of temperature, the product would express the height of a ver- 
tical column of the steam on 1 square foot of base, equal in weight to the 
final increment of pressure. If the weight be again multiplied by the 
absolute temperature, the ultimate product will express the latent heat of 
1 pound weight of steam in " feet of fall " of 1 pound, that is, foot-pounds ; 
and, further, dividing by 772, Joule's equivalent, the quotient will be the 
equivalent value of the latent heat in units or degrees of Fahrenheit's scale. 

This form of reasoning, no doubt, contains a principle of hypothetical 
origin, according to which the actual heat present in a substance is simply 
proportional to its temperature, measured from a certain point of absolute 
cold, and multiplied by a specific constant ; and " although," as Professor 
Rankine observes, " existing experimental data may not be adequate to 
verify this principle precisely, they are still sufficient to prove that it is 
near enough to the truth for all purposes connected with thermo-dynamic 
engines, and to afford a strong probability that it is an exact physical law." 

Let^ = the increment of pressure for the final degree of temperature in 
lbs. on the square foot ; 772 foot-pounds = the mechanical equivalent of 1 
unit of heat, or so much beat as would raise the temperature of 1 pound of 
cold water 1° ; L = the latent heat of 1 pound of water in units, which is 
of course identical with the latent heat in degrees deduced from the tem- 
perature; T = the absolute temperature; V = the volume of lib. of steam 
in cubic feet, and v the volume of the water from which it is generated; 
then V — v = the volume generated, and the contemplated equation 
would be as follows : — 

772L = Tg (V-v); 
or, for simplicity, let the volume of the water be neglected, as it is not 
practically important, then the equation would be — 

772L = T^V. 

From this equation, it follows that the latent heat of one pound of steam is 

L = —§- — units of heat ; or, 
772 

L = TgV foot-pounds. 

Consequently, also, the latent heat I, of one cubic foot of steam, dividing 
the above quantities by V, is 

I = — — units of heat ; or, 

772 

I = T$r foot-pounds. 

The volume of 1 lb. of steam in cubic feet, L being expressed in units of 
heat, is 

V = T^L cubic feet. 

As the weight of 1 cubic foot of cold water is 62-3 lbs., it follows that 
62 - 3V is the volume, in cubic feet, of the steam generated from 1 cubic 



The Artizan,"] 
April 1, 1861. J 



Conversion of Cast Iron into Steel. 



83 



foot of water. If n be the relative volume, then n = 62 , 3V, and V = n -5- 
62-3 ; and, by substitution, 

n _ 772L . 
62-3 Tff ' 

from which the relative volume of the steam is 

* - 772L • 
Tg -+■ 62-3 

also, conversely, the latent heat, in Fahrenheit degrees, in terms of the 
relative volume, is 

L = ^Mlll. 

772 x 6213 

For illustration, let the temperature be raised from 211i- to 2121-°, 
through one degree, the pressure will rise from 2094 lbs. to 2136 lbs. per 
square foot, making the increment of pressure g = 42 lbs. per square foot. 
The mean temperature is 212°, and the absolute temperature T = 461 + 
212 = 673°. The latent heat Tg in foot-pounds, of 1 cubic foot of steam 
at 212°, and a pressure of 14 '7 lbs. per square inch, or 2116-8 lbs. per 
square foot, is, therefore, 673 x 42 = 28,266 foot-pounds. To determine 
next the value of V, the volume of 1 lb. of steam at 212°, and at atmo- 
spheric pressure, let the steam be gaseous, tben, by the equation for 
gaseotis steam (which will be afterwards explained), V = 85-4T -f- P = 
85-4 x 673^2116'8 = 27 - 16 cubic feet; and substituting numerical values, 
we have for the latent heat of 1 lb. of gaseous steam at 212°, and atmo- 
spheric pressure, 

■^ = TgY _ 673 x 42 x 27"16 
772 772 



994-4, 



which is precisely the latent heat of gaseous steam at 212°, as deduced by 
Mr. Brownlee, in terms of Regnault's constant for the specific heat of 
gaseous steam, namely, "475. 

According to the preceding equations, the volume of 1 lb. of saturated 
steam at 212°, is 



v = 772L _ 772 x 965"! 
Tg 673 x 42 

and the relative volume of the same steam is 
„, _ 772 x 965-1 



26-36 cubic feet ; 



673 x 42 -r- 62-3 



= 1642 volumes, 



which has been, but erroneously, considered to be 1700 volumes. 

The density or weight of 1 cubic foot of saturated steam is readily 
deducible from the equation for the volume in cubic feet of 1 pound of 
steam, in which V = 772L -J- Tg ,• as the weight of a cubic foot is simply 
the inverse of this equation. Thus, the density D, or the weight in 

pounds of 1 cubic foot = — , or 

772L 
M. James Brownlee has deduced a simple expression for the density of 
saturated steam in terms of the total pressure, thus — 

n P ' 941 

D = ; or, 

330-36 ' 
Log D = -941 log_p - 2-519 ; 

in which D is the weight of 1 cubic foot of steam, of the pressure^ Fah. 
The results presented by means of this formula are very accurate ; they 
do not differ from those obtained in terms of the temperature and latent 
heat of steam for pressures from lib. to 250 lbs. per square inch by more 
than one-seventh per cent. The volume in cubic feet of 1 lb. of saturated 
steam is of course expressed by the inverse of the weight in pounds of a 
cubic foot of the steam, thus V = _ , consequently 



330-36 



-; or, 



Log "V = 2-519 - -941 log p. 

co A £t™' the relative yolum e of the steam is expressed by the ratio of 
b2-3 lbs., the weight of a cubic foot of water, to D, the weight of a cubic 

foot of steam; hence, 62-3 + -Jg— = 62-3 x 330-36 +$ ■*>« = the re- 
lative volume. Putting n = the relative volume, 



„ 20559 

'* = ; or, 

p -941 ' "'' 



Log n = 4-3135 - ('941 x logjp) ; 

from which it appears that the relative volume of saturated steam of 

14-7 lbs. pressure per square inch, and 212° temperature, is 1642, the same 

as was found before in terms of the temperature and latent heat. 

(To he continiied.J 



CONVERSION OF CAST IRON INTO STEEL. 
By the Baron de Rostaing. 

(Concluded from page 53.) 

There are in mechanics a number of tools and implements, and a number 
of essential parts in machinery, which it would be easy to bring to their 
proper form by casting them in moulds, but which, by reason of the high 
price of steel, continue to be made of cast iron, though it would be useful 
and preferable to substitute a more tenacious metal, which, whether tem- 
pered or not, will admit of a finer polish ; — thus, for instance, crushing 
and pounding cylinders or rollers for agricultural purposes continue to 
be made of cast iron. 

But it would be useless to proceed any further with such nomenclature, 
as I have a few more particulars to give concerning fusion, according to my 
process. 

In this, as in all industrial operations, hand-skill is to be considered. 
Thus, for instance, the order in which materials are to be thrown and ar- 
ranged in the crucible is by no means immaterial. The mode of treat- 
ment I will now describe, has always given very satisfactory results. 

The iron in the granulated state, — powders or grains, is first separated in 
three sieves of different meshes. 

Upon charging my crucible, and when it has been raised to the white 
heat, I throw into the bottom the most finely oxydised powder, then suc- 
cessively the middling and the largest grains ; I afterwards place on the 
topmost of these layers the fragments of pig iron, covering then my crucible 
with a lid just enough to prevent combustible matters from intruding into 
the materials to be melted. I imagine that the following is what takes 
place during fusion. 

The fragments of carburetted cast iron being thrown on the layers of 
the granulated iron, are soon liquified, and, dropping down, gradually go 
filtering, as it were, between the powdered grains which may have become 
agglutinated, as it were, by the action of a high temperature, yet leaving 
between them some empty spaces, whose existence is sufficiently proved by 
the small specimen I have submitted to your examination. On its passage 
through the underlying porous mass, the liquid cast iron comes in contact 
with the oxyde which surrounds each particle of the layers of the granulated 
iron. The combination of oxygen and carbon must also evidently take 
place, and also probably all other combinations which have been facili- 
tated and prepared during the oxydising operation by the wet process. 

Before reaching the bottom of the crucible, the cast iron first entered 
into fusion has, in consequence of those various combinations, probably 
liquified a portion of the underlying layers of the pulverised or granulated 
iron corresponding to the oxygen abstracted from the oxydes by the carbon 
which has consequently passed to the state of gaseous carbonic oxyde. The 
liquid cast iron thus being increased in bulk, as it is of superior density to 
that of the grains of iron, the adherent oxyde of which has not yet been 
decomposed, will cause the grains which still remain conglomerated to- 
gether to ascend and keep floating upon the liquid mass, although a number 
of such particles remain immersed therein, as was the case in the opera- 
tions previously described, and which will be the case when the whole of 
the mass does not contain a proportion of carbon in sufficient excess for the 
entire reduction of the oxydised part. 

While upon this subject, I would observe I am inclined to think, from 
the experiments above cited, that there is a decarbureting point beyond 
which any excess of oxide will be of no avail, and at this particular moment 
the exact alloy, which it is admitted, constitutes the steel, ceases to- 
part with its carbon. For this reason, I am not inclined entirely to 
coincide with Mr. Bessemer's ideas as to the conversion of cast 
iron into steel. My opinion is that here chemical agents are insufficient, 
and that decarburation can only be thoroughly and finally effected 
under the repeated action of hammers or finishing rollers. 

It has certainly been remarked, that during fusion I cover my crucible 
but just enough to prevent combustible matter from dropping into its 
interior. I will now say, further, that I uncover it entirely as soon as the 
operation is so far advanced, as to render it unnecessary to introduce a fresh 
charge of coal. This is, I know, contrary to common practice in the manu- 
facturing of cast iron, and it will serve me to explain why I thought proper 
to mention the use of reverberatory furnaces in my process, although the 
means hitherto at my command would admit only of the use of crucibles. 
I will state the motives which induce me to believe that reverberatory 
furnaces can yield as regards the quality of the products the same results 
as crucibles which, with regard to the quantity to be melted in the same 
operation, would show a marked superiority over the actual mode of manu- 
facturing cast steel. 

Why should it be an obligation in the actual method of proceeding, to 
make use of crucibles, notwithstanding their high cost, considering their 
short duration, and in spite of the difficulties, or rather impossibilities, which 
they present in the manufacturing of heavy pieces? Such necessity is 
obvious when we consider what are the materials employed for producing 
cast steel — viz., cemented iron, steel termed natural or puddlecl-steel, all of 
which contain the desired proportion of carbon for forming steel, but un- 



84 



Institution of Naval Architects. 



[The AnTiz.iy, 
April 1, 1861. 



equally distributed in the mass. The fusion to which those materials are 
submitted has not merely for its object the introduction of fresh elements 
into their constitution, but to better equipoise what they already con- 
tain ; or if any addition should be required, it would be an addition of 
carbon. Consequently, care must be taken not to allow the free access of 
atmospheric air into the crucible, for fear of introducing the very agent 
best calculated to destroy that exact proportion of carbon brought in at 
great expense in the previous operations of cementation or puddling. 

On the contrary, with my own process, far from having to fear decar- 
buration, I encourage it. The very agent which would hitherto have 
proved noxious is the same I am now most in want of; and all my pre- 
liminary operations tend to increase its power. Why, then, should I be 
afraid of its presence in the final operation ? 

It must be self-evident that I am correct in preventing combustible 
matters from entering my crucible, for I am operating on materials con- 
taining carbon in excess, and this intrusion would still further increase the 
proportions which I want to diminish. By the use of a reverberatory 
furnace, there can be no such intrusion of combustible matters, since they 
are separated from the metal by the bridge, and laid besides on a separate 
grating ; and as regards the air which may enter the furnace either through 
the grating or otherwise, I have proved sufficiently that, far from being 
an obstacle, it will assist in the accomplishment of what is required. 

To conclude, I shall observe that Mr. Bessemer's process, however effi- 
cient it may be, is only applicable to large establishments, in consequence 
of the number of tools and implements, and the power it requires ; whilst 
the preliminary means I make use of, being liable to yield other products 
than steel, are not necessarily limited to such manufacture. 

The pulverising of cast iron may perhaps prove the starting point of a 
special branch of manufacture — say, the production of oxydes of iron 
of great purity and cheapness for the use of artists and painters, and, 
which would be employed with very beneficial results, for the pre- 
servation of the hulls of iron ships, more especially as the injurious effects 
arising from the use of minium, or red lead, for this latter purpose have been 
proved in England. This process for the conversion of cast iron into steel, 
so as to enable materials to be produced ready prepared, to meet the re- 
quirements of other trades, would only necessitate the erection of furnaces 
for the fusion of the metal, and would be brought within the capabilities of 
the lesser branches of industry. Now, by affording additional facilities to 
the latter, it will cause the employment of a number of heads and 
hands in order to arrive at the same end, and give an additional impetus 
to the onward march of progress. 



INSTITUTION OP NAVAL ARCHITECTS. 

Thursday, Feb. 28th, 1861. 

The Right Hon. Sir Joiin S. Pakington, Bart., G.C.B., President of the 
Institution, in the Chair. 

The proceedings commenced with a brief address from the President, in which 
he expressed his gratification at having been elected President since the Institu- 
tion last met, and stated that he looked for great benefit to the State resulting 
from the proceedings of the body. He stated that a communication from General 
Sir Howard Douglas had just been received by the Secretary, and he thought it 
would be only a proper tribute of respect to pay to that distinguished man to 
call upou the Secretary to read his communication as the first part of the business 
of the day. 

The communication from General Sir Howard Douglas, of which we gave the 
material portions, was accordingly read. He stated that in his remarks on the 
subject of iron ships and iron-cased ships he had taken care not to confound the 
two questions together. He considered the Warrior, and the other vessels now 
being built of timber combined with iron, to belong to the category of iron- 
cased ships ; for although the only timber used in the formation of the Warrior 
consisted of two layers of wood, 8 and 10 inches thick respectively, placed behind 
the plates, yet, but for the timber by which the plates were backed up, the side 
of the ship would not be shot-proof, nor could the plates be firmly fixed. Timber 
being thus indispensable to the formation of iron-cased ships, placed them con- 
structively in the category of ships formed of a combination of wood and iron, 
entirely distinct from ships formed wholly of iron. With respect to vessels 
formed wholly out of iron, he contended that in vessels constructed wholly of 
iron plates fths of an inch thick, the weight of material in the shell of a ship 
was considerably less than that of a timber vessel of the same dimensions, and 
they would therefore carry a greater weight of' cargo, and have greater capacity 
for stowage, on account of the thinness of their shell than timber ships, and that 
thus iron might not only be made to float, but to carry a cargo of greater weight 
and bulk than a timber ship of the same dimensions. But the danger to life 
and property of those thin-skinned vessels was such as, in his opinion, to render 
them wholly unfit for the purposes and contingencies of war, and likewise for 
purposes of commerce in war. The reason why the bottoms of the Warrior and 
other iron-cased vessels now being built were not formed of timber was not a 
denial of the proofs exhibited of the perishable nature of iron when long exposed 
to the corroding effects of salt, bilge, and sea-water, but because timber could not 
be obtained of scantling requisite for building ships of such enormous tonnage. 
But that was not so in the contract for building the iron-cased timber frigate 
for the service of Russia, although she was to be of 4200 tons displacement, 
ength 300ft., breadth 55ft., and total depth 55ft. inside, and was to be covered 



fore and aft with 4J-inch iron plates, the total weight of which was 1250 tons, at 
£37 a ton, her engines 1000 horse power, but it was found that with such a top 
weight the speed would not be more than 1 1 knots ; so true was it, that speed 
and metallic protection throughout were antagonistic. In stating the conclusion 
at which he had arrived, that iron-cased ships were not invulnerable to the 
penetrations and impacts of heavy solid shot, he did not deny that they were 
less vulnerable by being so protected than ships not so covered, and, although 
we would not have initiated such a system, j-et so long as our neighbours, the 
French, persisted in building iron-cased ships, we must do so likewise, and that 
in a manner to keep well ahead of anything the French or any other power might 
do for aggressive purposes. The country was much indebted to Sir John 
Pakiugton for having had the moral courage and the administrative enterprise 
to effect that, and on a scale adequate to satisfy all the requirements which such 
vessels demanded, and which could not be obtained by vessels of the displacement 
of La Gloire. It was a fact well-known to shipbuilders that the bottom of a 
well-built copper-fastened timber ship scarcely ever wore out, and would wear 
out at least three tops. But it was the reverse in iron ships, for one top would 
wear out three bottoms, as was proved by iron plates now at Lloyd's for the 
inspection of underwriters. Numerous instances, several of which he cited, 
occurred of wooden ships getting off the strand on which the} r had struck with- 
out apparent damage ; and he contended that had they been iron vessels all of 
them would have been lost. The numerous losses continually occurring of 
merchant steam-ships, nine-tenths of which were formed of thin iron plates, and 
particularly the loss of the Connaught, the Queen Victoria, and the Victor 
'Emmanuel, which broke up as soon as she struck, like a glass bottle against a 
stone, had produced great disinclination on the part of the underwriters, and 
determined some to refuse, to insure iron ships. In the wreck of timber ships 
there was always some, and generally a considerable, compensation to the under- 
writers from salvage ; but, he asked, what was the salvage on the Birkenhead, 
the Moyal Charter, and many other iron vessels which had been lost ? The 
salvage on the Victor Emmanuel, which cost £10,000, was £20. He knew 
something of that description of architecture the foundations of which were 
laid in Britain's native element — the sea. He was, every inch of him, a sailor. 
The army was not the profession of his choice. He was born to the sea, nur- 
tured, tutored, devoted, and destined to it. He would not follow Mr. Scott 
Russell in the plunge he had taken to dive into the future of the British navy ; 
but to the question put in that gentleman's pamphlet — " Iron or Wood ; which 
shall it be ?" he (Sir H. Douglas) confidently replied, of neither singly, but by a 
combination of both, to constitute that new description of vessels for special 
purposes in which the French had taken the lead, but which lead we must take 
out of their hands, by constructing iron-cased ships which, like theirs, should be 
formed of timber ; that was on wooden bottoms, having iron-cased sides, the 
number and strength of those vessels to be extended according to circumstances. 
With respect to ships formed wholly of iron, he adhered firmly to the opinion 
that they were utterly unfit for any of the purposes of war. The G-reat Eastern 
belonged to that category, and no one could assert that a vessel that might be 
perforated thi-ough and through by 68-pounder solid shot was fit for such pur- 
poses. Being formed of plates proof against shells, no shells would be fired at 
her, but solid shot would do the work far more effectually. No real test of the 
resistance of the iron-cased ships to shot, nor of ships formed of thin plates of 
iron, would be made till trial in a state of war, and then the very existence of 
the country would be at stake on a theory — a speculative experiment, untried in 
war. It had been said in the Times that, if the Warrior was successful, we 
might bid adieu to timber ships, but the reverse would be the case. Her success 
would bid adieu to ships formed of thin plates of iron, because if those ships 
were not made shot proof by their thin skins being covered with massive layers 
of timber, and these in turn covered with 43-inch iron plates, they would not be 
fit for war purposes, and, if so covered, would be unfit for commercial purposes 
in war, having their tonnage either wholly or greatly absorbed, according to their 
size, by the weight put upon them. 

Mr. Samuda, a member of the Council, read a paper " On the Construction of 
Iron Vessels of War Iron-cased." He entered briefly into the history of such 
vessels, from their first introduction in 1855-56, adverting especially to the 
Thunderholt, Etna, and Terror, which were built from designs and specifications 
supplied b} r the Admiralty. They were vessels of 2000 tons burden, pierced for 
30 guns, and fitted with engines of 200 horse power. They were iutended for 
attacking Cronstadt, and were constructed on the reduced draught of water of 
8ft. 6in. The hull was built entirely of iron. The top sides were then covered 
with teak 6in. thick, and reaching from the gunwale to about 2ft. below the 
deep-water line, a distance of about 13ft., and this teak was again covered with 
wrought iron armour plates, averaging 4in. in thickness, bolted against the teak 
and through it and the iron skin of the vessel. The armour reached from stem 
to stern, and thus protected the entire topsides of the ship, and also 2ft. under 
water. They made very fair speed, considering their reduced draught of water 
and power, and steered well. The Russian war terminating, tliey were never 
brought into action, but the Thunderbolt stood the test of a severe examination 
at Chatham Dockyard, nearly five years after her completion ; the result being 
to prove that the greatest durability might be calculated upon in vessels of her 
construction. He showed how for three years iron-plated vessels were dis- 
couraged in every way, until January, 1859, the Admiralty called upon several 
of the leading -shipbuilders for designs and suggestions for a 36 gun frigate, 
suggesting that for a length of 200ft. the middle part of the vessel should be 
rendered shot proof by covering the iron skin of the ship with hard wood, equal 
in substance to the timbering and planking of the topsides of a ship of the line, 
and thus forming a backing for the armour plates, which were to be 4Jin. in 
thickness, and bolted through the hard wood backing to the iron skin of the 
ship. The great error of that was the leaving the two ends of the ves- 
sel entirely unprotected, and he sought to correct it. He proposed to 
adopt an iron vessel, to build the hull double from tho keel to the 
lower edge of the armour plates, and above that point to protect and 



Tut. Artizax.1 
April 1, 1361. J 



Institution of Naval Architects. 



85 



strengthen the topsides fore and aft with two thicknesses of teak, worked 
on the outsides of the skin plating, and a third thickness of teak-work on the 
inside of the same, and bolted through and through. The united thicknesses 
of teak would thus be 18 inches, and that planking would serve as a backing for 
the armour plates to the extent they covered the ship's side. He proposed to 
fasten the armour-plates at their edges only, so that each bolt should hold two 
plates, and thus prevent weakening the plates to the same extent as the holes 
some distance from the edges did. None of his proposals, however, were 
adopted ; but one, designed in the office of the Surveyor of the Navy, was 
selected by the Admiralty, and the Warrior and Black Prince were built from 
it. Those vessels were 380ft. in length, 58ft. in breadth, 33ft. deep from under 
main deck, and 6038 tons. They were protected by 4-V-in. armour plates for 
about 200ft. of their midship length, extending from gunwale to oft. below 
water, with 18in. of teak backing interposed between the armour plating and 
the skin of the vessel ; but the ends of the vessel were left wholly unprotected, 
which was very objectionable, though, as far as regarded the general design of 
the ship, nothing was left to be desired. Of the Defence and Resistance, two 
smaller vessels, each 3068 tons and 600 horse power, now in course of construction, 
the general arrangements were similar in all respects. A further contract had" 
just been entered into by the Admiraltv for two vessels, each 4062 tons and S00- 
horse power, in which he was glad to see the importance of protecting the 
extremities of the vessel had been recognised and was partially being carried out. 
He had long been convinced of the necessity of introducing iron-vessels, iron- 
cased very extensively into our navy, and he believed that conviction was daily 
gaining ground, even among those who had been hitherto altogether opposed to 
it. The result of a great deal of thought had led him to a conclusion that the 
present plan was not the right one. He was of opinion, first, that no teak 
backing would ever be effective to 'prevent the breakage of the armour plate, if 
the shot blow was sufficiently severe to break the plate without backing. Second, 
that a teak facing would have some beneficial effect by resisting the force of the 
blow before it reached the armour plate. Third, that an increased thickness of 
plate, such as would render the weight per superficial foot of the armour plate 
;done equal to the weight of the armour plate and backing together, as was at 
present being used, would be better than either — namely, an armour plate six 
inches thick, without backing, would be better than a 4i-in. plate with 18in. teak 
hacking. He had made some experiments on a small scale with steel plates, and 
be found that a steel plate ^g thick could be perforated with a Minie bullet fired 
from an English rifle at 100 yards' range with a charge of 2-j drachms of powder. 
He adopted in all his experiments, therefore, that thickness of steel plate and 
distance of range, and used the same rifle and similar bullets in all cases. In 
all of them the destruction to the plate was the same. The back had rendered 
no assistance, either in preventing the fracture of the plate or even in decreasing 
the extent of indenture made by the bullet, or changing the form of the inden- 
tation in the least. He then reversed two of the plates and fired at them from 
the wood side. The retardation of the bullet and its consequent power to 
penetrate was immediately manifested by its not being able to dint the plate 
when it reached it through the wood in the slightest degree. It was impossible 
from an examination of the plate to tell where the bullet had reached in its 
passage through the wood facing. The conclusion to be drawn from that was clear, 
that if our defence was to be made up of wood and iron we had a much more 
efficient armour where our second defence was iron and the first defence wood. 
Mr. Scott Russell next delivered an address on " The Professional Problem 
presented to Naval Architects in the Construction of Iron-cased Vessels of War." 
He first adverted to the practical difficulties which presented themselves to the 
naval architect in endeavouring to combine with the shot-proof character of the 
new kind of ship all the good qualities which had hitherto been considered 
indispensable to a sea-going vessel. In the solution of that problem the naval 
architect had everything against him. He was obliged to carry more weight 
than before, and to carry it in the worst possible place. He was obliged to load 
his vessels with a large quantity of coating, and he was asked to go faster with 
all that load than anj' ship of war had ever gone before, and under that super- 
incumbent weight he was expected to preserve a perfectly stable gun platform. 
He held that it would be the greatest national misfortune if all the experience of 
our great shipbuilders and naval authorities was not brought to bear verv 
earnestly on the solution of that most difficult question, and that without 
further delay. He asked was it, or was it not, politic in us at the present 
moment to endeavour to observe secrecy in matters of naval architecture con- 
nected with purposes of war ? Ever since 1855 he himself had been observing 
the policy of secrecy, divulging his views only to the authorities at the Admiralty ; 
but a department of the Government having made public the report of the Secret 
Commission which sat last year on the defences of the country, he and others 
interested in naval architecture could not hesitate to follow so excellent an 
example. (A laugh.) He believed our policy in that respect ought to be a 
simple one. If we kept secrets of that kind it was not from the enemy, but 
from the friends who would be willing to help us. (Hear, hear.) As soon as a 
matter became so serious that it could only be carried into effect by the national 
will and resources, and by a determination of the Government, or the Legislature 
to have what we wanted, from that moment it was absurd to attempt to invest 
it with mystery. Our strength in these matters lay in the national power of 
productiveness, and whatever policy we decided to adopt— whether it was a 
wooden fleet coated with iron, or an iron fleet coated with wood, or an iron fleet 
coated with wood and iron — we had only to act upon a large and. comprehensive 
system, and we need not be afraid of the plan of our fleet leaking out ; because, 
once resolved to do it, the productive powers of England were so great, that we 
could construct a fleet in a far shorter interval than all the rest of Europe could 
do, even if they combined to make the attempt. (Hear, hear.) The task of the 
shipbuilder in preparing the design of an iron-plated ship was peculiar, in that 
he had nothing to copy. The profession was, therefore, called upon to exercise 
its highest function, and to create a new class of vessel, having little in common 
with any other previously built. But the sailor was even more deeply con- 



cerned in this matter than the shipbuilder— the admiral than the architect. If 
it was true that the British sailor was the best in the world, i: was the duty of 
the nation to see that he had the best ships in the world to fight in. What 'the 
naval profession had to do was, to tell the shipbuilder beforehand exactly what 
it was that they did want. All practical naval constructors would agree with 
him that it was too common for their masters to ask impossibilities. An 
admiral with authority proportioned to his rank would require them to construct 
for him a ship which should be fast. They prepared a design, and he exclaimed 
that would never do ; they had made her so long that she would not steer. He 
demanded 13 knots, and refused to allow more than 250ft. of length. He 
required that she should stand up like a church (a laugh), and refused the 
tonnage of the large beam necessary to keep her upright. He urged the use of 
high power for speed, and refused length of body to carry her boilers. He 
demanded coals for a great many days, aud a draught of water that would not 
carry them. He asked for a ship that would be as handy as a boat, and as 
quick as a cutter, and refused the length of tiller or turns of the wheel to afford 
sufficient purchase. He wanted a steady ship, and laid on an amount of top 
weight that made her stagger. These were some of the causes which led to bad 
ships, and to worse understanding between builders and users of them. The 
fighter of the ship aud her builder must come to a thorough understanding at 
the outset : and he (Mr. Russell) trusted it might be one of the results of that 
meeting that the naval commander of a future fleet would let the constructors, 
who would do anything for him but impossibilities, know what it was he wanted. 
An admiral, present or future, would say he wanted as many guns as possible, 
and a steady and roomy platform to fire them from. Next, he wanted his ship 
to carry her ports well out of the water. To be plain, these things were 
difficult, if not impossible, in combination, especially in a shot-proof ship. In 
any case, they were costly ; he did not mean in money ; hut in other points of 
perhaps of equal importance. But they could be had if they were worth the 
sacrifice. At the outset, then, they had to ask the naval commander to settle 
what was the height at which Ins first-rate must carry her ports out of the 
water. Was it to be 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9ft. ? 5ft. was an old first-rate ; 6ft. 6iu. was 
the Gloire, and 9ft. was the Warrior. Given the beam of the ship, every foot 
in height added enormously to the difficulty of insuring a steady gundeck ; and 
an unstead}- gundeck lost all the good for which a high port was wanted. He 
had ventilated this question much among his naval friends. None of them 
would let him off with less than 7ft. for portsill out of the water for a seagoing 
ship, and on our shores there was no question of an}' other. Most of them were 
content with 8, and some said that 9 was better, at whatever cost. To all that 
he had but one answer. They could have 9ft. with certainty, but at a great 
cost, and that cost was implied in the great beam which was necessary to cany 
a main deck and its weights so high out of the water. Again, he must ask them 
to settle how much room they wanted on deck to fight each gun. Most of them 
said they would be satisfied with ports 15ft. apart, from centre to centre. That 
was moderate and fair, but it was costly, and 12ft. would do. Then they wanted 
their ship to be shot-proof. What would the naval commanders accept as shot- 
proof ? Did they mean shot-proof in proportion as wooden liners were shot- 
proof in old days ; that was, a great many shot stopped by the hull of the ship 
and sticking in her side, and not so many getting through and wounding men, 
and disabling guns ? Or did they mean absolutely impenetrable to modern 
artillery ? To ask too much in that was also to be heavily paid for. His belief 
was that 6in. of good iron plate, judiciously put together, would keep out any- 
thing. His old friend, Mr. R. L. Stephens, of New York, whom he took as the 
father of this system, found it keep out 68-pounders of the most powerful charge 
and weight of wrought iron shot. He (Mr. Russell) believed it would still do so 
in practical warfare. The iron in the side of the Warrior was equivalent to 
7in., and practically in a naval engagement that would be found impenetrable. 
Again, how much did the3 r value speed ? To put it in guns, he could give them 
11 knots and 50 guns, or 15 knots and 30 guns. Whether would they have a 
frigate that could sail round and round her enemy, and so choose her time, 
place, and weather, and either accept or refuse action ; or change places, and 
take the slow coach ? He would be probably asked if he could give 15 knots, why 
not 50 guns also. The answer was — money. But to that it would be said that 
in war efficiency was inoney ; that a defeat was too dear at any price, and a 
victor3 r cheap at the cost of certainty. That was probably a wise rejoinder, and 
he would take it so — that the odds were with the fast vessel ; that 15 knots 
were worth their cost ; and that the slow ship was dear at auy price. But there 
was another point. They wished their ship, perhaps, to be ready to go any- 
where, and to do anything. If by that they meant that she was to be able to 
keep the sea, and do long voyages, not as a sailing ship, but a fast steamer — to 
go in search of a flying enemy, and not return until she gave a good account of 
him — they made a further demand, which was again only to be met by a 
sacrifice. Such a ship must reach the Cape of Goocl Hope by steam alone, and 
must coal for 5000 miles. Mr. Russell continued to treat each of these topics 
in great detail. He described at considerable length his views as to the mode of 
distribution of materials in any ship they might build, so as to combine with 
the property of resisting shot and shell the general properties of strength, dura- 
bility, and safety. He noticed the points of difference in the ways and degrees 
in which iron might be used for stopping shot and for deflecting shot, and he 
raised several questions as to the best mode of using the smaller classes of ships. 
He trusted that one of the advantages of the discussion would be to show that 
the Wan-ior class of ship was, in all respects and qualities, a worthy inaugura- 
tion of the new fleet. He hoped it would confirm the conviction in the minds 
of those most able to judge that not a moment should be lost in completing a 
fleet of such ships, and in adding in each new vessel such improvements as 
familiarity and study might suggest. 

Mr. Charles Lungley, shipbuilder, of Deptford, m a paper, advocated the 
coating of iron ships up to the water line with thick iron, and the placing of a 
shot-proof deck across at that height. This arrangement would protect the 
lower parts of the ship. Then, at any suitable height he would place a shot- 

12 



86 



Institution of Naval Architects. 



[The Artizajt, 
L April 1, 1861. 



proof battery, and connect it with the lower part of the ship by means of shot • 
proof trunks. A ship so constructed would be impregnable below the water and 
on the fighting deck, and consequently, Mr. Lungley argued, as well protected as 
any ship need be. 

Admiral G. Elliot, being called upon by the President, offered several obser- 
vations, and Captain Cowper Phipps Coles, R.N., described his proposed form of 
shot-proof ship, with guns placed beneath revolving shields. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



On the resumption of the discussion, at seven o'clock, on Iron-cased Ships of 
War, the Rev. J. Woolley, LL.D., Vice-President, took the Chair, in the absence 
of the President, Sir John Pakington. 

Captain E. P. Halsted, R.N., opened the debate for the purpose of combating 
some of the statements which had been made by Mr. Samuda. That gentleman, 
he considered, was in error in respect to certain facts connected with the trials 
upon the Trusty, with the effect of the shot. He presumed Mr. Samuda had 
not had the opportunity of seeing the experiments himself. The gallant officer 
entered into an enormous variety of details connected with the results of these 
experiments, and contended that nothing could be more illustrative of the value 
of the backing of timber in assisting the plate to perform its office of protection. 
The next point he noticed was the plated iron when subjected to the fire of the 
rifles at 100 yards ; and here Mr. Samuda relied on the fact of the oak covering 
being sufficient to protect the plate from the effect of the shot. Mr. Samuda 
left the argument by maintaining that they had still left 6in. plating, which 
would resist any shot. Experience, they knew, was wanting to establish this 
fact — experience only could be their safe guide. To say, " I will join these 
plates together," would be a proposition at this moment which would be 
extraordinary, without any satisfactory basis to govern them ; but that would 
be an experiment in which they had no right to expect success. At the same 
time, he quite agreed in the abstract question — that it was desirable to do away 
with wood. As to the curling of the plating being a circumstance which was 
common, he had known different cases when the armour-plate was struck in no 
less than three different firings from the Trusty, and in no instance had the plate 
curled, properly so speaking. The plates were bent in several cases, perhaps 
perceptibly so, when the shot struck a plate, and many of the bolts were started. 
This was considered to be the effect of the elastic rebound, and the elasticity of 
the timber beyond it. But after the trials were completed, there was a request 
made by the Ordnance Committee, under whose direction the experiments were 
made, to re-examine the question of the starting bolts ; and the result of the 
inquiry, which was instituted as to the bolts being started, was, that it was found 
that not a single one han really started, except those in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of where the shot had struck the bolt, or where the plate was fractured. 
The plates were driven back upon the shrunken timber. Now, he did not 
acknowledge the experiments which had been made at Portsmouth against 
vessels which had been built 54 years ago, and which were never intended to 
bear the weight of 4 or 5in. of iron-plating, especially when guns were brought 
to bear upon them of unprecedented calibre and power. He denounced these 
experiments as a deception. He considered that these experiments had pro- 
duced that amount of perplexity which existed in the public mind, especally 
when there had been a contemporaneous system of secresy observed upon the 
effects of real experiments made. He meant, however, to say that at the present 
moment he was not prepared to do away with wood ; nevertheless, it was neces- 
sary to institute experiments ; but, for God's sake, let them not be secret and 
exclusive experiments. Now, there was another thing about which he must 
speak to Mr. Samuda. He (Captain Halsted) had always considered the question 
of incorporating the armour-plating, and its necessary backing into the strength 
of the fabric, a most important question ; and possibly he might have found the 
difficulty, if he had not done so. But Mr. Samuda had experienced this diffi- 
culty — he meant in his outside timber. There was nothing outside of the 
timber ; and if they had anything to do with these armour-clad ships, the}' 
should make up her backing outside of her armour, because nothing could more 
conduce to their destruction than a contrary course. Next as to the red-hot 
shot, Mr. Samuda admitted it burned for 20 minutes, and he would venture to 
ask him under wdiat circumstances he made that experiment ? Did he apply 
the bellows ? because it was seldom they had not breeze enough to blow up a 
flame in timbers. Again, timber in a vertical position, and in a horizontal 
position, would he more readily ignited according to its position. This was 
exemplified especially in the case of teak wood. Mr. Samuda did not know what 
the effect of a shell would be ; but he could assure him that the effect would 
simply be to strip off his timber covering, and leave the iron side behind it 
exposed. The timber covering would form a most excellent shell-bed. Now, as 
to the Vice-President's (Mr. Scott Russell) paper, the great value of it was, that 
it enunciated some large bond fide propositions, which afforded everybody the 
opportunity of looking at what they were. He had challenged the naval officers 
to say what they did want ; and he believed that challenge was a reasonable 
one, and it was not necessary for him to make any apology, if he took it up, 
and stated what they did want. He would take the question first of the height 
of the port-holes. This was an important point, which was more to be con- 
sidered by naval architects than by naval officers. He had, not many years ago, 
commanded a lull-powered screw-frigate, that had been built by the late Mr. 
Fincham. !she was taken to represent what was termed a second class frigate, 
of 36 guns ; but, in respect to the height of her ports, the architect fell into an 
error. The gallant officer proceeded in the most technical manner to describe 
the effect of the ports not being sufficiently high, and to the impossibility of 
firing in a 36 gun frigate even her main-deck guns. The same fault attached to 
the Gloire, where the main-deck ports were too low. If, then, we continued to 
put our guns from the sides, the question of the height of the ports must be 
considered in relation to the size of the ships. Then, as to the distance apart of 
the ports, for all the purposes of firing, the distance should be as small as 
possible ; but, for the facility of working the guns, it would be desirable to 



adhere to the loft, distance between the centre of one port and the centre of the 
next ; but, under any circumstances, the distances should never be less than 
12ft., though it was better to have 15. In the trials made in the Excellent in 
1850, on a section of the Simoom, where the iron-plating was |-ths of an inch 
thick, it was penetrated with perfect ease by our shot, but there this was singular 
anomaty, that it broke the shot into smithereens ! (A laugh.) Why should not 
the Council of this Institution, in due and proper form, appeal to the authorities 
that experiments of this nature should be made ? If the Institution should take 
upon itself to do this, he, for one, would say, " Go ahead." But let it be done 
on one condition, that the experiments must not be exclusive and secret ; if they 
were, they had better not be made at all. As to obviating the combination of 
wood with iron, be thought that this was a very desirable tiling to do. In 
reference to the Warrior, he reminded the meeting that in the course of a little 
time her estimated speed of 14 knots would be reduced to 12 knots from the 
fouling of her bottom. In conclusion, he contended for the necessity of all ships 
of war, large or small, being constructed to secure speed, and ensure the capa- 
bility of remaining at sea for a long period, without leaving their stations at 
short intervals to coal at distant depots. 

Admiral Sir George Sartorius said he tool: a different view from that taken by 
the preceding speakers. When steam first became applicable to the navy, he 
thought from that time that the system of warfare might be altered, and that- 
large vessels might be so constructed as to be able to sink a vessel at one blow. 
During the period of the Russian war he had frequent interviews with Mr. Scott 
Russell, as to the possibility of building ships which should be invulnerable ; and 
he immediately said it could be done, but not with gun-boats. He proposed the 
matter to the Admiralty, and was permitted by Sir Charles Wood to make 
known his plan to the French Minister ; and he believed the Gloire was built in 
a great measure according to the plan which he had sent into Mr. Scott Russell, 
with an iron protecting screw- and rudder at each end. He had not to thank 
his brother officers for their courtesy at the Admiralty. Of the naval architects 
there, however, he was bound to speak gratefully and with respect. He found 
that that part of his invention which went to sink a vessel by concussion, was 
left out in building the Warrior. He felt that if these vessels could be adopted 
there would be an end to timber vessels. He sought to unite the power of con- 
cussion with the guns. 

Captain Sherard Osbom, R.N., had hoped that some observations would have 
been made on the deflection of shot. He had come five miles to hear Sir Howard 
Douglas's letter, and he would have gone 500 miles to do so if it had been 
necessary. That gallant officer had originally set his face against this armour- 
plating ; but he now found that it was essentially necessary — the question being 
whether it should be applied on wooden or iron carcasses. He (Captain Osbom) 
was greatly inclined to the use of iron only. 

Captain Scott, R.N., addressed the meeting on the effect produced by different 
shot upon iron, and drew a variety of diagrams on the board. He thought it 
was a mistake to put aside the ordinary round shot, especyilly for short dis- 
tances. 

After a few words from the Secretary, as to the objects and operations of the 
Institution, the meeting adjourned till 11 o'clock on Wednesday morning. 

The discussion was renewed on Friday morning, the chair being taken by Mr. 
J. Inman Fincham, Master Shipwright of the Royal Victoria Dockyard, 
Deptford. Mr. Josiah Jones, of Liverpool ; Captain Sulivan, R.N., C.B., of the 
Board of Trade ; Mr. J. Grantham, Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, Captain 
Blakely, Mr. Charles Lancaster, and Captain Adderley Sleigh took part in it ; 
and Mr. Samuda and Mr. Scott Russell replied upon the whole subject. 
Friday, March 1, 1861. 
The Rev. Canon Moselet, F.R.S., Vice-President I.N. A., in the Chair. 
The first paper read at this meeting was upon " The Rolling of Ships," by W. 
Froude, Esq. This paper was substituted for another on the same subject, which 
was to have been furnished by the Rev. Dr. Woolley, but the reverend gentleman 
was prevented b}' indisposition from attending the meeting, and Mr. Froude's 
paper consequently took the place of it. 

The following is a condensed account of Mr. Froude's remarks upon " The 
Rolling of Ships" : — 

As the changing phases of a series of wavespass under a ship, her angle of inclina- 
tion undergoes a series of derivative changes. The law of derivation depends on 
the magnitude and direction of the momentary effort which her resisting 
inclination, combined with that of the wave, compels her to exert ; what is the 
law which governs that effort? 

Now, in wave motion, the particles of which the body of the wave consists 
undergo a series of translating oscillations, vertical and horizontal, in their 
respective vertical planes. These translations make up the phenomenon ; their 
changes express the accelerative forces employed in its continuance, and the 
momentary direction of surface wdiich the particles thus affected assume, ex- 
presses the corresponding resultant of gravity and those forces, in the same 
manner in which the surface of stationary water expresses the direction of 
gravity alone. 

Again, if a floating body be substituted for a relatively small aggregation of wave 
particles, it must itself accept all their dynamical relations, and hence to it the 
surface of the wave is virtually level. 

Thus, if a spirit level be embedded in a flat board, floating in still water and 
adjusted accordingly, it will exhibit no disturbance while floating on the steepest 
part of the steepest wave. 

Or if a small cork ring, like a lifebuoy, be fitted with an oblique mast, carrying 
a plumb-bob, and so placed that in still water the bob will centre the ring, it will 
remain there, however steep the waves that are made to pass under it ; indeed it 
has been seen to do so on the overhanging surface of a breaking wave, so that the 
hob was above the point of suspension. The relations between angle and motion 
are in principle exactly those to which we must adhere if we would rapidly move 
about a flat board with a marble on its surface, so as to keep the marble undis- 
turbed. The direction then of the total force experienced by a body floating on 



Tub Artizan,"] 
April 1, 1861. J 



Institution of Engineers in Scotland. 



87 



a wave is exactly as if gravity acted at right angles to the momentary surface of 
the wave when it floats ; and a ship on a wave, with her mast at right angles to 
its surface, is in momentary equilibrium : while if her mast deviate from this 
position by any given angle, she will, in virtue of her moment of stability, exert 
the same effort to eliminate the angle as if she floated with the same angle of 
inclination on stationary water. 

The rate at which the angle will change on still water depends, in a given ship, 
on her moment of stability at the angle, and on her moment of inertia ; including 
in the latter the equivalent effect of those contiguous masses of water whose 
motion is involved in hers. 

The same conditions govern the direction and rapidity of the change of incli- 
nation which the same ship will experience on a wave where there is the same 
angle between her mast and the normal to the wave. 

When the ship oscillates in still water, these conditions furnish a differential 
equation, the solution of which gives the period of her natural roll, i.e., the 
period in which she will continue to perform each successive oscillation when 
artificially put in motion, and it may be observed that practically these oscilla- 
tions conform to the laws of isochronism. 

When the ship oscillates in waves, the same conditions, combined with those 
belonging to the equation of the wave, furnish a differential equation, the solution 
of which gives the phases of her motion on the waves. 

Taking Mr. Scott Russell's wave curve (the curve of versed sines) as an 
approximation sufficient for our purpose, and solving the differential equation 
thus arising, we obtain an expression for the ship's motion, the constants of 
which naturally resolve themselves into the relation between the period of the 
ship's natural roll in still water, and the uniformly recurring period of the 
assumed waves. 

The solution is based on the assumption that, commencing with the ship at 
rest in still water, and having a period of natural roll = T (for the period of the 
double roll, say starboard to port and bach), a series of such waves approach, and 
pass under her with uniform velocity, having a length = L from crest to crest, a 
period = T' due to L, and a height = H from hollow to crest, then, after a given 
time = t, we have the ship's inclination expressed as follows : — 

H 1 f„ ; . TTt T . t I 

; sin 7r -— > 



1 — 



K"r 



T-j 



or when ynr = 1 the equation answers the second form, 



6- 



H f . v t nt „ -nt \ 



H 



where it may be noted that it — is the tangent of the angle of steepest part of 

L 

the wave. 
If these equations are analysed in the case when 



is greater or less than 



1, we find that in every case the ship will complete a cycle of oscillations, 
arriving at a maximum, and dying out to nothing. As -i- is taken nearer to 
= (1) the cycles become longer, and the maximum of angle greater ; but on the 
whole, the cases where — is greater than 1, the cycles are longer and the maxi- 
mum sma